Invasive treatment 

Invasive treatments offer an option when drugs are contraindicated, poorly tolerated or not fully effective. 

Invasive treatments offer an option when drugs are contraindicated, poorly tolerated or not fully effective. The ESC/EHRA guidelines, for instance, suggest considering atrioventricular node ablation to control heart rate in patients unresponsive or intolerant to intensive rate and rhythm control therapy. These patients will, however, become pacemaker dependent.5 This Learning Zone summaries the main invasive approaches used to manage AF.

Read about excision of the left atrial appendage in the next section


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