Inotropes or inodilators in Heart Failure with reduced Ejection Fraction (HFrEF): what to use, on whom, when and how? The therapeutic needs
Veil-Pekka Horjola looks at the clinical indications for inotropic agents detailing the main problem with these is hypoperfusion (hypotension, decreased renal function). He discussed cardiogenic shock – while the prognosis has slowly improved over the past few decades, mortality is still high.
Zoltán Papp looks at the current management of acute heart failure and the 2016 ESC guidelines and the inotropic agents dobutamine, dopamine, levisomendan and phosphodiesterase III (PDE III) inhibitors.