Data from FDA - Curated by Marshall Pearce - Last updated 10 October 2017

Indication(s)

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE ZOSYN is a combination product consisting of a penicillin-class antibacterial, piperacillin, and a β-lactamase inhibitor, tazobactam, indicated for the treatment of patients with moderate to severe infections caused by susceptible isolates of the designated bacteria in the conditions listed below. ZOSYN is a combination penicillin-class antibacterial and β-lactamase inhibitor indicated for treatment of: Intra-abdominal infections (1.1) Skin and skin structure infections (1.2) Female pelvic infections (1.3) Community-acquired pneumonia (1.4) Nosocomial pneumonia (1.5) Usage (1.6) To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of ZOSYN and other antibacterial drugs, ZOSYN should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria. (1.6) 1.1 Intra-abdominal Infections Appendicitis (complicated by rupture or abscess) and peritonitis caused by β-lactamase producing isolates of Escherichia coli or the following members of the Bacteroides fragilis group: B. fragilis, B. ovatus, B. thetaiotaomicron, or B. vulgatus. The individual members of this group were studied in fewer than 10 cases. 1.2 Skin and Skin Structure Infections Uncomplicated and complicated skin and skin structure infections, including cellulitis, cutaneous abscesses and ischemic/diabetic foot infections caused by β-lactamase producing isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. 1.3 Female Pelvic Infections Postpartum endometritis or pelvic inflammatory disease caused by β-lactamase producing isolates of Escherichia coli. 1.4 Community-acquired Pneumonia Community-acquired pneumonia (moderate severity only) caused by β-lactamase producing isolates of Haemophilus influenzae. 1.5 Nosocomial Pneumonia Nosocomial pneumonia (moderate to severe) caused by β-lactamase producing isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and by piperacillin/tazobactam-susceptible Acinetobacter baumannii, Haemophilus influenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Nosocomial pneumonia caused by P. aeruginosa should be treated in combination with an aminoglycoside) [see Dosage and Administration (2) ]. 1.6 Usage To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of ZOSYN and other antibacterial drugs, ZOSYN should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

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Advisory information

contraindications
4 CONTRAINDICATIONS ZOSYN is contraindicated in patients with a history of allergic reactions to any of the penicillins, cephalosporins, or β-lactamase inhibitors. Patients with a history of allergic reactions to any of the penicillins, cephalosporins, or β-lactamase inhibitors. (4)
Adverse reactions
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS The most common adverse reactions (incidence >5%) are diarrhea, constipation, nausea, headache and insomnia. (6.1) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Pfizer Inc. at 1-800-438-1985 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. During the initial clinical investigations, 2621 patients worldwide were treated with ZOSYN in phase 3 trials. In the key North American monotherapy clinical trials (n=830 patients), 90% of the adverse events reported were mild to moderate in severity and transient in nature. However, in 3.2% of the patients treated worldwide, ZOSYN was discontinued because of adverse events primarily involving the skin (1.3%), including rash and pruritus; the gastrointestinal system (0.9%), including diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting; and allergic reactions (0.5%). Table 3: Adverse Reactions from ZOSYN Monotherapy Clinical Trials System Organ Class Adverse Reaction Gastrointestinal disorders Diarrhea (11.3%) Constipation (7.7%) Nausea (6.9%) Vomiting (3.3%) Dyspepsia (3.3%) Abdominal pain (1.3%) General disorders and administration site conditions Fever (2.4%) Injection site reaction (≤1%) Rigors (≤1%) Immune system disorders Anaphylaxis (≤1%) Infections and infestations Candidiasis (1.6%) Pseudomembranous colitis (≤1%) Metabolism and nutrition disorders Hypoglycemia (≤1%) Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders Myalgia(≤1%) Arthralgia (≤1%) Nervous system disorders Headache (7.7%) Psychiatric disorders Insomnia (6.6%) Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders Rash (4.2%, including maculopapular, bullous, and urticarial) Pruritus (3.1%) Purpura (≤1%) Vascular disorders Phlebitis (1.3%) Thrombophlebitis (≤1%) Hypotension (≤1%) Flushing (≤1%) Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders Epistaxis (≤1%) Nosocomial Pneumonia Trials Two trials of nosocomial lower respiratory tract infections were conducted. In one study, 222 patients were treated with ZOSYN in a dosing regimen of 4.5 g every 6 hours in combination with an aminoglycoside and 215 patients were treated with imipenem/cilastatin (500 mg/500 mg q6h) in combination with an aminoglycoside. In this trial, treatment-emergent adverse events were reported by 402 patients, 204 (91.9%) in the piperacillin/tazobactam group and 198 (92.1%) in the imipenem/cilastatin group. Twenty-five (11.0%) patients in the piperacillin/tazobactam group and 14 (6.5%) in the imipenem/cilastatin group (p > 0.05) discontinued treatment due to an adverse event. The second trial used a dosing regimen of 3.375 g given every 4 hours with an aminoglycoside. Table 4: Adverse Reactions from ZOSYN Plus Aminoglycoside Clinical TrialsFor adverse drug reactions that appeared in both studies the higher frequency is presented. System Organ Class Adverse Reaction Blood and lymphatic system disorders Thrombocythemia (1.4%) Anemia (≤1%) Thrombocytopenia (≤1%) Eosinophilia (≤1%) Gastrointestinal disorders Diarrhea (20%) Constipation (8.4%) Nausea (5.8%) Vomiting (2.7%) Dyspepsia (1.9%) Abdominal pain (1.8%) Stomatitis (≤1%) General disorders and administration site conditions Fever (3.2%) Injection site reaction (≤1%) Infections and infestations Oral candidiasis (3.9%) Candidiasis (1.8%) Investigations BUN increased (1.8%) Blood creatinine increased (1.8%) Liver function test abnormal (1.4%) Alkaline phosphatase increased (≤1%) Aspartate aminotransferase increased (≤1%) Alanine aminotransferase increased (≤1%) Metabolism and nutrition disorders Hypoglycemia (≤1%) Hypokalemia (≤1%) Nervous system disorders Headache (4.5%) Psychiatric disorders Insomnia (4.5%) Renal and urinary disorders Renal failure (≤1%) Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders Rash (3.9%) Pruritus (3.2%) Vascular disorders Thrombophlebitis (1.3%) Hypotension (1.3%) Other trials: Nephrotoxicity In a randomized, multicenter, controlled trial in 1200 adult critically ill patients, piperacillin/tazobactam was found to be a risk factor for renal failure (odds ratio 1.7, 95% CI 1.18 to 2.43), and associated with delayed recovery of renal function as compared to other beta-lactam antibacterial drugs1[see Warnings and Precautions (5.5) ]. Pediatrics Studies of ZOSYN in pediatric patients suggest a similar safety profile to that seen in adults. In a prospective, randomized, comparative, open-label clinical trial of pediatric patients with severe intra-abdominal infections (including appendicitis and/or peritonitis), 273 patients were treated with ZOSYN (112.5 mg/kg every 8 hours) and 269 patients were treated with cefotaxime (50 mg/kg) plus metronidazole (7.5 mg/kg) every 8 hours. In this trial, treatment-emergent adverse events were reported by 146 patients, 73 (26.7%) in the ZOSYN group and 73 (27.1%) in the cefotaxime/metronidazole group. Six patients (2.2%) in the ZOSYN group and 5 patients (1.9%) in the cefotaxime/metronidazole group discontinued due to an adverse event. Adverse Laboratory Events (Seen During Clinical Trials) Of the trials reported, including that of nosocomial lower respiratory tract infections in which a higher dose of ZOSYN was used in combination with an aminoglycoside, changes in laboratory parameters include: Hematologic—decreases in hemoglobin and hematocrit, thrombocytopenia, increases in platelet count, eosinophilia, leukopenia, neutropenia. These patients were withdrawn from therapy; some had accompanying systemic symptoms (e.g., fever, rigors, chills) Coagulation—positive direct Coombs' test, prolonged prothrombin time, prolonged partial thromboplastin time Hepatic—transient elevations of AST (SGOT), ALT (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin Renal—increases in serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen Additional laboratory events include abnormalities in electrolytes (i.e., increases and decreases in sodium, potassium, and calcium), hyperglycemia, decreases in total protein or albumin, blood glucose decreased, gamma-glutamyltransferase increased, hypokalemia, and bleeding time prolonged. 6.2 Post-Marketing Experience In addition to the adverse drug reactions identified in clinical trials in Table 3 and Table 4, the following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of ZOSYN. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Hepatobiliary—hepatitis, jaundice Hematologic—hemolytic anemia, agranulocytosis, pancytopenia Immune—hypersensitivity reactions, anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions (including shock) Renal—interstitial nephritis Respiratory—eosinophilic pneumonia Skin and Appendages—erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), dermatitis exfoliative 6.3 Additional Experience with piperacillin The following adverse reaction has also been reported for piperacillin for injection: Skeletal—prolonged muscle relaxation [see Drug Interactions (7.5) ]. Post-marketing experience with ZOSYN in pediatric patients suggests a similar safety profile to that seen in adults.

Usage information

Dosing and administration
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ZOSYN should be administered by intravenous infusion over 30 minutes. The usual daily dose of ZOSYN for adults is 3.375 g every six hours totaling 13.5 g (12.0 g piperacillin/1.5 g tazobactam). (2.1) Initial presumptive treatment of patients with nosocomial pneumonia should start with ZOSYN at a dosage of 4.5 g every six hours plus an aminoglycoside, totaling 18.0 g (16.0 g piperacillin/2.0 g tazobactam). (2.2) Dosage in patients with renal impairment (≤40 mL/min of CRCL) and dialysis patients should be reduced, based on the degree of actual renal function impairment. (2.3) For children with appendicitis and/or peritonitis the recommended ZOSYN dosage is 100 mg piperacillin/12.5 mg tazobactam per kilogram of body weight, every 8 hours in pediatric patients 9 months of age and older. For pediatric patients 2 to 9 months of age, the recommended dosage is 80 mg piperacillin/10 mg tazobactam per kilogram of body weight, every 8 hours. (2.4) ZOSYN and aminoglycosides should be reconstituted, diluted, and administered separately. Co-administration via Y-site can be done under certain conditions. (2.7) 2.1 Adult Patients The usual total daily dose of ZOSYN for adults is 3.375 g every six hours totaling 13.5 g (12.0 g piperacillin/1.5 g tazobactam). The usual duration of ZOSYN treatment is from 7 to 10 days. ZOSYN should be administered by intravenous infusion over 30 minutes. 2.2 Nosocomial Pneumonia Initial presumptive treatment of patients with nosocomial pneumonia should start with ZOSYN at a dosage of 4.5 g every six hours plus an aminoglycoside, totaling 18.0 g (16.0 g piperacillin/2.0 g tazobactam). The recommended duration of ZOSYN treatment for nosocomial pneumonia is 7 to 14 days. Treatment with the aminoglycoside should be continued in patients from whom P. aeruginosa is isolated. 2.3 Renal Impairment In patients with renal impairment (creatinine clearance ≤ 40 mL/min) and dialysis patients (hemodialysis and CAPD), the intravenous dose of ZOSYN should be reduced to the degree of actual renal function impairment. The recommended daily doses of ZOSYN for patients with renal impairment are as follows: Table 1: Recommended Dosing of ZOSYN in Patients with Normal Renal Function and Renal-Impairment (As total grams piperacillin/tazobactam) Renal Function (creatinine clearance, mL/min) All Indications (except nosocomial pneumonia) Nosocomial Pneumonia >40 mL/min 3.375 q 6 h 4.5 q 6 h 20–40 mL/minCreatinine clearance for patients not receiving hemodialysis 2.25 q 6 h 3.375 q 6 h <20 mL/min 2.25 q 8 h 2.25 q 6 h Hemodialysis0.75 g (0.67 g piperacillin/0.08 g tazobactam) should be administered following each hemodialysis session on hemodialysis days 2.25 q 12 h 2.25 q 8 h CAPD 2.25 q 12 h 2.25 q 8 h For patients on hemodialysis, the maximum dose is 2.25 g every twelve hours for all indications other than nosocomial pneumonia and 2.25 g every eight hours for nosocomial pneumonia. Since hemodialysis removes 30% to 40% of the administered dose, an additional dose of 0.75 g ZOSYN (0.67 g piperacillin/0.08 g tazobactam) should be administered following each dialysis period on hemodialysis days. No additional dosage of ZOSYN is necessary for CAPD patients. 2.4 Pediatric Patients For children with appendicitis and/or peritonitis 9 months of age or older, weighing up to 40 kg, and with normal renal function, the recommended ZOSYN dosage is 100 mg piperacillin/12.5 mg tazobactam per kilogram of body weight, every 8 hours. For pediatric patients between 2 months and 9 months of age, the recommended ZOSYN dosage based on pharmacokinetic modeling, is 80 mg piperacillin/10 mg tazobactam per kilogram of body weight, every 8 hours [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. Pediatric patients weighing over 40 kg and with normal renal function should receive the adult dose. It has not been determined how to adjust ZOSYN dosage in pediatric patients with renal impairment. 2.5 Reconstitution and Dilution of Powder Formulations Pharmacy bulk vials Reconstituted stock solution must be transferred and further diluted for intravenous infusion. The pharmacy bulk vial is for use in a hospital pharmacy admixture service only under a laminar flow hood. After reconstitution, entry into the vial must be made with a sterile transfer set or other sterile dispensing device, and contents should be dispensed as aliquots into intravenous solution using aseptic technique. Use entire contents of pharmacy bulk vial promptly. Discard unused portion after 24 hours if stored at room temperature (20°C to 25°C [68°F to 77°F]), or after 48 hours if stored at refrigerated temperature (2°C to 8°C [36°F to 46°F]). Reconstitute the pharmacy bulk vial with exactly 152 mL of a compatible reconstitution diluent, listed below, to a concentration of 200 mg/mL of piperacillin and 25 mg/mL of tazobactam. Shake well until dissolved. Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to and during administration whenever solution and container permit. Single dose vials Reconstitute ZOSYN vials with a compatible reconstitution diluent from the list provided below. 2.25 g, 3.375 g, and 4.5 g ZOSYN should be reconstituted with 10 mL, 15 mL, and 20 mL, respectively. Swirl until dissolved. Compatible Reconstitution Diluents for Pharmacy and Single Dose Vials 0.9% sodium chloride for injection Sterile water for injection Dextrose 5% Bacteriostatic saline/parabens Bacteriostatic water/parabens Bacteriostatic saline/benzyl alcohol Bacteriostatic water/benzyl alcohol Reconstituted ZOSYN solutions for both bulk and single dose vials should be further diluted (recommended volume per dose of 50 mL to 150 mL) in a compatible intravenous solution listed below. Administer by infusion over a period of at least 30 minutes. During the infusion it is desirable to discontinue the primary infusion solution. Compatible Intravenous Solutions for Pharmacy and Single Dose Vials 0.9% sodium chloride for injection sterile water for injectionMaximum recommended volume per dose of sterile water for injection is 50 mL. Dextran 6% in saline Dextrose 5% Lactated Ringer's Solution (compatible only with reformulated ZOSYN containing EDTA and is compatible for co-administration via a Y-site) ZOSYN should not be mixed with other drugs in a syringe or infusion bottle since compatibility has not been established. ZOSYN is not chemically stable in solutions that contain only sodium bicarbonate and solutions that significantly alter the pH. ZOSYN should not be added to blood products or albumin hydrolysates. Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter or discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit. Stability of ZOSYN Powder Formulations Following Reconstitution ZOSYN reconstituted from bulk and single vials is stable in glass and plastic containers (plastic syringes, I.V. bags and tubing) when used with compatible diluents. The pharmacy bulk vial should NOT be frozen after reconstitution. Discard unused portions after storage for 24 hours at room temperature or after storage for 48 hours at refrigerated temperature (2°C to 8°C [36°F to 46°F]). Single dose or pharmacy vials should be used immediately after reconstitution. Discard any unused portion after 24 hours if stored at room temperature (20°C to 25°C [68°F to 77°F]), or after 48 hours if stored at refrigerated temperature (2°C to 8°C [36°F to 46°F]). Vials should not be frozen after reconstitution. Stability studies in the I.V. bags have demonstrated chemical stability (potency, pH of reconstituted solution and clarity of solution) for up to 24 hours at room temperature and up to one week at refrigerated temperature. ZOSYN contains no preservatives. Appropriate consideration of aseptic technique should be used. ZOSYN reconstituted from bulk and single vials can be used in ambulatory intravenous infusion pumps. Stability of ZOSYN in an ambulatory intravenous infusion pump has been demonstrated for a period of 12 hours at room temperature. Each dose was reconstituted and diluted to a volume of 37.5 mL or 25 mL. One-day supplies of dosing solution were aseptically transferred into the medication reservoir (I.V. bags or cartridge). The reservoir was fitted to a preprogrammed ambulatory intravenous infusion pump per the manufacturer's instructions. Stability of ZOSYN is not affected when administered using an ambulatory intravenous infusion pump. 2.6 Directions for Use of ZOSYN in GALAXY Containers ZOSYN Injection is to be administered using sterile equipment, after thawing to room temperature. ZOSYN containing EDTA is compatible for co-administration via a Y-site intravenous tube with Lactated Ringer's injection, USP. Do not add supplementary medication. Unused portions of ZOSYN should be discarded. CAUTION: Do not use plastic containers in series connections. Such use could result in air embolism due to residual air being drawn from the primary container before administration of the fluid from the secondary container is complete. Thawing of Plastic Container Thaw frozen container at room temperature 20°C to 25°C [68°F to 77°F] or under refrigeration (2°C to 8°C [36°F to 46°F]). Do not force thaw by immersion in water baths or by microwave irradiation. Check for minute leaks by squeezing container firmly. If leaks are detected, discard solution as sterility may be impaired. The container should be visually inspected. Components of the solution may precipitate in the frozen state and will dissolve upon reaching room temperature with little or no agitation. Potency is not affected. Agitate after solution has reached room temperature. If after visual inspection, the solution remains cloudy or if an insoluble precipitate is noted or if any seals or outlet ports are not intact, the container should be discarded. Administer by infusion over a period of at least 30 minutes. During the infusion it is desirable to discontinue the primary infusion solution. Storage Store in a freezer capable of maintaining a temperature of -20°C (-4°F). For GALAXY containers, the thawed solution is stable for 14 days under refrigeration (2°C to 8°C [36°F to 46°F]) or 24 hours at room temperature 20°C to 25°C [68°F to 77°F]. Do not refreeze thawed ZOSYN. 2.7 Compatibility with Aminoglycosides Due to the in vitro inactivation of aminoglycosides by piperacillin, ZOSYN and aminoglycosides are recommended for separate administration. ZOSYN and aminoglycosides should be reconstituted, diluted, and administered separately when concomitant therapy with aminoglycosides is indicated [see Drug Interactions (7.1) ]. In circumstances where co-administration via Y-site is necessary, ZOSYN formulations containing EDTA are compatible for simultaneous co-administration via Y-site infusion only with the following aminoglycosides under the following conditions: Table 2: Compatibility with Aminoglycosides Aminoglycoside ZOSYN Dose (grams) ZOSYN Diluent Volume Diluent volumes apply only to single vials and bulk pharmacy containers (mL) Aminoglycoside Concentration Range The concentration ranges in Table 2 are based on administration of the aminoglycoside in divided doses (10–15 mg/kg/day in two daily doses for amikacin and 3–5 mg/kg/day in three daily doses for gentamicin). Administration of amikacin or gentamicin in a single daily dose or in doses exceeding those stated above via Y-site with ZOSYN containing EDTA has not been evaluated. See package insert for each aminoglycoside for complete Dosage and Administration instructions. (mg/mL) Acceptable Diluents Amikacin 2.25 50 1.75 – 7.5 0.9% sodium chloride or 5% dextrose 3.375 100 4.5 150 Gentamicin 2.25 50 0.7 – 3.32 0.9% sodium chloride or 5% dextrose 3.375ZOSYN 3.375 g per 50 mL GALAXY containers are NOT compatible with gentamicin for co-administration via a Y-site due to the higher concentrations of piperacillin and tazobactam. 100 4.5 150 Only the concentration and diluents for amikacin or gentamicin with the dosages of ZOSYN listed above have been established as compatible for co-administration via Y-site infusion. Simultaneous co-administration via Y-site infusion in any manner other than listed above may result in inactivation of the aminoglycoside by ZOSYN. ZOSYN is not compatible with tobramycin for simultaneous co-administration via Y-site infusion. Compatibility of ZOSYN with other aminoglycosides has not been established. Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit.
Use in special populations
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS Dosage in patients with renal impairment (≤40 mL/min of CRCL) should be reduced to the degree of actual renal function impairment. (2.3, 8.6) 8.1 Pregnancy Risk Summary Piperacillin and tazobactam cross the placenta in humans. However, there are insufficient data with piperacillin and/or tazobactam in pregnant women to inform a drug-associated risk for major birth defects and miscarriage. No fetal structural abnormalities were observed in rats or mice when piperacillin/tazobactam was administered intravenously during organogenesis at doses 1 to 2 times and 2 to 3 times the human dose of piperacillin and tazobactam, respectively, based on body-surface area (mg/m2). However, fetotoxicity in the presence of maternal toxicity was observed in developmental toxicity and peri/postnatal studies conducted in rats (intraperitoneal administration prior to mating and throughout gestation or from gestation day 17 through lactation day 21) at doses less than the maximum recommended human daily dose based on body-surface area (mg/m2) [see Data ]. The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2–4% and 15–20%, respectively. Data Animal Data In embryo-fetal development studies in mice and rats, pregnant animals received intravenous doses of piperacillin/tazobactam up to 3000/750 mg/kg/day during the period of organogenesis. There was no evidence of teratogenicity up to the highest dose evaluated, which is 1 to 2 times and 2 to 3 times the human dose of piperacillin and tazobactam, in mice and rats respectively, based on body-surface area (mg/m2). Fetal body weights were reduced in rats at maternally toxic doses at or above 500/62.5 mg/kg/day, minimally representing 0.4 times the human dose of both piperacillin and tazobactam based on body-surface area (mg/m2). A fertility and general reproduction study in rats using intraperitoneal administration of tazobactam or the combination piperacillin/tazobactam prior to mating and through the end of gestation, reported a decrease in litter size in the presence of maternal toxicity at 640 mg/kg/day tazobactam (4 times the human dose of tazobactam based on body-surface area), and decreased litter size and an increase in fetuses with ossification delays and variations of ribs, concurrent with maternal toxicity at ≥640/160 mg/kg/day piperacillin/tazobactam (0.5 times and 1 times the human dose of piperacillin and tazobactam, respectively, based on body-surface area). Peri/postnatal development in rats was impaired with reduced pup weights, increased stillbirths, and increased pup mortality concurrent with maternal toxicity after intraperitoneal administration of tazobactam alone at doses ≥320 mg/kg/day (2 times the human dose based on body surface area) or of the combination piperacillin/tazobactam at doses ≥640/160 mg/kg/day (0.5 times and 1 times the human dose of piperacillin and tazobactam, respectively, based on body-surface area) from gestation day 17 through lactation day 21. 8.2 Lactation Risk Summary Piperacillin is excreted in human milk; tazobactam concentrations in human milk have not been studied. No information is available on the effects of piperacillin and tazobactam on the breast-fed child or on milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for ZOSYN and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from ZOSYN or from the underlying maternal condition. 8.4 Pediatric Use Use of ZOSYN in pediatric patients 2 months of age or older with appendicitis and/or peritonitis is supported by evidence from well-controlled studies and pharmacokinetic studies in adults and in pediatric patients. This includes a prospective, randomized, comparative, open-label clinical trial with 542 pediatric patients 2–12 years of age with complicated intra-abdominal infections, in which 273 pediatric patients received piperacillin/tazobactam. Safety and efficacy in pediatric patients less than 2 months of age have not been established [see Clinical Pharmacology (12) and Dosage and Administration (2) ]. It has not been determined how to adjust ZOSYN dosage in pediatric patients with renal impairment. 8.5 Geriatric Use Patients over 65 years are not at an increased risk of developing adverse effects solely because of age. However, dosage should be adjusted in the presence of renal impairment [see Dosage and Administration (2) ]. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. ZOSYN contains 65 mg (2.84 mEq) of sodium per gram of piperacillin in the combination product. At the usual recommended doses, patients would receive between 780 and 1040 mg/day (34.1 and 45.5 mEq) of sodium. The geriatric population may respond with a blunted natriuresis to salt loading. This may be clinically important with regard to such diseases as congestive heart failure. This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function. 8.6 Renal Impairment In patients with creatinine clearance ≤ 40 mL/min and dialysis patients (hemodialysis and CAPD), the intravenous dose of ZOSYN should be reduced to the degree of renal function impairment [see Dosage and Administration (2) ]. 8.7 Hepatic Impairment Dosage adjustment of ZOSYN is not warranted in patients with hepatic cirrhosis [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. 8.8 Patients with Cystic Fibrosis As with other semisynthetic penicillins, piperacillin therapy has been associated with an increased incidence of fever and rash in cystic fibrosis patients.

Interactions

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS ZOSYN administration can significantly reduce tobramycin concentrations in hemodialysis patients. Monitor tobramycin concentrations in these patients. (7.1) Probenecid prolongs the half-lives of piperacillin and tazobactam and should not be co-administered with ZOSYN unless the benefit outweighs the risk. (7.2) Co-administration of ZOSYN with vancomycin may increase the incidence of acute kidney injury. Monitor kidney function in patients receiving ZOSYN and vancomycin. (7.3) Monitor coagulation parameters in patients receiving ZOSYN and heparin or oral anticoagulants. (7.4) ZOSYN may prolong the neuromuscular blockade of vecuronium and other non-depolarizing muscle relaxants. Monitor for adverse reactions related to neuromuscular blockade. (7.5) 7.1 Aminoglycosides Piperacillin may inactivate aminoglycosides by converting them to microbiologically inert amides. In vivo inactivation: When aminoglycosides are administered in conjunction with piperacillin to patients with end-stage renal disease requiring hemodialysis, the concentrations of the aminoglycosides (especially tobramycin) may be significantly reduced and should be monitored. Sequential administration of ZOSYN and tobramycin to patients with either normal renal function or mild to moderate renal impairment has been shown to modestly decrease serum concentrations of tobramycin but no dosage adjustment is considered necessary. In vitro inactivation: Due to the in vitro inactivation of aminoglycosides by piperacillin, ZOSYN and aminoglycosides are recommended for separate administration. ZOSYN and aminoglycosides should be reconstituted, diluted, and administered separately when concomitant therapy with aminoglycosides is indicated. ZOSYN, which contains EDTA, is compatible with amikacin and gentamicin for simultaneous Y-site infusion in certain diluents and at specific concentrations. ZOSYN is not compatible with tobramycin for simultaneous Y-site infusion [see Dosage and Administration (2.7) ]. 7.2 Probenecid Probenecid administered concomitantly with ZOSYN prolongs the half-life of piperacillin by 21% and that of tazobactam by 71% because probenecid inhibits tubular renal secretion of both piperacillin and tazobactam. Probenecid should not be co-administered with ZOSYN unless the benefit outweighs the risk. 7.3 Vancomycin Studies have detected an increased incidence of acute kidney injury in patients concomitantly administered piperacillin/tazobactam and vancomycin as compared to vancomycin alone [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5) ]. Monitor kidney function in patients concomitantly administered with piperacillin/tazobactam and vancomycin. No pharmacokinetic interactions have been noted between piperacillin/tazobactam and vancomycin. 7.4 Anticoagulants Coagulation parameters should be tested more frequently and monitored regularly during simultaneous administration of high doses of heparin, oral anticoagulants, or other drugs that may affect the blood coagulation system or the thrombocyte function [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) ]. 7.5 Vecuronium Piperacillin when used concomitantly with vecuronium has been implicated in the prolongation of the neuromuscular blockade of vecuronium. ZOSYN could produce the same phenomenon if given along with vecuronium. Due to their similar mechanism of action, it is expected that the neuromuscular blockade produced by any of the non-depolarizing muscle relaxants could be prolonged in the presence of piperacillin. Monitor for adverse reactions related to neuromuscular blockade (See package insert for vecuronium bromide). 7.6 Methotrexate Limited data suggests that co-administration of methotrexate and piperacillin may reduce the clearance of methotrexate due to competition for renal secretion. The impact of tazobactam on the elimination of methotrexate has not been evaluated. If concurrent therapy is necessary, serum concentrations of methotrexate as well as the signs and symptoms of methotrexate toxicity should be frequently monitored. 7.7 Effects on Laboratory Tests There have been reports of positive test results using the Bio-Rad Laboratories Platelia Aspergillus EIA test in patients receiving piperacillin/tazobactam injection who were subsequently found to be free of Aspergillus infection. Cross-reactions with non-Aspergillus polysaccharides and polyfuranoses with the Bio-Rad Laboratories Platelia Aspergillus EIA test have been reported. Therefore, positive test results in patients receiving piperacillin/tazobactam should be interpreted cautiously and confirmed by other diagnostic methods. As with other penicillins, the administration of ZOSYN may result in a false-positive reaction for glucose in the urine using a copper-reduction method (CLINITEST®). It is recommended that glucose tests based on enzymatic glucose oxidase reactions be used.

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number NDA050750
Agency product number M98T69Q7HP
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 0206-2404,0206-2416,0206-2411,0206-2413,0206-2408,0206-2409,0206-2405
Date Last Revised 08-06-2017
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
RXCUI 1659149
Storage and handling ZOSYN® for Injection vials should be stored at controlled room temperature (20°C to 25°C [68°F to 77°F]) prior to reconstitution.
Marketing authorisation holder Wyeth Pharmaceuticals Inc., a subsidiary of Pfizer Inc.