Pain References

Ahlers SJ, van Gulik L, van der Veen AM, van Dongen HP, Bruins P, Belitser SV, et al. Comparison of different pain scoring systems in critically ill patients in a general ICU. Crit Care. 2008;12:R15.

Barr J, Fraser GL, Puntillo K, Ely EW, Gélinas C, Dasta JF, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of pain, agitation, and delirium in adult patients in the intensive care unit. Crit Care Med. 2013;41:263–306.

Breivik H, Borchgrevink PC, Allen SM, Rosselund LA, Romundstad L, Breivik Hals EK et al. Assessment of pain. Br J Anaesth. 2008;101:17–24.

Chanques G, Payen F, Mercier G, de Lattre, Viel E, Jung B et al. Assessing pain in non-intubated critically ill patients unable to self report: an adaptation of the Behavioral Pain Scale. Intensive Care Med. 2009;35:2060–7.

DAS-Taskforce 2015, Baron R, Binder A, Biniek R, Braune S, Buerkle H, et al. Evidence and consensus based guideline for the management of delirium, analgesia, and sedation in intensive care medicine. Revision 2015 (DAS-Guideline 2015) - short version. Ger Med Sci. 2015;13:Doc19.

Gélinas C, Fillion L, Puntillo KA, Viens C, Fortier M. Validation of the critical-care pain observation tool in adult patients. Am J Crit Care. 2006;15:420–7.

Payen JF, Bru O, Bosson JL, Lagrasta A, Novel E, Deschaux I et al. Assessing pain in critically ill sedated patients by using a behavioural pain scale. Crit Care Med. 2001;29:2258–63.

Vincent JL, Shehabi Y, Walsh TS, Pandharipande PP, Ball JA, Spronk P, et al. Comfort and patient-centred care without excessive sedation: the eCASH concept. Intensive Care Med. 2016;42:962–71.