Inotropes or inodilators in Heart Failure with reduced Ejection Fraction (HFrEF): what to use, on whom, when and how? What is available

Zoltán Papp looks at the current management of acute heart failure and the 2016 ESC guidelines and the inotropic agents dobutamine, dopamine, levisomendan and phosphodiesterase III (PDE III) inhibitors and their use in cases with hypotension and hypofusion.

 

ESC Heart Failure 2017 resources


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