Data from International Archives of Allergy and Immunology - Curated by EPG Health - Date available 29 April 2017


Free full text

Original date published

29 April 2017

Original format

Epub ahead of print


A sex-related switch in the prevalence of asthma from childhood (male predominance) to adulthood (female predominance) has been described, but for allergic rhinitis this remains unclear. We aimed to examine sex- and age-group-specific differences in allergic rhinitisprevalence by systematically evaluating studies from across the globe.


A systematic search of MEDLINE and Embase for population-based cross-sectional studies was performed regardless of the language of publication. The search was restricted to the present millennium (2000 to June 2014). Study quality was defined by the sampling method, response rate, sample size, and data collection method. To assess sex differences in the prevalenceof self- or parent-reported symptoms of rhinitis, calculated pooled estimates of the male-female ratio (MFR) were obtained using random-effects model meta-analyses due to heterogeneity. A meta-regression analysis was also performed.


Out of 6,539 publications identified, 67 cross-sectional population-based studies (291,726 males and 301,781 females) were included in our meta-analysis. In children (<11 years of age) significantly more boys than girls had rhinitis symptoms (MFR 1.21, 95% CI 1.17-1.25), whereas in adolescents (11 to <18 years of age) males were significantly less often affected than females (MFR 0.90, 95% CI 0.85-0.95). No sex-specific prevalence difference was observed in adults (MFR 0.96, 95% CI 0.83-1.17). These findings were consistent in all continents except in Asia, where the male predominance remained beyond childhood.


The male predominance of rhinitis prevalence in childhood changed towards a female predominance in adolescence across the globe, except in Asia. Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these cross-sectional data and examine possible determinants and underlying mechanisms.

Data sources

Read abstract on library site Access full article


You will need to login, to leave a comment. is not monitored for collection of adverse event reports. Any adverse events should be reported to your national reporting agency and/or the manufacturer.

Learning Zones

An Learning Zone (LZ) is an area of the site dedicated to providing detailed self-directed medical education about a disease, condition or procedure.

Allergic Rhinitis

Allergic Rhinitis

Allergic rhinitis causes great strain on the workforce. Help to reduce sick days and improve productivity with appropriate treatment options.

+ 4 more

EADV 2018 Highlights

EADV 2018 Highlights

EADV Congress 2018: Bringing you the latest news and insights from 27th EADV Congress, 12-16 September 2018 Paris, France.

Atopic Dermatitis

Atopic Dermatitis

The Atopic Dermatitis Knowledge Centre is an educational resource, intended for healthcare professionals, that provides credible medical information on the epidemiology, pathophysiology and burden of atopic dermatitis, as well as diagnostic techniques, treatment regimens and guideline recommendations.

Load more

Related Content