Acute Heart Failure References

Abi Khalil C, Sulaiman K, Singh R, Jayyousi A, Asaad N, AlHabib KF, et al. BMI is inversely correlated to the risk of mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes hospitalized for acute heart failure: Findings from the Gulf aCute heArt failuRE (Gulf-CARE) registry. Int J Cardiol. 2017;241:262–9.

Agra Bermejo RM, González Ferreiro R, Varelo Román A, Gómez Otero I, Kreidieh O, Conde Sabarís P, et al. Nutritional status is related to heart failure severity and hospital readmissions in acute heart failure. Int J Cardiol. 2017;230:108–14.

Algarni KD, Elhenawy AM, Magani M, et al. Decreasing prevalence but increasing importance of left ventricular dysfunction and reoperative surgery in prediction of mortality in coronary artery bypass surgery: Trends over 18 years. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2012;144:340–6.

Allen LA, Stevenson LW, Grady KL, Goldstein NE, Matlock DD, Arnold RM, et al. Decision making in advanced heart failure: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2012;17;125(15):1928–52.

Allen LA, Gheorghiade M, Reid KJ, Dunlay SM, Chan PS, Hauptman PJ, et al. Identifying patients hospitalized with heart failure at risk for unfavorable future quality of life. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2011;4(4):389–98.

Altenberger J, Gustafsson F, Harjola VP, Karason K, Kindgen-Milles D, Kivikko M et al. Levosimendan in Acute and Advanced Heart Failure: An Appraisal of the Clinical Database and Evaluation of Its Therapeutic Applications. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2018;71(3):129–36.

Ambrosy AP, Fonarow GC, Butler J, Chioncel O, Greene SJ, Vaduganathan M, et al. The global health and economic burden of hospitalizations for heart failure. Lessons learned from hospitalized heart failure registries. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014;63:1123–33.

Arrigo M, Gayat E, Parenica J, Ishihara S, Zhang J, Choi DJ, et al. Precipitating factors and 90-day outcome of acute heart failure: a report from the intercontinental GREAT registry. Eur J Heart Fail. 2017;19(2):201–8.

Avellino A, Collins SP, Fermann GJ. Risk stratification and short term prognosis in acute heart failure syndromes: a review of novel biomarkers. Biomarkers 2011;16(5):379–92.

Bart BA, Goldsmith SR, Lee KL, Redfield MM, Felker GM, O'Connor CM, et al. Cardiorenal rescue study in acute decompensated heart failure: rationale and design of CARRESS-HF, for the Heart Failure Clinical Research Network. J Card Fail. 2012;18(3):176–82.

Biering-Sørensen T, Querejeta Roca G, Hegde SM, Shah AM, Claggett B, Mosley TH Jr, et al. Left ventricular ejection time is an independent predictor of incident heart failure in a community-based cohort. Eur J Heart Fail. 2018;20(7):1106–14.

Bleumink GS, Knetsch AM, Sturkenboom MC, Straus SM, Hofman A, Deckers JW, et al. Quantifying the heart failure epidemic: prevalence, incidence rate, lifetime risk and prognosis of heart failure. The Rotterdam Study. Eur Heart J. 2004;25(18):1614–9.

Chaudhry SP, Stewart GC. Advanced heart failure: Prevalence, natural history, and prognosis. Heart Fail Clin. 2016;12(3):323–33.

Chioncel O, Mebazaa A, Harjola VP, Coats AJ, Piepoli MF, Crespo-Leiro MG, et al. Clinical phenotypes and outcome of patients hospitalized for acute heart failure: the ESC Heart Failure Long-Term Registry. Eur J Heart Fail. 2017;19(10):1242–54.

Cook C, Cole G, Asaria P, Jabbour R, Francis DP. The annual global economic burden of heart failure. Int J Cardiol. 2014;171(3):369–76.

De Backer D, Biston P, Devriendt J, Madl C, Chochrad D, Aldecoa C, et al. Comparison of dopamine and norepinephrine in the treatment of shock. N Engl J Med. 2010;362:779–89.

De la Espriella R, Santas E, Miñana G, Bodí V, Valero E, Payá R, et al. Functional mitral regurgitation predicts short-term adverse events in patients with acute heart failure and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Am J Cardiol. 2017;120(8):1344–8.

Drazner MH, Rame JE, Stevenson LW, Dries DL. Prognostic importance of elevated jugular venous pressure and a third heart sound in patients with heart failure. N Engl J Med. 2001;345(8):574–81.

Farmakis D, Alvarez J, Gal TB, Brito D, Fedele F, Fonseca C, et al. Levosimendan beyond inotropy and acute heart failure: Evidence of pleiotropic effects on the heart and other organs: An expert panel position paper. Int J Cardiol. 2016;222:303–12.

Felker GM, Lee KL, Bull DA, Redfield MM, Stevenson LW, Goldsmith SR, et al. Diuretic strategies in patients with acute decompensated heart failure. N Engl J Med. 2011;364:797–805.

Grodin JL, Carter S, Bart BA, Goldsmith SR, Drazner MH, Tang WHW. Direct comparison of ultrafiltration to pharmacological decongestion in heart failure: a per-protocol analysis of CARRESS-HF. Eur J Heart Fail. 2018;20(7):1148–56.

Harjola VP, Parissis J, Brunner-La Rocca HP, Čelutkienė J, Chioncel O, Collins SP, et al. Comprehensive in-hospital monitoring in acute heart failure: applications for clinical practice and future directions for research. A statement from the Acute Heart Failure Committee of the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur J Heart Fail. 2018;20(7):1081–99.

Harjola VP, Mullens W, Banaszewski M, Bauersachs J, Brunner-La Rocca HP, Chioncel O, et al. Organ dysfunction, injury and failure in acute heart failure: from pathophysiology to diagnosis and management. A review on behalf of the Acute Heart Failure Committee of the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur J Heart Fail. 2017;19(7):821–36.

Honda S, Nagai T, Nishimura K, Nakai M, Honda Y, Nakano H, et al. Long-term prognostic significance of urinary sodium concentration in patients with acute heart failure. Int J Cardiol. 2018;254:189–94.

Horiuchi Y, Tanimoto S, Latif AHMM, Urayama KY, Aoki J, Yahagi K, et al. Identifying novel phenotypes of acute heart failure using cluster analysis of clinical variables. Int J Cardiol. 2018;262:57–63.

Jin M, Wei S, Wang K, Xu X, Yao W, Zhang H, et al. Predictors of long-term mortality in patients with acute heart failure. Int Heart J. 2017;58(3):409–15.

Johnson FL. Pathophysiology and Etiology of Heart Failure. Cardiol Clin. 2014;32(1):9–19.

Kiernan MS, Stevens SR, Tang WHW, Butler J, Anstrom KJ, Birati EY, et al. Determinants of diuretic responsiveness and associated outcomes during acute heart failure hospitalization: an analysis from the NHLBI heart failure network clinical trials. J Card Fail. 2018;[Epub ahead of print].

Kociol RD, Pang PS, Gheorghiade M, Fonarow GC, O'Connor CM, Felker GM. Troponin elevation in heart failure: prevalence, mechanisms, and clinical implications. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;56(14):1071–8.

Komamura K. Similarities and differences between the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of diastolic and systolic heart failure. Cardiol Res Pract. 2013;2013:824135.

Kurmani S, Squire I. Acute heart failure: Definition, classification and epidemiology. Curr Heart Fail Rep. 2017;14:385–92.

Legrand M, Ludes PO, Massy Z, Rossignol P, Parenica J, Park JJ, et al. Association between hypo- and hyperkalemia and outcome in acute heart failure patients: the role of medications. Clin Res Cardiol. 2018;107(3):214–21.

Maggioni AP, Dahlström U, Filippatos G, Chioncel O, Leiro MC, Drozdz J, et al. EURObservational Research Programme:regional differences and 1-year follow-up results of the Heart Failure Pilot Survey (ESC-HF Pilot). Eur J Heart Fail. 2013;15:808–17.

Marchetti M, Benedetti A, Mimoz O, Lardeur JY, Guenezan J, Marjanovic N. Predictors of 30-day mortality in patients admitted to ED for acute heart failure. Am J Emerg Med. 2017;35(3):444–7.

Marti CN, Georgiopoulou VV, Kalogeropoulos AD. Acute heart failure: Patient characteristics and pathophysiology. Curr Heart Fail Rep. 2013;10(4):427–33.

Matsue Y, Damman K, Voors AA, Kagiyama N, Yamaguchi T, Kuroda S, et al. Time-to-flurosemide treatment and mortality in patients hospitalized with acute heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017;69(25):3042–51.

Matsushita M, Shirakabe A, Hata N, Shinada T, Kobayashi N, Tomita K, et al. Associated between the body mass index and the clinical findings in patients with acute heart failure: evaluation of the obesity paradox in patients with severely decompressed acute heart failure. Heart Vessels. 2017;32(5):600–8.

McCabe N, Butler J, Dunbar SB, Higgins M, Reilly C. Six-minute walk distance predicts 30-day readmission after acute heart failure hospitalization. Heart Lung. 2017;46(4):287–92.

McMurray J, Stewart S. Epidemiology, aetiology, and prognosis of heart failure. Heart. 2000;83(5):596–602.

Mebazaa A, Nieminen MS, Filippatos GS, Cleland JG, Salon JE, Thakkar R, et al. Levosimendan vs. dobutamine: outcomes for acute heart failure patients on β-blockers in SURVIVE. Eur J Heart Fail. 2009;11:304–11.

Mebazaa A, Pitsis AA, Rudiger A, Toller W, Longrois D, Ricksten S-E, et al. Clinical review: practical recommendations on the management of perioperative heart failure in cardiac surgery. Critical Care. 2010;14:201–14.

Mentz RJ & O'Connor CM. Pathophysiology and clinical evaluation of acute heart failure. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2016;13(1):28–35.

Mosterd A, Hoes AW. Clinical epidemiology of heart failure. Heart. 2007;93:1137–46.

Miró Ò, Martínez G, Masip J, Gil V, Martín-Sánchez FJ, Llorens P, et al. Effects on short term outcome of non-invasive ventilation use in the emergency department to treat patients with acute heart failure: A propensity score-based analysis of the EAHFE Registry. Eur J Intern Med. 2018;53:45–51.

Mueller C, Christ M, Cowie M, Cullen L, Maisel AS, Masip J, et al. European Society of Cardiology – Acute Cardiovascular Care Association position paper on acute heart failure: a call for interdisciplinary care. Eur Heart J. 2017;6(1):81–6.

Mullens W, Abrahams Z, Francis GS, Sokos G, Taylor DO, Starling RC, et al. Importance of venous congestion for worsening of renal function in advanced decompensated heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009;53(7):589–96.

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Chronic heart failure in adults: management. 2010. Available from (accessed August 2018).

Nieminen MS, Brutsaert D, Dickstein K, Drexler H, Follath F, Harjola V-P, et al. EuroHeart Failure Survey II (EHFS II): a survey on hospitalized acute heart failure patients: description of population. Eur Heart J. 2006;27: 2725–36.

Nieminen MS, Buerke M, Cohen-Solál A, Costa S, Édes I, Erlikh A, et al. The role of levosimendan in acute heart failure complicating acute coronary syndrome: A review and expert consensus opinion. Int J Cardiol. 2016;218:150–7.

Packer M, O'Connor C, McMurray JJV, Wittes J, Abraham WT, Anker SD, et al. Effect of ularitide on cardiovascular mortality in acute heart failure. N Engl J Med. 2017;376(20):1956–64.

Papp Z, Édes I, Fruhwald S, De Hert SG, Salmenperä M, Leppikangas H, et al. Levosimendan: molecular mechanisms and clinical implications: consensus of experts on the mechanisms of action of levosimendan. Int J Cardiol. 2012;159(2):82–7.

Park D, McManus D, Darling C, Goldberg JH, Gore JM, Lessard D, et al. Recent trends in the characteristics and prognosis of patients hospitalized with acute heart failure. Clin Epidemiol. 2011;3:295–303.

Platz E, Jhund PS, Campbell RT, McMurray JJ. Assessment and prevalence of pulmonary oedema in contemporary acute heart failure trials: a systematic review. Eur J Heart Fail. 2015;17(9):906–16.

Ponikowski P, Voors AA, Anker SD, Bueno H, Cleland JGF, Coats AJS, et al. 2016 ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure. Eur Heart J 2016;18:891–975. Available at

Qiu J, Jia L, Hao Y, Huang S, Ma Y, Li X, et al. Efficacy and safety of levosimendan in patients with acute right heart failure: A meta-analysis. Life Sci. 2017;184:30–6.

Russell FM, Ehrman RR. A modified lung and cardiac ultrasound protocol saves time and rules in the diagnosis of acute heart failure. J Emerg Med. 2017;52(6):839–45.

Schiff GD, Fung S, Speroff T, McNutt RA. Decompensated heart failure: symptoms, patterns of onset, and contributing factors. Am J Med. 2003;114(8):625–30.

Shah P, Pellicori P, Cuthbert J, Clark AL. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment for decompensated heart failure: what is new? Curr Heart Fail Resp. 2017;14:147–57.

Shang G, Yang X, Song D, Ti Y, Shang Y, Wang Z, et al. Effects of levosimendan on patients with heart failure complicating acute coronary syndrome: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Cardiovasc Drugs. 2017;17(6):453–63.

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Tanai E & Frantz S. Pathophysiology of heart failure. Compr Physiol. 2015;6:187–214.

Thorvaldsen T, Claggett BL, Shah A, Cheng S, Agarwal SK, Wruck LM, et al. Predicting risk in patients hospitalized for acute decompensated heart failure and preserved ejection fraction: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study Heart Failure Community Surveillance. Circ Heart Fail. 2017;10(12). pii: e003992.

Wakai A, McCabe A, Kidney R, Brooks SC, Seupaul RA, Diercks DB, et al. Nitrates for acute heart failure syndromes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;8:CD005151.

Yip G, Wang M, Zhang Y, Fung JW, Ho PY, Sanderson JE. Left ventricular long axis function in diastolic heart failure is reduced in both diastole and systole: time for a redefinition? Heart. 2002;87(2):121–5.

Zhou S, Zhang L, Li J. Effect of levosimendan in patients with acute decompensated heart failure: A meta-analysis. Herz. 2018; [Epub ahead of print].



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