The use of inotropes for correcting haemodynamic dysfunction in patients with congestive heart failure has been described over many decades. However, negative or insufficient data has been collected on the effects of cardiac glycosides, catecholamines, and phosphodiesterase inhibitors on quality of life and survival. More recently, the calcium sensitiser and potassium channel opener levosimendan has been proposed as a safer inodilator.
This series of tutorials, listed below, focus on how to use safely and effectively levosimendan in acute and advanced heart failure.
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