Data from FDA - Curated by EPG Health - Last updated 05 July 2018

Indication(s)

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE Linezolid is an oxazolidinone-class antibacterial indicated in adults and children for the treatment of the following infections caused by susceptible Gram-positive bacteria: Nosocomial pneumonia (1.1); Community-acquired pneumonia (1.1); Complicated skin and skin structure infections, including diabetic foot infections, without concomitant osteomyelitis (1.2); Uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections (1.2); Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium infections (1.3) To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of linezolid formulations and other antibacterial drugs, linezolid should be used only to treat infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria. (1.4) Linezolid tablet is indicated for the treatment of infections caused by susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms in the specific conditions listed below. Linezolid tablet is not indicated for the treatment of Gram-negative infections. It is critical that specific Gram-negative therapy be initiated immediately if a concomitant Gram-negative pathogen is documented or suspected [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]. 1.1 Pneumonia Nosocomial pneumonia caused by Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-susceptible and -resistant isolates) or Streptococcus pneumoniae [see Clinical Studies (14)]. Community-acquired pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, including cases with concurrent bacteremia, or Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-susceptible isolates only) [see Clinical Studies (14)]. 1.2 Skin and Skin Structure Infections Complicated skin and skin structure infections, including diabetic foot infections, without concomitant osteomyelitis, caused by Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-susceptible and -resistant isolates), Streptococcus pyogenes, or Streptococcus agalactiae. Linezolid tablet has not been studied in the treatment of decubitus ulcers [see Clinical Studies (14)]. Uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-susceptible isolates only) or Streptococcus pyogenes [see Clinical Studies (14)]. 1.3 Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium Infections Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium infections, including cases with concurrent bacteremia [see Clinical Studies (14)]. 1.4 Usage To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of linezolid tablets and other antibacterial drugs, linezolid tablets should be used only to treat infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy. The safety and efficacy of linezolid formulations given for longer than 28 days have not been evaluated in controlled clinical trials.

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Advisory information

contraindications
4 CONTRAINDICATIONS Known hypersensitivity to linezolid or any of the other product components. (4.1); Patients taking any monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI) or within two weeks of taking an MAOI. (4.2) 4.1 Hypersensitivity Linezolid formulations are contraindicated for use in patients who have known hypersensitivity to linezolid or any of the other product components. 4.2 Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors Linezolid should not be used in patients taking any medicinal product which inhibits monoamine oxidases A or B (e.g., phenelzine, isocarboxazid) or within two weeks of taking any such medicinal product.
Adverse reactions
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS Most common adverse reactions (>5% of adult and/or pediatric patients treated with linezolid) include: diarrhea, vomiting, headache, nausea, and anemia. (6) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Zydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc. at 1-877-993-8779 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. Adults The safety of linezolid formulations was evaluated in 2046 adult patients enrolled in seven Phase 3 comparator-controlled clinical trials, who were treated for up to 28 days. Of the patients treated for uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections (uSSSIs), 25.4% of linezolid -treated and 19.6% of comparator-treated patients experienced at least one drug-related adverse event. For all other indications, 20.4% of linezolid - treated and 14.3% of comparator-treated patients experienced at least one drug-related adverse event. Table 2 shows the incidence of all-causality, treatment-emergent adverse reactions reported in at least 1% of adult patients in these trials by dose of linezolid. Table 2 Incidence (%) of Treatment–Emergent Adverse Reactions Occurring in > 1% of Adult Patients Treated with Linezolid tablets in Comparator-Controlled Clinical Trials * Comparators included cefpodoxime proxetil 200 mg by mouth every 12 hours; ceftriaxone 1 g intravenously every 12 hours; dicloxacillin 500 mg by mouth every 6 hours; oxacillin 2 g intravenously every 6 hours; vancomycin 1 g intravenously every 12 hours. ADVERSE REACTIONS Uncomplicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections All Other Indications L inezolid 400 mg by mouth every 12 hours (n=548) Clarithromycin 250 mg by mouth every 12 hours (n=537) L inezolid 600 mg every 12 hours (n=1498) All Other Comparators* (n=1464) Headache 8.8 8.4 5.7 4.4 Diarrhea 8.2 6.1 8.3 6.4 Nausea 5.1 4.5 6.6 4.6 Vomiting 2.0 1.5 4.3 2.3 Dizziness 2.6 3.0 1.8 1.5 Rash 1.1 1.1 2.3 2.6 Anemia 0.4 0 2.1 1.4 Taste alteration 1.8 2.0 1.0 0.3 Vaginal moniliasis 1.8 1.3 1.1 0.5 Oral moniliasis 0.5 0 1.7 1.0 Abnormal liver function tests 0.4 0.2 1.6 0.8 Fungal infection 1.5 0.2 0.3 0.2 Tongue discoloration 1.3 0 0.3 0 Localized abdominal pain 1.3 0.6 1.2 0.8 Generalized abdominal pain 0.9 0.4 1.2 1.0 Of the patients treated for uSSSIs, 3.5% of linezolid -treated and 2.4% of comparatortreated patients discontinued treatment due to drug-related adverse events. For all other indications, discontinuations due to drug-related adverse events occurred in 2.1% of linezolid -treated and 1.7% of comparator-treated patients. The most common reported drug-related adverse events leading to discontinuation of treatment were nausea, headache, diarrhea, and vomiting. Pediatric Patients The safety of linezolid formulations was evaluated in 215 pediatric patients ranging in age from birth through 11 years, and in 248 pediatric patients aged 5 through 17 years (146 of these 248 were age 5 through 11 and 102 were age 12 to 17). These patients were enrolled in two Phase 3 comparator-controlled clinical trials and were treated for up to 28 days. In the study of hospitalized pediatric patients (birth through 11 years) with Gram-positive infections, who were randomized 2 to 1 (linezolid: vancomycin), mortality was 6.0% (13/215) in the linezolid arm and 3.0% (3/101) in the vancomycin arm. However, given the severe underlying illness in the patient population, no causality could be established. Of the pediatric patients treated for uSSSIs, 19.2% of linezolid -treated and 14.1% of comparator-treated patients experienced at least one drug-related adverse event. For all other indications, 18.8% of linezolid -treated and 34.3% of comparator-treated patients experienced at least one drug-related adverse event. Table 3 shows the incidence of all-causality, treatment-emergent adverse reactions reported in more than 1% of pediatric patients (and more than 1 patient) in either treatment group in the comparator-controlled Phase 3 trials. Table 3 Incidence (%) of Treatment-Emergent Adverse Reactions Occurring in > 1% of Pediatric Patients (and >1 Patient) in Either Treatment Group in Comparator-Controlled Clinical Trials * Patients 5 through 11 years of age received linezolid 10 mg/kg by mouth every 12 hours or cefadroxil 15 mg/kg by mouth every 12 hours. Patients 12 years or older received linezolid 600 mg by mouth every 12 hours or cefadroxil 500 mg by mouth every 12 hours. † Patients from birth through 11 years of age received linezolid 10 mg/kg intravenously by mouth every 8 hours or vancomycin 10 to 15 mg/kg intravenously every 6-24 hours, depending on age and renal clearance. ADVERSE REACTIONS Uncomplicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections* All Other Indications† Linezolid (n=248) Cefadroxil (n=251) Linezolid (n=215) Vancomycin (n=101) Diarrhea 7.8 8.0 10.8 12.1 Vomiting 2.9 6.4 9.4 9.1 Headache 6.5 4.0 0.9 0 Anemia 0 0 5.6 7.1 Thrombocytopenia 0 0 4.7 2.0 Nausea 3.7 3.2 1.9 0 Generalized abdominal pain 2.4 2.8 0.9 2.0 Localized abdominal pain 2.4 2.8 0.5 1.0 Loose stools 1.6 0.8 2.3 3.0 Eosinophilia 0.4 0.8 1.9 1.0 Pruritus at non-application site 0.8 0.4 1.4 2.0 Vertigo 1.2 0.4 0 0 Of the pediatric patients treated for uSSSIs, 1.6% of linezolid -treated and 2.4% of comparator-treated patients discontinued treatment due to drug-related adverse events. For all other indications, discontinuations due to drug-related adverse events occurred in 0.9% of linezolid -treated and 6.1% of comparator-treated patients. Laboratory Abnormalities Linezolid has been associated with thrombocytopenia when used in doses up to and including 600 mg every 12 hours for up to 28 days. In Phase 3 comparator-controlled trials, the percentage of adult patients who developed a substantially low platelet count (defined as less than 75% of lower limit of normal and/or baseline) was 2.4% (range among studies: 0.3 to 10.0%) with linezolid and 1.5% (range among studies: 0.4 to 7.0%) with a comparator. In a study of hospitalized pediatric patients ranging in age from birth through 11 years, the percentage of patients who developed a substantially low platelet count (defined as less than 75% of lower limit of normal and/or baseline) was 12.9% with linezolid and 13.4% with vancomycin. In an outpatient study of pediatric patients aged from 5 through 17 years, the percentage of patients who developed a substantially low platelet count was 0% with linezolid and 0.4% with cefadroxil. Thrombocytopenia associated with the use of linezolid appears to be dependent on duration of therapy (generally greater than 2 weeks of treatment). The platelet counts for most patients returned to the normal range/baseline during the follow-up period. No related clinical adverse events were identified in Phase 3 clinical trials in patients developing thrombocytopenia. Bleeding events were identified in thrombocytopenic patients in a compassionate use program for linezolid; the role of linezolid in these events cannot be determined [see Warning and Precautions (5.1)]. Changes seen in other laboratory parameters, without regard to drug relationship, revealed no substantial differences between linezolid and the comparators. These changes were generally not clinically significant, did not lead to discontinuation of therapy, and were reversible. The incidence of adult and pediatric patients with at least one substantially abnormal hematologic or serum chemistry value is presented in Tables 4, 5, 6, and 7. Table 4 Percent of Adult Patients who Experienced at Least One Substantially Abnormal* Hematology Laboratory Value in Comparator-Controlled Clinical Trials with Linezolid * < 75% (<50% for neutrophils) of Lower Limit of Normal (LLN) for values normal at baseline; <75% (<50% for neutrophils) of LLN and of baseline for values abnormal at baseline. † Comparators included cefpodoxime proxetil 200 mg by mouth every 12 hours; ceftriaxone 1 g intravenously every 12 hours; dicloxacillin 500 mg by mouth every 6 hours; oxacillin 2 g intravenously every 6 hours; vancomycin 1 g intravenously every 12 hours. Laboratory Assay Uncomplicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections All Other Indications L inezolid 400 mg every 12 hours Clarithromycin 250 mg every 12 hours L inezolid 600 mg every 12 hours All Other Co mparators† Hemoglobin (g/dL) 0.9 0.0 7.1 6.6 Platelet count (x 103/mm3) 0.7 0.8 3.0 1.8 WBC (x 103/mm3) 0.2 0.6 2.2 1.3 Neutrophils (x 103/mm3) 0.0 0.2 1.1 1.2 Table 5 Percent of Adult Patients who Experienced at Least One Substantially Abnormal*Serum Chemistry Laboratory Value in Comparator-Controlled Clinical Trials with Linezolid * > 2 x Upper Limit of Normal (ULN) for values normal at baseline; > 2 x ULN and > 2 x baseline for values abnormal at baseline. † Comparators included cefpodoxime proxetil 200 mg by mouth every 12 hours; ceftriaxone 1 g intravenously every 12 hours; dicloxacillin 500 mg by mouth every 6 hours; oxacillin 2 g intravenously every 6 hours; vancomycin 1 g intravenously every 12 hours. Laboratory Assay Uncomplicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections All Other Indications L inezolid 400 mg every 12 hours Clarithromycin 250 mg every 12 hours L inezolid 600 mg every 12 hours All Other Co mparators† AST (U/L) 1.7 1.3 5.0 6.8 ALT (U/L) 1.7 1.7 9.6 9.3 LDH (U/L) 0.2 0.2 1.8 1.5 Alkaline phosphatase (U/L) 0.2 0.2 3.5 3.1 Lipase (U/L) 2.8 2.6 4.3 4.2 Amylase (U/L) 0.2 0.2 2.4 2.0 Total bilirubin (mg/dL) 0.2 0.0 0.9 1.1 BUN (mg/dL) 0.2 0.0 2.1 1.5 Creatinine (mg/dL) 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.6 Table 6 Percent of Pediatric Patients who Experienced at Least One Substantially Abnormal* Hematology Laboratory Value in Comparator-Controlled Clinical Trials with Linezolid * < 75% (< 50% for neutrophils) of Lower Limit of Normal (LLN) for values normal at baseline; < 75% (< 50% for neutrophils) of LLN and < 75% (< 50% for neutrophils, < 90% for hemoglobin if baseline < LLN) of baseline for values abnormal at baseline. † Patients 5 through 11 years of age received linezolid 10 mg/kg by mouth every 12 hours or cefadroxil 15 mg/kg by mouth every 12 hours. Patients 12 years or older received linezolid 600 mg by mouth every 12 hours or cefadroxil 500 mg by mouth every 12 hours. ‡ Patients from birth through 11 years of age received linezolid 10 mg/kg intravenously/by mouth every 8 hours or vancomycin 10 to 15 mg/kg intravenously every 6 to 24 hours, depending on age and renal clearance. Laboratory Assay Uncomplicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections† All Other Indications‡ L inezolid Cefadroxil L inezolid Vancomycin Hemoglobin (g/dL) 0.0 0.0 15.7 12.4 Platelet count (x 103/mm3) 0.0 0.4 12.9 13.4 WBC (x 103/mm3) 0.8 0.8 12.4 10.3 Neutrophils (x 103/mm3) 1.2 0.8 5.9 4.3 Table 7 Percent of Pediatric Patients who Experienced at Least One Substantially Abnormal* Serum Chemistry Laboratory Value in Comparator-Controlled Clinical Trials with linezolid *> 2 x Upper Limit of Normal (ULN) for values normal at baseline; > 2 x ULN and > 2 (> 1.5 for total bilirubin) x baseline for values abnormal at baseline. † Patients 5 through 11 years of age received linezolid 10 mg/kg by mouth every 12 hours or cefadroxil 15 mg/kg by mouth every 12 hours. Patients 12 years or older received linezolid 600 mg mouth every 12 hours or cefadroxil 500 mg by mouth every 12 hours. ‡ Patients from birth through 11 years of age received linezolid 10 mg/kg intravenously/by mouth every 8 hours or vancomycin 10 to 15 mg/kg intravenously every 6 to 24 hours, depending on age and renal clearance. Laboratory Assay Uncomplicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections† All Other Indications‡ L inezolid Cefadroxil L inezolid Vancomycin ALT (U/L) 0.0 0.0 10.1 12.5 Lipase (U/L) 0.4 1.2 --- --- Amylase (U/L) --- --- 0.6 1.3 Total bilirubin (mg/dL) --- --- 6.3 5.2 Creatinine (mg/dL) 0.4 0.0 2.4 1.0 6.2 Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of linezolid. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Myelosuppression (including anemia, leukopenia, pancytopenia, and thrombocytopenia) has been reported during postmarketing use of linezolid [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Peripheral neuropathy, and optic neuropathy sometimes progressing to loss of vision, have been reported in patients treated with linezolid [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Lactic acidosis has been reported with the use of linezolid [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]. Although these reports have primarily been in patients treated for longer than the maximum recommended duration of 28 days, these events have also been reported in patients receiving shorter courses of therapy. Serotonin syndrome has been reported in patients receiving concomitant serotonergic agents, including antidepressants such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and linezolid [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]. Convulsions have been reported with the use of linezolid [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)]. Anaphylaxis, angioedema, and bullous skin disorders such as those described as Stevens-Johnson syndrome have been reported. Superficial tooth discoloration and tongue discoloration have been reported with the use of linezolid. The tooth discoloration was removable with professional dental cleaning (manual descaling) in cases with known outcome. Hypoglycemia, including symptomatic episodes, has been reported [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)]. Myelosuppression (including anemia, leukopenia, pancytopenia, and thrombocytopenia) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ]; sideroblastic anemia. Peripheral neuropathy, and optic neuropathy sometimes progressing to loss of vision [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ]. Lactic acidosis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7) ]. Although these reports have primarily been in patients treated for longer than the maximum recommended duration of 28 days, these events have also been reported in patients receiving shorter courses of therapy. Serotonin syndrome has been reported in patients receiving concomitant serotonergic agents, including antidepressants such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and linezolid [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) ]. Convulsions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8) ]. Anaphylaxis, angioedema, and bullous skin disorders including severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCAR) such as toxic epidermal necrolysis and Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Superficial tooth discoloration and tongue discoloration have been reported with the use of linezolid. The tooth discoloration was removable with professional dental cleaning (manual descaling) in cases with known outcome. Hypoglycemia, including symptomatic episodes [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9) ].

Usage information

Dosing and administration
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Dosage, Route, and Frequency of Administration Infection Pediatric Patients (Birth through 11years of Age) Adults and Adolescents (12 years and Older) Duration (days) Nosocomial pneumonia 10 mg/kg intravenous or oral every 8 hours 600 mg intravenous or oral every 12 hours 10 to 14 Community-acquired pneumonia, including concurrent bacteremia Complicated skin and skin structure infections Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium infections, including concurrent bacteremia 10 mg/kg intravenous or oral every 8 hours 600 mg intravenous or oral every 12 hours 14 to 28 Uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections less than 5 yrs: 10 mg/kg oral every 8 hours 5 to 11 yrs: 10 mg/kg oral every 12 hours Adults: 400 mg oral every 12 hours Adolescents: 600 mg oral every 12 hours 10 to 14 2.1 General Dosage and Administration The recommended dosage for linezolid formulations for the treatment of infections is described in Table 1. Table 1 Dosage Guidelines for Linezolid * Due to the designated pathogens [see Indications and Usage (1) ] † Neonates less than 7 days : Most pre-term neonates less than 7 days of age (gestational age less than 34 weeks) have lower systemic linezolid clearance values and larger AUC values than many full-term neonates and older infants. These neonates should be initiated with a dosing regimen of 10 mg/kg every 12 hours. Consideration may be given to the use of 10 mg/kg every 8 hours regimen in neonates with a sub-optimal clinical response. All neonatal patients should receive 10 mg/kg every 8 hours by 7 days of life [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. ‡ Oral dosing using Linezolid Tablets [see How Supplied/Storage and Handling (16) ]. Infection* Dosage, Route and Frequency of Administration Recommended Duration of Treatment (consecutive days) Pediatric Patients† (Birth through 11 Years of Age) Adults and Adolescents (12 Years and Older) Nosocomial pneumonia 10 mg/kg intravenously or oral‡every 8 hours 600 mg intravenously or oral‡every 12 hours 10 to 14 Community-acquired pneumonia, including concurrent bacteremia Complicated skin and skin structure infections Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium infections, including concurrent bacteremia 10 mg/kg intravenously or oral‡every 8 hours 600 mg intravenously or oral‡every 12 hours 14 to 28 Uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections less than 5 yrs: 10 mg/kg oral‡ every 8 hours 5 to 11 yrs: 10 mg/kg oral‡ every 12 hours Adults: 400 mg oral‡ every 12 hours Adolescents: 600 mg oral‡ every 12 hours 10 to 14 No dose adjustment is necessary when switching from intravenous to oral administration.
Use in special populations
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS 8.1 Pregnancy Teratogenic Effects Pregnancy Category C Linezolid was not teratogenic in mice, rats, or rabbits at exposure levels 6.5-fold (in mice), equivalent to (in rats), or 0.06-fold (in rabbits) the expected human exposure level, based on AUCs. However, embryo and fetal toxicities were seen (see Non-teratogenic Effects). There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. linezolid should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Non-teratogenic Effects In mice, embryo and fetal toxicities were seen only at doses that caused maternal toxicity (clinical signs and reduced body weight gain). A dose of 450 mg/kg/day (6.5-fold the estimated human exposure level based on AUCs) correlated with increased postimplantational embryo death, including total litter loss, decreased fetal body weights, and an increased incidence of costal cartilage fusion. In rats, mild fetal toxicity was observed at 15 and 50 mg/kg/day (exposure levels 0.22-fold to approximately equivalent to the estimated human exposure, respectively, based on AUCs). The effects consisted of decreased fetal body weights and reduced ossification of sternebrae, a finding often seen in association with decreased fetal body weights. Slight maternal toxicity, in the form of reduced body weight gain, was seen at 50 mg/kg/day. In rabbits, reduced fetal body weight occurred only in the presence of maternal toxicity (clinical signs, reduced body weight gain and food consumption) when administered at a dose of 15 mg/kg/day (0.06-fold the estimated human exposure based on AUCs). When female rats were treated with 50 mg/kg/day (approximately equivalent to the estimated human exposure based on AUCs) of linezolid during pregnancy and lactation, survival of pups was decreased on postnatal days 1 to 4. Male and female pups permitted to mature to reproductive age, when mated, showed an increase in preimplantation loss. 8.3 Nursing Mothers Linezolid and its metabolites are excreted in the milk of lactating rats. Concentrations in milk were similar to those in maternal plasma. It is not known whether linezolid is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when linezolid is administered to a nursing woman. 8.4 Pediatric Use The safety and effectiveness of linezolid for the treatment of pediatric patients with the following infections are supported by evidence from adequate and well-controlled studies in adults, pharmacokinetic data in pediatric patients, and additional data from a comparator-controlled study of Gram-positive infections in pediatric patients ranging in age from birth through 11 years [see Indications and Usage (1), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) and Clinical Studies (14)]: nosocomial pneumonia complicated skin and skin structure infections community-acquired pneumonia (also supported by evidence from an uncontrolled study in patients ranging in age from 8 months through 12 years) vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium infections The safety and effectiveness of linezolid for the treatment of pediatric patients with the following infection have been established in a comparator-controlled study in pediatric patients ranging in age from 5 through 17 years [see Clinical Studies (14)]: uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-susceptible strains only) or Streptococcus pyogenes Pharmacokinetic information generated in pediatric patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunts showed variable cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) linezolid concentrations following single and multiple dosing of linezolid; therapeutic concentrations were not consistently achieved or maintained in the CSF. Therefore, the use of linezolid for the empiric treatment of pediatric patients with central nervous system infections is not recommended. The pharmacokinetics of linezolid have been evaluated in pediatric patients from birth to 17 years of age. In general, weight-based clearance of linezolid gradually decreases with increasing age of pediatric patients. However, in preterm (gestational age < 34 weeks) neonates < 7 days of age, linezolid clearance is often lower than in full-term neonates < 7 days of age. Consequently, preterm neonates < 7 days of age may need an alternative linezolid dosing regimen of 10 mg/kg every 12 hours [see Dosage and Administration (2.1) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. In limited clinical experience, 5 out of 6 (83%) pediatric patients with infections due to Gram-positive pathogens with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 4 mcg/mL treated with linezolid had clinical cures. However, pediatric patients exhibit wider variability in linezolid clearance and systemic exposure (AUC) compared with adults. In pediatric patients with a sub-optimal clinical response, particularly those with pathogens with MIC of 4 mcg/mL, lower systemic exposure, site and severity of infection, and the underlying medical condition should be considered when assessing clinical response [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) and Dosage and Administration (2)]. 8.5 Geriatric Use Of the 2046 patients treated with linezolid in Phase 3 comparator-controlled clinical trials, 589 (29%) were 65 years or older and 253 (12%) were 75 years or older. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these patients and younger patients, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.
Pregnancy and lactation
8.3 Nursing Mothers Linezolid and its metabolites are excreted in the milk of lactating rats. Concentrations in milk were similar to those in maternal plasma. It is not known whether linezolid is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when linezolid is administered to a nursing woman.

Interactions

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS Monoamine oxidase inhibitors and potential for interaction with adrenergic and serotonergic agents. (4.2, 5.3, 5.6, 7, 12.3) 7.1 Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors Linezolid is a reversible, nonselective inhibitor of monoamine oxidase. [see Contraindications (4.2) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. 7.2 Adrenergic and Serotonergic Agents Linezolid has the potential for interaction with adrenergic and serotonergic agents. [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3, 5.6) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number ANDA206097
Agency product number ISQ9I6J12J
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 70771-1111
Date Last Revised 08-06-2018
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
RXCUI 311347
Marketing authorisation holder Cadila Healthcare Limited