Organs Grown Ex Vivo or in Donor Animals

Based on experimental results described by Yokote et al. (2015) it may be possible to generate a kidney de novo using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) derived from a patient with end stage renal disease (ESRD). The scheme is outlined in the figure below (Kemter & Wolf, 2015).

Use of pigs for de novo generation of a kidney from human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) (Kemter and Wolf, 2015).

Figure 23: Use of pigs for de novo generation of a kidney from human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) (Kemter & Wolf, 2015).
Key: ESRD, end stage renal disease; KPT, kidney progenitor tissue; SWPU, stepwise peristaltic ureter.

Human mesenchymal stem cells are initially injected into porcine embryonic metanephroi as a niche for the generation of kidney progenitor tissue (KPT). The hMSC-derived KPT is grafted into the omentum of a patient with ESRD for further growth and differentiation. In the final step, the de novo kidney is finally connected to the patient’s ureter to enable urine excretion (Kemter & Wolf, 2015).