Lung transplantation is an established treatment for patients with end-stage pulmonary disease from multiple causes (Orens & Garrity, 2009). The most common primary indications for adult lung transplantation identified by registry data from the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) (n=45,689) (Yusen et al., 2015) were:
Lung transplantation is associated with significant mortality and morbidity, and long-term survival is much lower than observed for patients receiving kidney, liver or heart transplants (Orens & Garrity, 2009; Fredericks et al., 2014).
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