6 ADVERSE REACTIONS The most common reasons for discontinuing treatment were gastrointestinal adverse reactions. (6.1) In a parallel design study of 12 weeks duration, treatment-emergent adverse reactions to Renagel Tablets in peritoneal dialysis patients included dyspepsia (12%), peritonitis (8%), diarrhea (5%), nausea (5%), constipation (4%), pruritus (4%), abdominal distension (3%), vomiting (3%), fatigue (3%), anorexia (3%), and arthralgia (3%). (6.1) Similar reactions at similar rates occurred in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients. (6.1) Cases of fecal impaction and, less commonly, ileus, bowel obstruction, and bowel perforation have been reported. (6.2) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Genzyme Corporation at 1-800-847-0069 and or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug can not be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. In a parallel design study of sevelamer hydrochloride with treatment duration of 52 weeks, adverse reactions reported for sevelamer hydrochloride (n=99) were similar to those reported for the active-control group (n=101). Overall adverse reactions among those treated with sevelamer hydrochloride occurring in >5% of patients included: vomiting (22%), nausea (20%), diarrhea (19%), dyspepsia (16%), abdominal pain (9%), flatulence (8%), and constipation (8%). A total of 27 patients treated with sevelamer and 10 patients treated with comparator withdrew from the study due to adverse reactions. Based on studies of 8 to 52 weeks, the most common reason for withdrawal from Renagel was gastrointestinal adverse reactions (3%–16%). In 143peritoneal dialysis patients studied for 12 weeks, most adverse reactions were similar to adverse reactions observed in hemodialysis patients. The most frequently occurring treatment-emergent serious adverse reaction was peritonitis (8 reactions in 8 patients [8%] in the sevelamer group and 2 reactions in 2 patients [4%] on active control). Thirteen patients (14%) in the sevelamer group and 9 patients (20%) in the active-control group discontinued, mostly for gastrointestinal adverse reactions. Patients on peritoneal dialysis should be closely monitored to ensure the reliable use of appropriate aseptic technique with the prompt recognition and management of any signs and symptoms associated with peritonitis. 6.2 Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of sevelamer hydrochloride (Renagel®): hypersensitivity, pruritus, rash, abdominal pain, fecal impaction and uncommon cases of ileus, intestinal obstruction, and intestinal perforation. Appropriate medical management should be given to patients who develop constipation or have worsening of existing constipation to avoid severe complications. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to estimate their frequency or to establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.