Long-term Outcomes

Transplantation is now recognised as the best therapy for patients with acute and chronic end-stage organ failure and its implementation has improved the lives of many patients worldwide, improving quality of life, and often life expectancy. However, overall life expectancy remains significantly reduced. Despite marked improvements in surgical outcomes and the rate of rejection, cardiovascular disease, cancer and infection remain significant morbidities and are the three main causes of death following transplantation (Chapman et al., 2013). In this section, we break down the reasons for these causes of mortality and discuss options for improving long-term outcomes.