Pancreas transplantation is a treatment option usually for type 1 diabetes patients. Four different procedures are available: simultaneous pancreas–kidney transplantation, pancreas transplant alone, pancreas after kidney transplantation, and islet cell transplantation.

Single organ pancreas transplantation, or combined pancreas and kidney transplantation, is a common procedure in many countries worldwide (Mitta and Gough, 2014).

The most common indication for pancreas transplantation (pancreas alone, simultaneous pancreas-kidney and pancreas-after-kidney) in the US for 2015 was type 1 diabetes (82.4%), followed by type 2 diabetes (8.1%) and other (9.5%). Type 1 diabetes (84.0%) and type 2 diabetes (9.7%) were also the most common indications for combined pancreas and kidney transplantation (SPK) in the US during 2015 (Kandaswamy et al., 2017).

Allogeneic pancreatic islet cell transplantation is also an option for treatment of type 1 diabetes (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) [IPG257], 2008; Health Quality Ontario, 2015). In addition, autologous pancreatic islet cell transplantation after pancreatectomy can improve glycaemic control in patients with chronic pancreatitis or benign pancreatic endocrine tumours. (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) [IPG274], 2008). There are only very few centres worldwide which perform islet cell transplantation.