Data from Handbook of Clinical Neurology - Curated by EPG Health - Date available 09 February 2017

Availability

Pay for access, or by subscription

Original date published

9 February 2017

Original format

Print publication

Delirium is common in critically ill patients and associated with increased length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) and long-term cognitive impairment. The pathophysiology of delirium has been explained by neuroinflammation, an aberrant stress response, neurotransmitter imbalances, and neuronal network alterations. Delirium develops mostly in vulnerable patients (e.g., elderly and cognitively impaired) in the throes of a critical illness. Delirium is by definition due to an underlying condition and can be identified at ICU admission using prediction models. Treatment of delirium can be improved with frequent monitoring, as early detection and subsequent treatment of the underlying condition can improve outcome. Cautious use or avoidance of benzodiazepines may reduce the likelihood of developing delirium. Nonpharmacologic strategies with early mobilization, reducing causes for sleep deprivation, and reorientation measures may be effective in the prevention of delirium. Antipsychotics are effective in treating hallucinations and agitation, but do not reduce the duration of delirium. Combined pain, agitation, and delirium protocols seem to improve the outcome of critically ill patients and may reduce delirium incidence.

Data sources

Read abstract on library site Access full article

Comments

You will need to login, to leave a comment.

epgonline.org is not monitored for collection of adverse event reports. Any adverse events should be reported to your national reporting agency and/or the manufacturer.

Learning Zones

An epgonline.org Learning Zone (LZ) is an area of the site dedicated to providing detailed self-directed medical education about a disease, condition or procedure.

Fibrinogen Deficiency in Bleeding

Fibrinogen Deficiency in Bleeding

Fibrinogen is important for blood clot formation and breakdown. It is the first coagulant factor to be reduced to critical levels during massive trauma, cardiac surgery and postpartum haemorrhage that involve excessive bleeding. Persistent fibrinogen deficiency can lead to bleeding complications and an increased risk in mortality. This learning zone looks at both congenital and acquired fibrinogen deficiencies including indications and techniques for diagnosis, trigger level for treatment and treatment options.

Fluid Management

Fluid Management

Are you up-to-date with the latest evidence of effective procedures for fluid management?

+ 2 more

ESICM LIVES Highlights

ESICM LIVES Highlights

ESICM LIVES Congress 2018: Bringing you the latest news and insights from the 31st ESICM LIVES Congress, 20–24 October 2018 Paris, France.

Load more

Related Content