Delirium References

American Psychiatry Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th edition (DSM-5). 2013.

Barr J, Fraser GL, Puntillo K, Ely EW, Gélinas C, Dasta JF, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of pain, agitation, and delirium in adult patients in the intensive care unit. Crit Care Med. 2013;41:263–306.

Bergeon N, Dubois MJ, Dumont M, Dial S, Skrobik Y. Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist: evaluation of a new screening tool. Intensive Care Med. 2001;27:859–64.

Brummel NE, Girard TD, Ely EW, Pandharipande MD, Morandi A, Hughes CG et al. Feasibility and safety of early combined cognitive and physical therapy for critically ill medical and surgical patients: the activity and cognitive therapy in ICU (ACT-ICU) trial. Intensive Care Med. 2014;40:370–9.

Brummel NE, Balas MC, Morandi A, Ferrante LE, Gill TM, Ely EW. Understanding and reducing disability in older adults following critical illness. Crit Care Med. 2015;43:1265–75.

DAS-Taskforce 2015, Baron R, Binder A, Biniek R, Braune S, Buerkle H, et al. Evidence and consensus based guideline for the management of delirium, analgesia, and sedation in intensive care medicine. Revision 2015 (DAS-Guideline 2015) - short version. Ger Med Sci. 2015;13:Doc19.

Ely EW, Margolin R, Francis J, May L, Truman B, Dittus R et al. Evaluation of delirium in critically ill patients: validation of the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU). Crit Care Med. 2001;29:1370–9.

Girard TD, Jackson JC, Pandharipande PP, Pun BT, Thompson JL, Shintani AK et al. Delirium as a predictor of long-term cognitive impairment in survivors of critical illness. Crit Care Med. 2010; 38:1513–20.

Inouye SK, van Dyck CH, Alessi CA, Balkin S, Siegal AP, Horwitz RI. Clarifying confusion: the confusion assessment method. Ann Intern Med. 1990;113:941–8.

Lipowski ZJ. Delirium in the elderly patient. N Engl J Med. 1989;320:578–82.

Meagher DJ, Trzepacz PT. Motoric subtypes of delirium. Semin Clin Neuropsychiatry. 2000;5:75–85.

Nelson S, Muzyk AJ, Bucklin MH, Brudney S, Gagliardi JP. Defining the role of dexmedetomidine in the prevention of delirium in the intensive care unit. Biomed Res Int. 2015; 2015:635737.

Ouimet S, Riker R, Bergeon N, Cossette M, Kavanagh B, Skrobik Y. Subsyndromal delirium in the ICU: evidence for a disease spectrum. Intensive Care Med. 2007;33:1007–13.

Page VJ, Ely EW, Gates S, Zhao XB, Alce T, Shintani A et al. Efficacy of intravenous haloperidol on the duration of delirium and coma in critically ill patients (HOPE-ICU): a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Respir Med. 2013;1:515–23.

Park JB, Bang SH, Chee HK, Kim JS, Lee SA, Shin JK. Efficacy and safety of dexmedetomidine for postoperative delirium in adult cardiac surgery on cardiopulmonary bypass. Korean J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2014;47:249–54.

Reade MC and Finfer S. Sedation and delirium in the intensive care unit. N Engl J Med. 2014;370:444–54.

Reade MC, Eastwood GM, Bellomo R, Bailey M, Bersten A, Cheung B et al. Effect of dexmedetomidine added to standard of care on ventilator-free time in patients with agitated delirium. A randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2016; 315:1460–8.

Rosenzweig AB, Sittambalam CD. A new approach to the prevention and treatment of delirium in elderly patients in the intensive care unit. J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect. 2015; 5:27950.

Serafim RB, Dutra MF, Saddy F, Tura B, de Castro JEC, Villarinho LC et al. Delirium in postoperative nonventilated intensive care patients: risk factors and outcomes. Ann Intensive Care. 2012;2:51.

Shehabi Y, Chan L, Kadiman S, Alias A, Ismail WN, Tan MA et al. Sedation depth and long-term mortality in mechanically ventilated critically ill adults: a prospective longitudinal multicentre cohort study. Intensive Care Med. 2013c;39:910–8.

Slooter AJC, van de Leur and Zaal IJ. Delirium in critically ill patients. Handb Clin Neurol. 2017;141:449–66.

Su X, Meng Z-T, Wu X-H, Cui F, Li H-L, Wang D-X et al. Dexmedetomidine for prevention of delirium in elderly patients after non-cardiac surgery: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2016; 388:1893–902.

Van den Boogaard M, Pickkers P, Slooter AJC, Kuiper MA, Spronk PE, van der Voort PHJ et al. Development and validation of PRE-DELIRIC (PREdiction of DELIRium in Icu patients) delirium prediction model for intensive care patients: observational multicentre study. BMJ. 2012;344:e420.

Van Rompaey B, Elseviers MM, Schuurmans MJ, Shortridge-Baggett LM, Truijen S, Bossaert L. Risk factors for delirium in intensive care patients: a prospective cohort study. Crit Care. 2009; 13:R77.

Vincent JL, Shehabi Y, Walsh TS, Pandharipande PP, Ball JA, Spronk P, et al. Comfort and patient-centred care without excessive sedation: the eCASH concept. Intensive Care Med. 2016;42:962–71..

Zaal IL, Devlin JW, Hazelbag M, Klein Klouwenberg PM, van der Kooi AW, Ong DS, et al. Benzodiazepine-associated delirium in critically ill adults. Intensive Care Med. 2015;41:130–7.