Data from FDA (Food and Drug Administration, USA) - Curated by EPG Health - Last updated 22 November 2019

Indication(s)

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE Memantine hydrochloride tablets are indicated for the treatment of moderate to severe dementia of the Alzheimer’s type. Memantine hydrochloride tablets are an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist indicated for the treatment of moderate to severe dementia of the Alzheimer’s type. (1)

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Advisory information

contraindications
4 CONTRAINDICATIONS Memantine hydrochloride tablets are contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to memantine hydrochloride or to any excipients used in the formulation. Memantine hydrochloride tablets are contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to memantine hydrochloride or to any excipients used in the formulation. (4)
Adverse reactions
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS Most common adverse reactions (≥ 5% and greater than placebo) are dizziness, headache, confusion and constipation. (6.1) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Aurobindo Pharma USA, Inc. at 1-866-850-2876 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience Memantine hydrochloride was evaluated in eight double-blind placebo-controlled trials involving a total of 1862 dementia (Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia) patients (940 patients treated with memantine hydrochloride and 922 patients treated with placebo) for a treatment period up to 28 weeks. Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice. Adverse Events Leading to Discontinuation In placebo-controlled trials in which dementia patients received doses of memantine hydrochloride up to 20 mg/day, the likelihood of discontinuation because of an adverse reaction was the same in the memantine hydrochloride group (10.1%) as in the placebo group (11.5%). No individual adverse reaction was associated with the discontinuation of treatment in 1% or more of memantine hydrochloride-treated patients and at a rate greater than placebo. Most Common Adverse Reactions In double-blind placebo-controlled trials involving dementia patients, the most common adverse reactions (incidence ≥ 5% and higher than placebo) in patients treated with memantine hydrochloride were dizziness, headache, confusion and constipation. Table 1 lists all adverse reactions that occurred in at least 2% of patients treated with memantine hydrochloride and at an incidence greater than placebo. Table 1: Adverse Reactions Reported in Controlled Clinical Trials in at Least 2% of Patients Receiving Memantine Hydrochloride and at a Higher Frequency than Placebo-treated Patients Adverse Reaction Placebo (N = 922) % Memantine Hydrochloride (N = 940) % Body as a Whole Fatigue 1 2 Pain 1 3 Cardiovascular System Hypertension 2 4 Central and Peripheral Nervous System Dizziness 5 7 Headache 3 6 Gastrointestinal System Constipation 3 5 Vomiting 2 3 Musculoskeletal System Back pain 2 3 Psychiatric Disorders Confusion 5 6 Somnolence 2 3 Hallucination 2 3 Respiratory System Coughing 3 4 Dyspnea 1 2 The overall profile of adverse reactions and the incidence rates for individual adverse reactions in the subpopulation of patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer’s disease were not different from the profile and incidence rates described above for the overall dementia population. Seizures Memantine hydrochloride has not been systematically evaluated in patients with a seizure disorder. In clinical trials of memantine hydrochloride, seizures occurred in 0.2% of patients treated with memantine hydrochloride and 0.5% of patients treated with placebo. 6.2 Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of memantine. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. These reactions include: Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders - agranulocytosis, leukopenia (including neutropenia), pancytopenia, thrombocytopenia, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Cardiac Disorders - cardiac failure congestive. Gastrointestinal Disorders - pancreatitis. Hepatobiliary Disorders - hepatitis. Psychiatric Disorders - suicidal ideation. Renal and Urinary Disorders - acute renal failure (including increased creatinine and renal insufficiency). Skin Disorders - Stevens Johnson syndrome.

Usage information

Dosing and administration
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION The recommended starting dose of memantine hydrochloride tablets is 5 mg once daily. The dose should be increased in 5 mg increments to 10 mg/day (5 mg twice daily), 15 mg/day (5 mg and 10 mg as separate doses), and 20 mg/day (10 mg twice daily). The minimum recommended interval between dose increases is one week. The dosage shown to be effective in controlled clinical trials is 20 mg/day. Memantine hydrochloride tablets can be taken with or without food. If a patient misses a single dose of memantine hydrochloride tablets, that patient should not double up on the next dose. The next dose should be taken as scheduled. If a patient fails to take memantine hydrochloride tablets for several days, dosing may need to be resumed at lower doses and retitrated as described above. Specific Populations Renal Impairment A target dose of 5 mg twice daily is recommended in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance of 5 to 29 mL/min based on the Cockcroft-Gault equation). Hepatic Impairment Memantine hydrochloride tablets should be administered with caution to patients with severe hepatic impairment [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. May be taken with or without food. (2) Initial dose is 5 mg once daily. Increase dose in 5 mg increments to a maintenance dose of 10 mg twice daily. A minimum of 1 week of treatment with the previous dose should be observed before increasing the dose. (2) Severe renal impairment: recommended dose is 5 mg twice daily. (2)
Use in special populations
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS 8.1 Pregnancy Risk Summary There are no adequate data on the developmental risk associated with the use of memantine hydrochloride in pregnant women. Adverse developmental effects (decreased body weight, and skeletal ossification) were observed in the offspring of rats administered memantine during pregnancy at doses associated with minimal maternal toxicity. These doses are higher than those used in humans at the maximum recommended daily dose of memantine hydrochloride [see Data]. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively. The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. Data Animal Data Oral administration of memantine (0, 2, 6, or 18 mg/kg/day) to rats during the period of organogenesis resulted in decreased skeletal ossification in fetuses at the highest dose tested. The higher no-effect dose for adverse developmental effects (6 mg/kg) is 3 times the maximum recommended human daily dose (MRHD) of memantine hydrochloride (20 mg) on a body surface area (mg/m2) basis. Oral administration of memantine to rabbits (0, 3, 10, or 30 mg/kg/day) during the period of organogenesis resulted in no adverse developmental effects. The highest dose tested is approximately 30 times the MRHD of memantine hydrochloride on a mg/m2 basis. In rats, memantine (0, 2, 6, or 18 mg/kg/day) was administered orally prior to and throughout mating and, in females, through the period of organogenesis or continuing throughout lactation to weaning. Decreased skeletal ossification in fetuses and decreased body weight in pups were observed at the highest dose tested. The higher no-effect dose for adverse developmental effects (6 mg/kg/day) is 3 times the MRHD of memantine hydrochloride on a mg/m2 basis. Oral administration of memantine (0, 2, 6, or 18 mg/kg/day) to rats from late gestation throughout lactation to weaning, resulted in decreased pup weights at the highest dose tested. The higher no-effect dose (6 mg/kg/day) is approximately 3 times the MRHD of memantine hydrochloride on a mg/m2 basis. 8.2 Lactation Risk Summary There are no data on the presence of memantine in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects of memantine hydrochloride on milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for memantine hydrochloride and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from memantine hydrochloride or from the underlying maternal condition. 8.4 Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established. Memantine failed to demonstrate efficacy in two 12-week controlled clinical studies of 578 pediatric patients aged 6 to 12 years with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), including autism, Asperger’s disorder and Pervasive Development Disorder - Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). Memantine has not been studied in pediatric patients under 6 years of age or over 12 years of age. Memantine treatment was initiated at 3 mg/day and the dose was escalated to the target dose (weight-based) by week 6. Oral doses of memantine 3, 6, 9, or 15 mg extended-release capsules were administered once daily to patients with weights < 20 kg, 20 to 39 kg, 40 to 59 kg and ≥ 60 kg, respectively. In a randomized, 12-week double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel study (Study A) in patients with autism, there was no statistically significant difference in the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) total raw score between patients randomized to memantine (n=54) and those randomized to placebo (n=53). In a 12-week responder-enriched randomized withdrawal study (Study B) in 471 patients with ASD, there was no statistically significant difference in the loss of therapeutic response rates between patients randomized to remain on full-dose memantine (n=153) and those randomized to switch to placebo (n=158). The overall risk profile of memantine in pediatric patients was generally consistent with the known risk profile in adults [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. In Study A, the adverse reactions in the memantine group (n=56) that were reported in at least 5% of patients and at least twice the frequency of the placebo group (N=58) are listed in Table 2: Table 2: Study A Commonly Reported Adverse Reactions with a Freq uency ≥ 5% and Twice That of Placebo Adverse Reaction Memantine N=56 Placebo N=58 Cough 8.9% 3.4% Influenza 7.1% 3.4% Rhinorrhea 5.4% 0% Agitation 5.4% 1.7% Discontinuations due to adverse reactionsa Aggression 3.6% 1.7% Irritability 1.8% 3.4% a Reported adverse reactions leading to discontinuation in more than one patient in either treatment group. The adverse reactions that were reported in at least 5% of patients in the 12 to 48 week open-label study to identify responders to enroll in Study B are listed in Table 3: Table 3: 12 to 48 Week Open Label Lead-In study to Study B Commonly Reported Adverse Reactions with a Frequency ≥ 5% Adverse Reaction Memantine N=903 Headache 8.0% Nasopharyngitis 6.3% Pyrexia 5.8% Irritability 5.4% Discontinuations due to adverse reactionsa Irritability 1.2% Aggression 1.0% a At least 1% incidence of adverse reactions leading to premature discontinuation. In the randomized withdrawal study (Study B), the adverse reaction in patients randomized to placebo (n=160) and reported in at least 5% of patients and at twice the frequency of the full-dose memantine treatment group (n=157) was irritability (5.0% vs 2.5%). Juvenile Animal Study In a study in which memantine (0, 15, 30 or 45 mg/kg/day) was orally administered to rats during the juvenile period of development (postnatal days [PND] 14 through 70), delays in sexual maturation were noted in males and females at all but the lowest dose tested, and body weight was reduced at the high dose. In rats orally administered memantine as a single dose (PND 14) or three daily doses (PND 14 to 16), neuronal lesions were observed in several areas of the brain at all but the lowest dose tested. Adverse neurobehavioral effects (decreased auditory startle habituation) were observed at the high dose. The no-effect dose for developmental toxicity was the lowest dose tested (15 mg/kg/day). In a second juvenile animal study, memantine (0, 1, 3, 8, 15, 30, and 45 mg/kg/day) was orally administered to male and female rats beginning on PND 7 and continuing for various periods during postnatal development. Because of early memantine-related mortality, the 30 and 45 mg/kg/day groups were terminated without further evaluation. Apoptosis or neuronal degeneration in the brain was observed on PNDs 8 to 17 at a dose of 15 mg/kg/day. The no-effect dose for apoptosis and neuronal degeneration was 8 mg/kg/day. In animals in which memantine (0, 1, 3, 8, or 15 mg/kg/day) was orally administered on PNDs 7 to 70, adverse neurobehavioral effects (increased locomotor motor activity, increased auditory startle response and decreased habituation, and deficit in learning and memory) were observed at all but the lowest dose tested. Effects on auditory startle persisted after drug discontinuation. The no-effect dose for developmental toxicity was the lowest dose tested (1 mg/kg/day). 8.5 Geriatric Use The majority of people with Alzheimer’s disease are 65 years and older. In the clinical studies of memantine hydrochloride the mean age of patients was approximately 76; over 90% of patients were 65 years and older, 60% were 75 years and older, and 12% were at or above 85 years of age. The efficacy and safety data presented in the clinical trial sections were obtained from these patients. There were no clinically meaningful differences in most adverse events reported by patient groups ≥ 65 years old and < 65 years old. 8.6 Renal Impairment No dosage adjustment is needed in patients with mild or moderate renal impairment. A dosage reduction is recommended in patients with severe renal impairment [see Dosage and Administration (2) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. 8.7 Hepatic Impairment No dosage adjustment is needed in patients with mild or moderate hepatic impairment. Memantine hydrochloride should be administered with caution to patients with severe hepatic impairment [see Dosage and Administration (2) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

Interactions

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS 7.1 Drugs that Make the Urine Alkaline The clearance of memantine was reduced by about 80% under alkaline urine conditions at pH 8. Therefore, alterations of urine pH towards the alkaline condition may lead to an accumulation of the drug with a possible increase in adverse effects. Urine pH is altered by diet, drugs (e.g., carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, sodium bicarbonate) and clinical state of the patient (e.g., renal tubular acidosis or severe infections of the urinary tract). Hence, memantine should be used with caution under these conditions. 7.2 Use with Other N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) Antagonists The combined use of memantine hydrochloride with other NMDA antagonists (amantadine, ketamine, and dextromethorphan) has not been systematically evaluated and such use should be approached with caution.

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number ANDA203175
Agency product number JY0WD0UA60
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 65862-652,65862-653
Date Last Revised 16-09-2019
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
RXCUI 996561
Marketing authorisation holder Aurobindo Pharma Limited