Considerable progress has been made in recent years using induced human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) for regenerative medicine and tissue engineering (Fisher & Mauck, 2013; Tabar & Studer, 2014).
Figure 22 outlines requirements for the generation of organs using tissue engineering (Moreno-Borchart, 2004).
Induced human PSCs have been reprogrammed into a variety of cell types:
Intestinal organoids derived from induced human PSCs or embryonic stem cells, when grafted into immunodeficient mice form functional mature human intestinal epithelium (Watson et al., 2014). Human intestinal organoids in combination with an artificial polymer scaffold offer an alternative approach to generating tissue engineered human intestine, although considerable progress needs to be made in this area before a fully functional, tissue-engineered, human intestine is made (Finkbeiner et al., 2015).
Recent progress in the generation of kidneys from stem cells has been reported in the construction of a urine excretion pathway using porcine stem cell-generated embryonic kidneys. The procedure involved connecting the recipient ureter with a bladder grown from a transplanted embryonic cloaca; a technique known as 'stepwise peristaltic ureter'. In addition to urine excretion, the newly generated kidney continued to grow (Yokote et al., 2015).