Based on experimental results described by Yokote et al., (2015) it may be possible to generate a kidney de novo using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) derived from a patient with end stage renal disease (ESRD). The scheme is outlined in the figure below (Kemter and Wolf, 2015).
Human mesenchymal stem cells are initially injected into porcine embryonic metanephroi as a niche for the generation of kidney progenitor tissue (KPT). The hMSC-derived KPT is grafted into the omentum of a patient with ESRD for further growth and differentiation. In the final step, the de novo kidney is finally connected to the patient’s ureter to enable urine excretion (Kemter and Wolf, 2015).