Data from FDA - Curated by EPG Health - Last updated 22 November 2019

Indication(s)

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE ENTRESTO is a combination of sacubitril, a neprilysin inhibitor, and valsartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker indicated: to reduce the risk of cardiovascular death and hospitalization for heart failure in patients with chronic heart failure (NYHA Class II-IV) and reduced ejection fraction. (1.1) ENTRESTO is usually administered in conjunction with other heart failure therapies, in place of an ACE inhibitor or other ARB. (1.1) for the treatment of symptomatic heart failure with systemic left ventricular systolic dysfunction in pediatric patients aged one year and older. ENTRESTO reduces NT-proBNP and is expected to improve cardiovascular outcomes. (1.2) 1.1 Adult Heart Failure ENTRESTO is indicated to reduce the risk of cardiovascular death and hospitalization for heart failure in patients with chronic heart failure (NYHA Class II-IV) and reduced ejection fraction. ENTRESTO is usually administered in conjunction with other heart failure therapies, in place of an ACE inhibitor or other ARB. 1.2 Pediatric Heart Failure ENTRESTO is indicated for the treatment of symptomatic heart failure with systemic left ventricular systolic dysfunction in pediatric patients aged one year and older. ENTRESTO reduces NT-proBNP and is expected to improve cardiovascular outcomes.

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Advisory information

contraindications
4 CONTRAINDICATIONS ENTRESTO is contraindicated: in patients with hypersensitivity to any component in patients with a history of angioedema related to previous ACE inhibitor or ARB therapy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)] with concomitant use of ACE inhibitors. Do not administer within 36 hours of switching from or to an ACE inhibitor [see Drug Interactions (7.1)] with concomitant use of aliskiren in patients with diabetes [see Drug Interactions (7.1)] Hypersensitivity to any component. (4) History of angioedema related to previous ACEi or ARB therapy. (4) Concomitant use with ACE inhibitors. (4, 7.1) Concomitant use with aliskiren in patients with diabetes. (4, 7.1)
Adverse reactions
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS Clinically significant adverse reactions that appear in other sections of the labeling include: Angioedema [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)] Hypotension [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)] Impaired Renal Function [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)] Hyperkalemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)] Adverse reactions occurring ≥ 5% are hypotension, hyperkalemia, cough, dizziness, and renal failure. (6.1) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation at 1-888-669-6682 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. Adult Heart Failure In the PARADIGM-HF trial, subjects were required to complete sequential enalapril and ENTRESTO run-in periods of (median) 15 and 29 days, respectively, prior to entering the randomized double-blind period comparing ENTRESTO and enalapril. During the enalapril run-in period, 1,102 patients (10.5%) were permanently discontinued from the study, 5.6% because of an adverse event, most commonly renal dysfunction (1.7%), hyperkalemia (1.7%) and hypotension (1.4%). During the ENTRESTO run-in period, an additional 10.4% of patients permanently discontinued treatment, 5.9% because of an adverse event, most commonly renal dysfunction (1.8%), hypotension (1.7%) and hyperkalemia (1.3%). Because of this run-in design, the adverse reaction rates described below are lower than expected in practice. In the double-blind period, safety was evaluated in 4,203 patients treated with ENTRESTO and 4,229 treated with enalapril. In PARADIGM-HF, patients randomized to ENTRESTO received treatment for up to 4.3 years, with a median duration of exposure of 24 months; 3,271 patients were treated for more than one year. Discontinuation of therapy because of an adverse event during the double-blind period occurred in 450 (10.7%) of ENTRESTO treated patients and 516 (12.2%) of patients receiving enalapril. Adverse reactions occurring at an incidence of ≥ 5% in patients who were treated with ENTRESTO in the double-blind period are shown in Table 2. Table 2: Adverse Reactions Reported in ≥ 5% of Patients Treated with ENTRESTO in the Double-Blind Period ENTRESTO (n = 4,203) % Enalapril (n = 4,229) % Hypotension 18 12 Hyperkalemia 12 14 Cough 9 13 Dizziness 6 5 Renal failure/acute renal failure 5 5 In the PARADIGM-HF trial, the incidence of angioedema was 0.1% in both the enalapril and ENTRESTO run-in periods. In the double-blind period, the incidence of angioedema was higher in patients treated with ENTRESTO than enalapril (0.5% and 0.2%, respectively). The incidence of angioedema in Black patients was 2.4% with ENTRESTO and 0.5% with enalapril [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Orthostasis was reported in 2.1% of patients treated with ENTRESTO compared to 1.1% of patients treated with enalapril during the double-blind period of PARADIGM-HF. Falls were reported in 1.9% of patients treated with ENTRESTO compared to 1.3% of patients treated with enalapril. Pediatric Heart Failure The adverse reactions observed in pediatric patients 1 to < 18 years old who received treatment with ENTRESTO were consistent with those observed in adult patients. Laboratory Abnormalities Hemoglobin and Hematocrit Decreases in hemoglobin/hematocrit of > 20% were observed in approximately 5% of both ENTRESTO- and enalapril-treated patients in the double-blind period in PARADIGM-HF. Serum Creatinine Increases in serum creatinine of > 50% were observed in 1.4% of patients in the enalapril run-in period and 2.2% of patients in the ENTRESTO run-in period. During the double-blind period, approximately 16% of both ENTRESTO- and enalapril-treated patients had increases in serum creatinine of > 50%. Serum Potassium Potassium concentrations > 5.5 mEq/L were observed in approximately 4% of patients in both the enalapril and ENTRESTO run-in periods. During the double-blind period, approximately 16% of both ENTRESTO- and enalapril-treated patients had potassium concentrations > 5.5 mEq/L. 6.2 Postmarketing Experience The following additional adverse reactions have been reported in postmarketing experience. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Hypersensitivity including rash, pruritus, and anaphylactic reaction

Usage information

Dosing and administration
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Indication Titration Step Dose (twice daily) Starting Second Final Adult Heart Failure 49/51 mg 97/103 mg Pediatric Heart Failure Patients less than 40 kg 1.6 mg/kg 2.3 mg/kg 3.1 mg/kg Pediatric Heart Failure Patients at least 40 kg, less than 50 kg 24/26 mg 49/51 mg 72/78 mg Pediatric Heart Failure Patients at least 50 kg 49/51 mg 72/78 mg 97/103 mg Adjust adult doses every 2 to 4 weeks and pediatric doses every 2 weeks to the target maintenance dose, as tolerated by the patient. (2.2, 2.3) Reduce starting dose to half the usually recommended starting dosage for: - patients not currently taking an ACE inhibitor or ARB or previously taking a low dose of these agents (2.5) - patients with severe renal impairment (2.6) - patients with moderate hepatic impairment (2.7) 2.1 General Considerations ENTRESTO is contraindicated with concomitant use of an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. If switching from an ACE inhibitor to ENTRESTO allow a washout period of 36 hours between administration of the two drugs [see Contraindications (4) and Drug Interactions (7.1)]. 2.2 Adult Heart Failure The recommended starting dose of ENTRESTO is 49/51 mg orally twice-daily. Double the dose of ENTRESTO after 2 to 4 weeks to the target maintenance dose of 97/103 mg twice daily, as tolerated by the patient. 2.3 Pediatric Heart Failure Refer to Table 1 for the recommended dose for pediatric patients aged one year and older. Take the recommended dose orally twice daily. Adjust pediatric patient doses every 2 weeks, as tolerated by the patient. Table 1: Recommended Dose Titration †Use of the Oral Suspension recommended in these patients. Recommended mg/kg doses are of the combined amount of both sacubitril and valsartan [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)]. ‡Doses of 72/78 mg can be achieved using three 24/26 mg tablets [see Dosage Forms and Strengths (3)]. Titration Step Dose (twice daily) Starting Second Final Pediatric Patients Less than 40 kg† 1.6 mg/kg 2.3 mg/kg 3.1 mg/kg Pediatric Patients At least 40 kg, less than 50 kg 24/26 mg 49/51 mg 72/78 mg‡ Pediatric Patients At least 50 kg 49/51 mg 72/78 mg‡ 97/103 mg 2.4 Preparation of Oral Suspension ENTRESTO oral suspension can be substituted at the recommended tablet dosage in patients unable to swallow tablets. ENTRESTO 800 mg/200 mL oral suspension can be prepared in a concentration of 4 mg/mL (sacubitril/valsartan 1.96/2.04 mg/mL). Use ENTRESTO 49/51 mg tablets in the preparation of the suspension. To make an 800 mg/200 mL (4 mg/mL) oral suspension, transfer eight tablets of ENTRESTO 49/51 mg film-coated tablets into a mortar. Crush the tablets into a fine powder using a pestle. Add 60 mL of Ora-Plus® into the mortar and triturate gently with pestle for 10 minutes, to form a uniform suspension. Add 140 mL of Ora-Sweet® SF into mortar and triturate with pestle for another 10 minutes, to form a uniform suspension. Transfer the entire contents from the mortar into a clean 200 mL amber colored PET or glass bottle. Place a press-in bottle adapter and close the bottle with a child resistant cap. The oral suspension can be stored for up to 15 days. Do not store above 25°C (77°F) and do not refrigerate. Shake before each use. *Ora-Sweet SF® and Ora-Plus® are registered trademarks of Paddock Laboratories, Inc. 2.5 Dose Adjustment for Patients Not Taking an ACE inhibitor or ARB or Previously Taking Low Doses of These Agents In patients not currently taking an ACE inhibitor or an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) and for patients previously taking low doses of these agents, start ENTRESTO at half the usually recommended starting dose. After initiation, increase the dose to follow the recommended dose escalation thereafter [see Dosage and Administration (2.2, 2.3)]. Note: Initiate pediatric patients weighing 40 to 50 kg who meet this criterion at 0.8 mg/kg twice daily using the oral suspension [see Dosage and Administration (2.3, 2.4)]. 2.6 Dose Adjustment for Severe Renal Impairment In adults and pediatric patients with severe renal impairment (eGFR < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2), start ENTRESTO at half the usually recommended starting dose. After initiation, increase the dose to follow the recommended dose escalation thereafter [see Dosage and Administration (2.2, 2.3)]. Note: Initiate pediatric patients weighing 40 to 50 kg who meet this criterion at 0.8 mg/kg twice daily using the oral suspension [see Dosage and Administration (2.3, 2.4)]. No starting dose adjustment is needed for mild hepatic impairment. Use in patients with severe hepatic impairment is not recommended. 2.7 Dose Adjustment for Hepatic Impairment In adults and pediatric patients with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh B classification), start ENTRESTO at half the usually recommended starting dose. After initiation, increase the dose to follow the recommended dose escalation thereafter [see Dosage and Administration (2.2, 2.3)]. Note: Initiate pediatric patients weighing 40 to 50 kg who meet this criterion at 0.8 mg/kg twice daily using the oral suspension [see Dosage and Administration (2.3, 2.4)]. No starting dose adjustment is needed for mild or moderate renal impairment.
Use in special populations
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS Lactation: Breastfeeding or drug should be discontinued. (8.2) Severe Hepatic Impairment: Use not recommended. (2.7, 8.6) 8.1 Pregnancy Risk Summary ENTRESTO can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Use of drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy reduces fetal renal function and increases fetal and neonatal morbidity and death. Most epidemiologic studies examining fetal abnormalities after exposure to antihypertensive use in the first trimester have not distinguished drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system from other antihypertensive agents. In animal reproduction studies, ENTRESTO treatment during organogenesis resulted in increased embryo-fetal lethality in rats and rabbits and teratogenicity in rabbits. When pregnancy is detected, consider alternative drug treatment and discontinue ENTRESTO. However, if there is no appropriate alternative to therapy with drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system, and if the drug is considered lifesaving for the mother, advise a pregnant woman of the potential risk to the fetus. The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively. Clinical Considerations Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions Oligohydramnios in pregnant women who use drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy can result in the following: reduced fetal renal function leading to anuria and renal failure, fetal lung hypoplasia, skeletal deformations, including skull hypoplasia, hypotension, and death. Perform serial ultrasound examinations to assess the intra-amniotic environment. Fetal testing may be appropriate, based on the week of gestation. Patients and physicians should be aware, however, that oligohydramnios may not appear until after the fetus has sustained irreversible injury. If oligohydramnios is observed, consider alternative drug treatment. Closely observe neonates with histories of in utero exposure to ENTRESTO for hypotension, oliguria, and hyperkalemia. In neonates with a history of in utero exposure to ENTRESTO, if oliguria or hypotension occurs, support blood pressure and renal perfusion. Exchange transfusions or dialysis may be required as a means of reversing hypotension and replacing renal function. Data Animal Data ENTRESTO treatment during organogenesis resulted in increased embryo-fetal lethality in rats at doses ≥ 49 mg sacubitril/51 mg valsartan/kg/day (≤ 0.14 [LBQ657, the active metabolite] and 1.5 [valsartan]-fold the maximum recommended human dose [MRHD] of 97/103 mg twice-daily on the basis of the area under the plasma drug concentration-time curve [AUC]) and rabbits at doses ≥ 5 mg sacubitril/5 mg valsartan/kg/day (4-fold and 0.06-fold the MRHD on the basis of valsartan and LBQ657 AUC, respectively). ENTRESTO is teratogenic based on a low incidence of fetal hydrocephaly, associated with maternally toxic doses, which was observed in rabbits at an ENTRESTO dose of ≥ 5 mg sacubitril/5 mg valsartan/kg/day. The adverse embryo-fetal effects of ENTRESTO are attributed to the angiotensin receptor antagonist activity. Pre- and postnatal development studies in rats at sacubitril doses up to 750 mg/kg/day (4.5-fold the MRHD on the basis of LBQ657 AUC) and valsartan at doses up to 600 mg/kg/day (0.86-fold the MRHD on the basis of AUC) indicate that treatment with ENTRESTO during organogenesis, gestation and lactation may affect pup development and survival. 8.2 Lactation Risk Summary There is no information regarding the presence of sacubitril/valsartan in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Sacubitril/valsartan is present in rat milk. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in breastfed infants from exposure to sacubitril/valsartan, advise a nursing woman that breastfeeding is not recommended during treatment with ENTRESTO. Data Following an oral dose (15 mg sacubitril/15 mg valsartan/kg) of [14C] ENTRESTO to lactating rats, transfer of LBQ657 into milk was observed. After a single oral administration of 3 mg/kg [14C] valsartan to lactating rats, transfer of valsartan into milk was observed. 8.4 Pediatric Use The safety and effectiveness of ENTRESTO in pediatric heart failure patients 1 to < 18 years old are supported by the reduction from baseline to 12 weeks in NT-proBNP in a randomized, double-blind clinical study [see Clinical Studies (14.2)]. The analysis of NT-proBNP included 90 patients age 6 to 18 years and 20 patients age 1 to 6 years. Safety and effectiveness have not been established in pediatric patients less than 1 year of age. Animal Data Sacubitril given orally to juvenile rats from postnatal day (PND) 7 to PND 35 or PND 70 (an age approximately equivalent to neonatal through pre-pubertal development or adulthood in humans) at doses ≥ 400 mg/kg/day (approximately 2-fold the AUC exposure to the active metabolite of sacubitril, LBQ657, at an ENTRESTO pediatric clinical dose of 3.1 mg/kg twice daily) resulted in decreases in body weight, bone length, and bone mass. The decrease in body weight was transient from PND 10 to PND 20 and the effects for most bone parameters were reversible after treatment stopped. Exposure at the No-Observed-Adverse-Effect-Level (NOAEL) of 100 mg/kg/day was approximately 0.5-fold the AUC exposure to LBQ657 at the 3.1 mg/kg twice daily dose of ENTRESTO. The mechanism underlying bone effects in rats and the translatability to pediatric patients are unknown. Valsartan given orally to juvenile rats from PND 7 to PND 70 (an age approximately equivalent to neonatal through adulthood in humans) produced persistent, irreversible kidney damage at all dose levels. Exposure at the lowest tested dose of 1 mg/kg/day was approximately 0.2-fold the exposure at 3.1 mg/kg twice daily dose of ENTRESTO based on AUC. These kidney effects in neonatal rats represent expected exaggerated pharmacological effects that are observed if rats are treated during the first 13 days of life. 8.5 Geriatric Use No relevant pharmacokinetic differences have been observed in elderly (≥ 65 years) or very elderly (≥ 75 years) patients compared to the overall population [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. 8.6 Hepatic Impairment No dose adjustment is required when administering ENTRESTO to patients with mild hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh A classification). The recommended starting dose in patients with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh B classification) is 24/26 mg twice daily. The use of ENTRESTO in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh C classification) is not recommended, as no studies have been conducted in these patients [see Dosage and Administration (2.6), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. 8.7 Renal Impairment No dose adjustment is required in patients with mild (eGFR 60 to 90 mL/min/1.73 m2) to moderate (eGFR 30 to 60 mL/min/1.73 m2) renal impairment. The recommended starting dose in patients with severe renal impairment (eGFR < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2) is 24/26 mg twice daily [see Dosage and Administration (2.5), Warnings and Precautions (5.4), and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

Interactions

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS Avoid concomitant use with aliskiren in patients with eGFR < 60. (7.1) Potassium-sparing diuretics: May lead to increased serum potassium. (7.2) NSAIDs: May lead to increased risk of renal impairment. (7.3) Lithium: Increased risk of lithium toxicity. (7.4) 7.1 Dual Blockade of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Concomitant use of ENTRESTO with an ACE inhibitor is contraindicated because of the increased risk of angioedema [see Contraindications (4)]. Avoid use of ENTRESTO with an ARB, because ENTRESTO contains the angiotensin II receptor blocker valsartan. The concomitant use of ENTRESTO with aliskiren is contraindicated in patients with diabetes [see Contraindications (4)]. Avoid use with aliskiren in patients with renal impairment (eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2). 7.2 Potassium-Sparing Diuretics As with other drugs that block angiotensin II or its effects, concomitant use of potassium-sparing diuretics (e.g., spironolactone, triamterene, amiloride), potassium supplements, or salt substitutes containing potassium may lead to increases in serum potassium [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]. 7.3 Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) Including Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors (COX-2 Inhibitors) In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function, concomitant use of NSAIDs, including COX-2 inhibitors, with ENTRESTO may result in worsening of renal function, including possible acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Monitor renal function periodically. 7.4 Lithium Increases in serum lithium concentrations and lithium toxicity have been reported during concomitant administration of lithium with angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Monitor serum lithium levels during concomitant use with ENTRESTO.

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number NDA207620
Agency product number 17ERJ0MKGI
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 0078-0696,0078-0659,0078-0777
Date Last Revised 01-10-2019
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
RXCUI 1656349
Storage and handling Store at 20°C to 25°C (77°F), excursions permitted 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from moisture.
Marketing authorisation holder Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation
Warnings WARNING: FETAL TOXICITY When pregnancy is detected, discontinue ENTRESTO as soon as possible (5.1) Drugs that act directly on the renin-angiotensin system can cause injury and death to the developing fetus (5.1) WARNING: FETAL TOXICITY See full prescribing information for complete boxed warning. When pregnancy is detected, discontinue ENTRESTO as soon as possible. (5.1) Drugs that act directly on the renin-angiotensin system can cause injury and death to the developing fetus. (5.1)