Management of patients within the ICU has changed considerably over the past 30 years. In this section, you can explore the progress that has been made in PAD management as well as an overview of the factors affecting PAD within the ICU and the benefits associated with managing it. The treatment of patients within ICU is moving away from the use of deep sedation and towards a goal of patient-centred care. In the final part of this section you can read the latest thoughts and recommendations on managing patient care such as the promotion of sleep and early mobilisation, and the avoidance of unnecessary chemical and physical restraint. The benefits of effective PAD management in the ICU are shared as are the latest recommendations from the PADIS guidelines, which now take a greater look at the issues of immobility and sleep disruption.