Sphingosine 1-phosphate

Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a phospholipid that can exert regulatory effects on various biological processes via binding to five transmembrane S1P receptors (S1P1–5) (Argollo et al., 2017; Currò et al., 2017; Nielsen et al., 2016). Levels of S1P are increased at inflammatory sites (Argollo et al., 2017) and S1P1 receptors are expressed on lymphocytes (Nielsen et al., 2016). When S1P binds to S1P1 on lymphocytes in lymph nodes, the lymphocytes are released from the lymph nodes and migrate to inflammatory sites, where they can contribute to immune-mediated pathology (Currò et al., 2017; Nielsen et al., 2016).

Video 5. Animation showing the role of S1P in lymphocyte migration and inflammation (Nielsen et al., 2016).

Preventing the binding of S1P to S1P1 may have therapeutic effects in IBD by stopping lymphocytes from leaving lymph nodes (Currò et al., 2017; Nielsen et al., 2016).