Agitation references

Balzer F, Weiß B, Kumpf O, Treskatsch S, Spies C, Wernecke K-D et al. Early deep sedation is associated with decreased in-hospital and two-year follow-up survival. Crit Care. 2015; 19:197.

Barr J, Fraser GL, Puntillo K, Ely EW, Gélinas C, Dasta JF, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of pain, agitation, and delirium in adult patients in the intensive care unit. Crit Care Med. 2013;41:263–306.

DAS-Taskforce 2015, Baron R, Binder A, Biniek R, Braune S, Buerkle H, et al. Evidence and consensus based guideline for the management of delirium, analgesia, and sedation in intensive care medicine. Revision 2015 (DAS-Guideline 2015) - short version. Ger Med Sci. 2015;13:Doc19.

Grounds M, Snelson C, Whitehouse T, Willson J, Tulloch L, Linartova L, et al. Intensive Care Society review of best practice for analgesia and sedation in the critical care. 2014. (accessed 24 January 2017).

Jaber S, Chanques G, Altairac C, Sebbane M, Vergne C, Perrigault PF, et al. A prospective study of agitation in a medical-surgical ICU: incidence, risk factors, and outcomes. Chest. 2005;128(4):2749–57.

Kress JP, Pohlman AS, O’Connor MF, Hall JB. Daily interruption of sedative infusions in critically ill patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. N Engl J Med. 2000;342:1471–7.

Mehta S, Burry L, Cook D, Fergusson D, Steinberg M, Granton J et al. Daily sedation interruption in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients cared for with a sedation protocol. JAMA. 2012;308:1985–92.

Riker RR, Picard JT, Fraser GL. Prospective evaluation of the Sedation-Agitation Scale for adult critically ill patients. Crit Care Med. 1999;27:1325–9.

Riker RR, Shehabi Y, Bokesh PM, Ceraso D, Wisemandle W, Koura F, et al. Dexmedetomidine vs midazolam for sedation of critically ill patients: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2009;301:489–99.

Ryder-Lewis MC and Nelson KM. Reliability of the Sedation-Agitation Scale between nurses and doctors. Intensive Crit Care Nurs. 2008;24:211–7.

Sessler C, Gosnell MS, Grap MJ, Brophy GM, O’Neal PV, Keane KA, et al. The Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale: validity and reliability in adult intensive care unit patients. Am J Respir Crit Care. 2002;166:1338–44

Shehabi Y, Bellomo R, Reade MC, Bailey M, Bass F, Howe B, et al. Sedation Practice in Intensive Care Evaluation (SPICE) Study Investigators; ANZICS Clinical Trials Group. Early intensive care sedation predicts long-term mortality in ventilated critically ill patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012;186(8):724–31.

Shehabi Y, Bellomo R, Mehta S, Riker R, Takala J. Intensive care sedation: the past, present and the future. Crit Care. 2013a;17:322.

The TEAM Study Investigators. Early mobilization and recovery in mechanically ventilated patients in the ICU: a bi-national, multi-centre, prospective cohort study. Crit Care. 2015;19:81.

Vincent JL, Shehabi Y, Walsh TS, Pandharipande PP, Ball JA, Spronk P, et al. Comfort and patient-centred care without excessive sedation: the eCASH concept. Intensive Care Med. 2016;42:962–71.