Data from The American Journal of Medicine - Curated by Toby Galbraith - Date available

True resistant hypertension must be distinguished from apparent resistant hypertension, of which important causes include medication nonadherence, illicit drug use and alcoholism. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring should be considered to rule out white coat hypertension. The pathogenesis is multifactorial, but the 2 pivotal factors include volume excess and the myriad effects of aldosterone. Aldosterone increases vascular tone due to endothelial dysfunction and enhances the pressor response to catecholamines. It also plays a crucial role in vascular remodeling of small and large arteries. Aldosterone also promotes collagen synthesis, which leads to increased arterial stiffness and elevation of blood pressure. Because aldosterone has been demonstrated to modulate baroreflex resetting, in cases of severe hypertension, there would be fewer compensatory mechanisms available to offset the blood pressure elevation.

Data sources

Read abstract on library site


You will need to login, to leave a comment. is not monitored for collection of adverse event reports. Any adverse events should be reported to your national reporting agency and/or the manufacturer.

Learning Zones

An Learning Zone (LZ) is an area of the site dedicated to providing detailed self-directed medical education about a disease, condition or procedure.


Learn about the complex factors influencing development of obesity.

Visit Obesity


See information on best practice in solid organ transplantation, and expert discussions on related hot topics.

Visit Transplantation

Related Content