Data from FDA - Curated by EPG Health - Last updated 05 July 2018

Indication(s)

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets and other antibacterial drugs, amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets should be used only to treat infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy. Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets are a combination penicillin-class antibacterial and beta-lactamase inhibitor indicated in the treatment of infections due to susceptible isolates of the designated bacteria in the conditions listed below*: Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets are a combination penicillin-class antibacterial and beta-lactamase inhibitor indicated for treatment of the following: Lower respiratory tract infections (1.1) Acute bacterial otitis media (1.2) Sinusitis (1.3) Skin and skin structure infections (1.4) Urinary tract infections (1.5) 1.1 Lower Respiratory Tract Infections caused by beta-lactamase–producing isolates of Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. 1.2 Acute Bacterial Otitis Media caused by beta-lactamase–producing isolates of H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis. 1.3 Sinusitis caused by beta-lactamase–producing isolates of H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis. 1.4 Skin and Skin Structure Infections caused by beta-lactamase–producing isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella species. 1.5 Urinary Tract Infections caused by beta-lactamase–producing isolates of E. coli, Klebsiella species, and Enterobacter species. 1.6 Limitations of Use When susceptibility test results show susceptibility to amoxicillin, indicating no beta-lactamase production, amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets should not be used.

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Advisory information

contraindications
4 CONTRAINDICATIONS History of a serious hypersensitivity reaction (e.g., anaphylaxis or Stevens-Johnson syndrome) to amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets or to other beta-lactams (e.g., penicillins or cephalosporins). (4) History of cholestatic jaundice/hepatic dysfunction associated with amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets. (4) 4.1 Serious Hypersensitivity Reactions Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets are contraindicated in patients with a history of serious hypersensitivity reactions (e.g., anaphylaxis or Stevens-Johnson syndrome) to amoxicillin, clavulanate or to other beta-lactam antibacterial drugs (e.g., penicillins and cephalosporins). 4.2 Cholestatic Jaundice/Hepatic Dysfunction Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets are contraindicated in patients with a previous history of cholestatic jaundice/hepatic dysfunction associated with amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets.
Adverse reactions
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS The following are discussed in more detail in other sections of the labeling: Anaphylactic reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)] Hepatic Dysfunction [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)] CDAD [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)] The most frequently reported adverse effects were diarrhea/loose stools (9%), nausea (3%), skin rashes and urticaria (3%), vomiting (1%) and vaginitis (1%). (6.1) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Aurobindo Pharma USA, Inc. at 1-866-850-2876 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. The most frequently reported adverse reactions were diarrhea/loose stools (9%), nausea (3%), skin rashes and urticaria (3%), vomiting (1%) and vaginitis (1%). Less than 3% of patients discontinued therapy because of drug-related adverse reactions. The overall incidence of adverse reactions, and in particular diarrhea, increased with the higher recommended dose. Other less frequently reported adverse reactions (<1%) include: Abdominal discomfort, flatulence, and headache. In pediatric patients (aged 2 months to 12 years), 1 U.S./Canadian clinical trial was conducted which compared 45/6.4 mg/kg/day (divided every 12 hours) of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium for 10 days versus 40/10 mg/kg/day (divided every 8 hours) of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium for 10 days in the treatment of acute otitis media. A total of 575 patients were enrolled, and only the suspension formulations were used in this trial. Overall, the adverse reactions seen were comparable to that noted above; however, there were differences in the rates of diarrhea, skin rashes/urticaria, and diaper area rashes [see Clinical Studies (14.2)]. 6.2 Postmarketing Experience In addition to adverse reactions reported from clinical trials, the following have been identified during postmarketing use of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium. Because they are reported voluntarily from a population of unknown size, estimates of frequency cannot be made. These events have been chosen for inclusion due to a combination of their seriousness, frequency of reporting, or potential causal connection to amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium. Gastrointestinal: Indigestion, gastritis, stomatitis, glossitis, black “hairy” tongue, mucocutaneous candidiasis, enterocolitis, and hemorrhagic/pseudomembranous colitis. Onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibiotic treatment [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]. Hypersensitivity Reactions: Pruritus, angioedema, serum sickness–like reactions (urticaria or skin rash accompanied by arthritis, arthralgia, myalgia, and frequently fever), erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, hypersensitivity vasculitis, and cases of exfoliative dermatitis (including toxic epidermal necrolysis) have been reported [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Liver: Hepatic dysfunction, including hepatitis and cholestatic jaundice, increases in serum transaminases (AST and/or ALT), serum bilirubin, and/or alkaline phosphatase, has been reported with amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium. It has been reported more commonly in the elderly, in males, or in patients on prolonged treatment. The histologic findings on liver biopsy have consisted of predominantly cholestatic, hepatocellular, or mixed cholestatic-hepatocellular changes. The onset of signs/symptoms of hepatic dysfunction may occur during or several weeks after therapy has been discontinued. The hepatic dysfunction, which may be severe, is usually reversible. Deaths have been reported [see Contraindications (4.2), Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Renal: Interstitial nephritis, hematuria, and crystalluria have been reported [see Overdosage (10)]. Hemic and Lymphatic Systems: Anemia, including hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, thrombocytopenic purpura, eosinophilia, leukopenia, and agranulocytosis have been reported. These reactions are usually reversible on discontinuation of therapy and are believed to be hypersensitivity phenomena. Thrombocytosis was noted in less than 1% of the patients treated with amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium. There have been reports of increased prothrombin time in patients receiving amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium and anticoagulant therapy concomitantly [see Drug Interactions (7.2)]. Central Nervous System: Agitation, anxiety, behavioral changes, confusion, convulsions, dizziness, insomnia, and reversible hyperactivity have been reported. Miscellaneous: Tooth discoloration (brown, yellow, or gray staining) has been reported. Most reports occurred in pediatric patients. Discoloration was reduced or eliminated with brushing or dental cleaning in most cases.

Usage information

Dosing and administration
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets may be taken without regard to meals; however, absorption of clavulanate potassium is enhanced when amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets are administered at the start of a meal. To minimize the potential for gastrointestinal intolerance, amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets should be taken at the start of a meal. Adults and Pediatric Patients > 40 kg: 500 mg/125 mg or 875 mg/125 mg every 12 hours or 250 mg/125 mg or 500 mg/125 mg every 8 hours. (2.1, 2.2) Pediatric patients aged 12 weeks (3 months) and older: 25 to 45 mg/kg/day every 12 hours or 20 to 40 mg/kg/day every 8 hours, up to the adult dose. (2.2) Neonates and infants < 12 weeks of age: 30 mg/kg/day divided every 12 hours, based on the amoxicillin component. Use of the 125 mg/31.25 mg per 5 mL oral suspension is recommended. (2.2) 2.1 Adults The usual adult dose is one amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablet 500 mg/125 mg every 12 hours or one amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablet 250 mg/125 mg every 8 hours. For more severe infections and infections of the respiratory tract, the dose should be one amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablet 875 mg/125 mg every 12 hours or one amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablet 500 mg/125 mg every 8 hours. Adults who have difficulty swallowing may be given the 125 mg/31.25 mg per 5 mL or 250 mg/62.5 mg per 5 mL suspension in place of the 500 mg/125 mg tablet. The 200 mg/28.5 mg per 5 mL suspension or the 400 mg/57 mg per 5 mL suspension may be used in place of the 875 mg/125 mg tablet. Two amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets 250 mg/125 mg should not be substituted for one amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablet 500 mg/125 mg. Since both the amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets 250 mg/125 mg and 500 mg/125 mg contain the same amount of clavulanic acid (125 mg, as the potassium salt), two 250 mg/125 mg tablets are not equivalent to one amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablet 500 mg/125 mg. The amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablet 250 mg/125 mg and the 250 mg/62.5 mg chewable tablet should not be substituted for each other, as they are not interchangeable. The amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablet 250 mg/125 mg and the 250 mg/62.5 mg chewable tablet do not contain the same amount of clavulanic acid (as the potassium salt). The amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablet 250 mg/125 mg contains 125 mg of clavulanic acid, whereas the 250 mg/62.5 mg chewable tablet contains 62.5 mg of clavulanic acid. 2.2 Pediatric Patients Based on the amoxicillin component, amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets should be dosed as follows: Neonates and Infants Aged <12 weeks (<3 months): The recommended dose of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets is 30 mg/kg/day divided every 12 hours, based on the amoxicillin component. Experience with the 200 mg/28.5 mg per 5 mL formulation in this age group is limited, and thus, use of the 125 mg/31.25 mg per 5 mL oral suspension is recommended. Patients Aged 12 weeks (3 months) and Older: See dosing regimens provided in Table 1. The every 12 hour regimen is recommended as it is associated with significantly less diarrhea [see Clinical Studies (14.2)]. However, the every 12 hour suspension (200 mg/28.5 mg per 5 mL and 400 mg/57 mg per 5 mL) and chewable tablets (200 mg/28.5 mg and 400 mg/57 mg) contain aspartame and should not be used by phenylketonurics. Table 1: Dosing in Patients Aged 12 weeks (3 months) and Older a Each strength of suspension of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium is available as a chewable tablet for use by older children. b Duration of therapy studied and recommended for acute otitis media is 10 days. INFECTION DOSING REGIMEN Every 12 hours Every 8 hours 200 mg/28.5 mg per 5 mL or 400 mg/57 mg per 5 mL oral suspensiona 125 mg/31.25 mg per 5 mL or 250 mg/62.5 mg per 5 mL oral suspensiona Otitis mediab, sinusitis, lower respiratory tract infections, and more severe infections 45 mg/kg/day every 12 hours 40 mg/kg/day every 8 hours Less severe infections 25 mg/kg/day every 12 hours 20 mg/kg/day every 8 hours Patients Weighing 40 kg or More: Pediatric patients weighing 40 kg or more should be dosed according to adult recommendations. The amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablet 250 mg/125 mg should not be used until the child weighs at least 40 kg, due to the different amoxicillin to clavulanic acid ratios in the amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablet 250 mg/125 mg versus the amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium chewable tablet 250 mg/62.5 mg. 2.3 Patients with Renal Impairment Patients with impaired renal function do not generally require a reduction in dose unless the impairment is severe. Renal impairment patients with a glomerular filtration rate of <30 mL/min should not receive the amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets 875 mg/125 mg dose. Patients with a glomerular filtration rate of 10 to 30 mL/min should receive amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets 500 mg/125 mg or 250 mg/125 mg every 12 hours, depending on the severity of the infection. Patients with a glomerular filtration rate less than 10 mL/min should receive amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets 500 mg/125 mg or 250 mg/125 mg every 24 hours, depending on severity of the infection. Hemodialysis patients should receive amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets 500 mg/125 mg or 250 mg/125 mg every 24 hours, depending on severity of the infection. They should receive an additional dose both during and at the end of dialysis.
Use in special populations
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS Pediatric Use: Modify dose in patients 12 weeks or younger. (8.4) Renal Impairment: Dosage adjustment is recommended for severe renal impairment (GFR< 30 mL/min). (2.3, 8.6) 8.1 Pregnancy Teratogenic Effects: Pregnancy Category B. Reproduction studies performed in pregnant rats and mice given amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium (2:1 ratio formulation of amoxicillin:clavulanate) at oral doses up to 1200 mg/kg/day revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus due to amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium. The amoxicillin doses in rats and mice (based on body surface area) were approximately 4 and 2 times the maximum recommended adult human oral dose (875 mg every 12 hours). For clavulanate, these dose multiples were approximately 9 and 4 times the maximum recommended adult human oral dose (125 mg every 8 hours). There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed. 8.2 Labor and Delivery Oral ampicillin-class antibiotics are poorly absorbed during labor. It is not known whether use of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium in humans during labor or delivery has immediate or delayed adverse effects on the fetus, prolongs the duration of labor, or increases the likelihood of the necessity for an obstetrical intervention. 8.3 Nursing Mothers Amoxicillin has been shown to be excreted in human milk. Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium use by nursing mothers may lead to sensitization of infants. Caution should be exercised when amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium is administered to a nursing woman. 8.4 Pediatric Use The safety and effectiveness of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium powder for oral suspension and chewable tablets have been established in pediatric patients. Use of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets in pediatric patients is supported by evidence from studies of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets in adults with additional data from a study of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium powder for oral suspension in pediatric patients aged 2 months to 12 years with acute otitis media [see Clinical Studies (14.2)]. Because of incompletely developed renal function in neonates and young infants, the elimination of amoxicillin may be delayed; clavulanate elimination is unaltered in this age group. Dosing of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium should be modified in pediatric patients aged <12 weeks (<3 months) [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)]. 8.5 Geriatric Use Of the 3,119 patients in an analysis of clinical studies of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium, 32% were ≥65 years old, and 14% were ≥75 years old. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of adverse reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function. 8.6 Dosing in Renal Impairment Amoxicillin is primarily eliminated by the kidney and dosage adjustment is usually required in patients with severe renal impairment (GFR <30 mL/min). See Patients with Renal Impairment (2.3) for specific recommendations in patients with renal impairment.
Pregnancy and lactation
8.3 Nursing Mothers Amoxicillin has been shown to be excreted in human milk. Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium use by nursing mothers may lead to sensitization of infants. Caution should be exercised when amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium is administered to a nursing woman.

Interactions

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS Co-administration with probenecid is not recommended. (7.1) Concomitant use of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium and oral anticoagulants may increase the prolongation of prothrombin time. (7.2) Coadministration with allopurinol increases the risk of rash. (7.3) Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium may reduce efficacy of oral contraceptives. (7.4) 7.1 Probenecid Probenecid decreases the renal tubular secretion of amoxicillin but does not delay renal excretion of clavulanic acid. Concurrent use with amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium may result in increased and prolonged blood concentrations of amoxicillin. Coadministration of probenecid is not recommended. 7.2 Oral Anticoagulants Abnormal prolongation of prothrombin time (increased international normalized ratio [INR]) has been reported in patients receiving amoxicillin and oral anticoagulants. Appropriate monitoring should be undertaken when anticoagulants are prescribed concurrently with amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium. Adjustments in the dose of oral anticoagulants may be necessary to maintain the desired level of anticoagulation. 7.3 Allopurinol The concurrent administration of allopurinol and amoxicillin increases the incidence of rashes in patients receiving both drugs as compared to patients receiving amoxicillin alone. It is not known whether this potentiation of amoxicillin rashes is due to allopurinol or the hyperuricemia present in these patients. 7.4 Oral Contraceptives Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium may affect intestinal flora, leading to lower estrogen reabsorption and reduced efficacy of combined oral estrogen/progesterone contraceptives. 7.5 Effects on Laboratory Tests High urine concentrations of amoxicillin may result in false-positive reactions when testing for the presence of glucose in urine using CLINITEST®, Benedict’s Solution, or Fehling’s Solution. Since this effect may also occur with amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium, it is recommended that glucose tests based on enzymatic glucose oxidase reactions be used. Following administration of amoxicillin to pregnant women, a transient decrease in plasma concentration of total conjugated estriol, estriol-glucuronide, conjugated estrone, and estradiol has been noted.

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number ANDA091569
Agency product number Q42OMW3AT8
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 65862-502,65862-503,65862-501
Date Last Revised 19-06-2018
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
RXCUI 562508
Marketing authorisation holder Aurobindo Pharma Limited