6 ADVERSE REACTIONS The following adverse reactions are also discussed in other sections of the labeling: Ehlers-Danlos-like Syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)] Skin Rash [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)] Gastrointestinal (GI) Ulcers and Bleeding [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)] Central Nervous System Symptoms [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)] Leukopenia and/or Elevated Phosphatase Levels [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)] Benign Intracranial Hypertension [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)] Most common adverse reactions in: Patients 6 years of age and older previously treated with cysteamine (≥5%) are: vomiting, nausea, abdominal pain, breath odor, diarrhea, skin odor, fatigue, rash, and headache. (6.1) Patients 1 year to less than 6 years naïve to cysteamine treatment (>10%) are: vomiting, gastroenteritis/viral gastroenteritis, diarrhea, breath odor, nausea, electrolyte imbalance and headache. (6.1) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Horizon Pharma USA, Inc. at 1-855-888-4004 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch . 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared with rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice. The data described below reflect exposure to cysteamine in 345 patients with nephropathic cystinosis (246 patients receiving immediate-release cysteamine as cysteamine hydrochloride or phosphocysteamine, and 80 patients receiving PROCYSBI) in open-label clinical trials. Clinical Trials Experience with PROCYSBI in Patients Switched from Immediate-Release Cysteamine Bitartrate Sixty-two patients with nephropathic cystinosis (38 males and 24 females) received PROCYSBI in two clinical trials at doses ranging from 0.29 grams/m2 per day to 2.19 grams/m2 per day [see Clinical Studies (14.2)]. All patients were switched from immediate-release cysteamine to PROCYSBI. Forty-three patients, ages 6 to 26 years old, received PROCYSBI in an 8-week, open-label, randomized, cross-over trial comparing PROCYSBI to immediate-release cysteamine bitartrate. Forty of 43 patients continued PROCYSBI treatment in an open-label extension trial, and were treated with PROCYSBI for longer than 2 years. An additional 19 patients (6 renal transplanted patients and 13 patients aged 2 to 6 years) were enrolled directly into this trial and were treated with PROCYSBI for up to 18 months. In the open-label, randomized, cross-over trial, a higher incidence of adverse reactions was reported in patients during the PROCYSBI treatment period compared with the immediate-release cysteamine bitartrate treatment period (see Table 2). Other significant adverse reactions reported during clinical trials included hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis. Table 2: Adverse Reactions in ≥5% of Patients with Nephropathic Cystinosis in a Randomized, Cross-Over Trial Adverse Reaction Immediate-Release Cysteamine PROCYSBI (n = 41) % (n = 43) % Vomiting/emesis 12 19 Nausea 7 16 Abdominal pain/discomfort 0 14 Headache 0 9 Dizziness 0 5 Anorexia/loss of appetite 5 2 For all patients treated with PROCYSBI in both trials (N=62), the most commonly reported adverse reactions (>5%) were vomiting, nausea, abdominal pain, breath odor, diarrhea, skin odor, fatigue, rash, and headache. Clinical Trials Experience with PROCYSBI in Cysteamine-Naïve Patients Seventeen cysteamine-naïve patients (fifteen patients between the ages of 1 and 5 years, one 9-year old and one 22-year old) received PROCYSBI in an open-label clinical trial [see Clinical Studies (14.2)]. Serious adverse reactions occurring in at least 2 patients (>10%) were: gastroenteritis/viral gastroenteritis (n=6), vomiting (n=4), and electrolyte imbalance (n=2). Three patients with serious adverse reactions of gastroenteritis also had dehydration. Common adverse reactions reported at a frequency of >10% (occurring in at least 2 patients) are shown in Table 3. Table 3: Adverse Reactions in >10% of Patients with Nephropathic Cystinosis Naïve to Cysteamine Treatment in an Open-Label Trial Adverse Reaction PROCYSBI N = 17 n (%) Vomiting 13 (77) Gastroenteritis/viral gastroenteritis 9 (53) Diarrhea 6 (35) Breath odor 4 (24) Nausea 3 (18) Electrolyte imbalance 2 (12) Headache 2 (12) Clinical Trials Experience with Immediate-Release Cysteamine The most frequent adverse reactions involved the gastrointestinal and central nervous systems and were especially prominent at the initiation of cysteamine therapy. Most patients were able to resume therapy at lower doses. The most common reactions (>5%) were vomiting, anorexia, fever, diarrhea, lethargy, and rash. Other adverse reactions included nausea, bad breath, abdominal pain, headache, dizziness, and urticaria. Withdrawals due to intolerance, vomiting, anorexia, lethargy, and fever occurred more frequently in those patients receiving 1.95 grams/m2 per day as compared with 1.3 grams/m2 per day of immediate-release cysteamine bitartrate. 6.2 Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of immediate-release cysteamine bitartrate. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Musculoskeletal: Joint hyperextension, leg pain, osteopenia, compression fracture, scoliosis, genu valgum [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Skin: Erythema multiforme bullosa, toxic epidermal necrolysis, Ehlers-Danlos-like syndrome, molluscoid pseudotumors, skin striae, skin fragility [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.2)]. Central Nervous System: seizures, lethargy, somnolence, depression and encephalopathy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)], benign intracranial hypertension (or PTC) and/or papilledema [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].