8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS 8.1 Pregnancy Risk Summary There are no available data on Zorbtive® use in pregnant women to inform any drug associated risks. In animal reproduction studies, no fetal harm was reported with subcutaneous administration of somatropin during the period of organogenesis in rats and rabbits at doses of approximately up to 5 and 10 times, respectively, the recommended human dose of 0.1 mg/kg/day [see Data]. The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriages for the indicated population are unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriages in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively. Data Animal Data Reproduction studies of somatropin have been performed in rats and rabbits. Administration of somatropin to rats and rabbits during the period of organogenesis at subcutaneous doses of approximately up to 5 and 10 times the recommended human dosage of 0.1 mg/kg/day, based on body surface area, respectively, have revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus due to somatropin. In a pre- and post-natal development study in rats, subcutaneous doses of approximately up to 5 times the recommended human dosage of 0.1 mg/kg/day (based on body surface area) had no adverse effect on pre- and post-natal development. 8.2 Lactation Risk Summary There are no data on the presence of somatropin in human milk. Limited published literature reports no adverse effects on breastfed infants with maternal administration of somatropin. No decrease in milk production or change in milk content during treatment with somatropin has been reported. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for Zorbtive® and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from Zorbtive® or from the underlying maternal condition. 8.4 Pediatric Use The safety and effectiveness of Zorbtive® in the treatment for short bowel syndrome in pediatric patients have not been established. Zorbtive® is contraindicated in patients with active malignancy. In pediatric cancer survivors, an increased risk of a second neoplasm has been reported in patients treated with somatropins after their first neoplasm. Intracranial tumors, in particular meningiomas, in patients treated with radiation to the head for their first neoplasm, were the most common of these second neoplasms [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Cases of pancreatitis have been reported in patients receiving somatropin treatment, with some evidence supporting a greater risk in pediatric patients compared with adults, particularly females with Turner syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)]. The syndrome of intracranial hypertension (IH), with papilledema, visual changes, headache, and nausea and/or vomiting has been reported in a small number of pediatric patients with growth failure treated with somatropins [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11)]. Zorbtive® is not approved for use in neonates or infants. Serious adverse reactions including fatal reactions and the "gasping syndrome" occurred in premature neonates and low birth weight infants in the neonatal intensive care unit who received benzyl alcohol as a preservative. In these cases, benzyl alcohol dosages of 99 to 234 mg/kg/day produced high levels of benzyl alcohol and its metabolites in the blood and urine (blood levels of benzyl alcohol were 0.61 to 1.378 mmol/L). Additional adverse reactions included gradual neurological deterioration, seizures, intracranial hemorrhage, hematologic abnormalities, skin breakdown, hepatic and renal failure, hypotension, bradycardia, and cardiovascular collapse. Preterm, low-birth weight infants may be more likely to develop these reactions because they may be less able to metabolize benzyl alcohol. The minimum amount of benzyl alcohol at which serious adverse reactions may occur is not known (when reconstituted with Bacteriostatic Water for Injection, USP, Zorbtive® contains 9 mg of benzyl alcohol per mL) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.12)]. Zorbtive® is a recombinant human growth hormone and therefore may increase growth and cause growth-related problems (e.g. slipped capital femoral epiphysis) in the patients receiving it, particularly pediatric patients whose epiphyses are not yet closed. 8.5 Geriatric Use Clinical studies with Zorbtive® did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Elderly patients may be more sensitive to growth hormone action, and may be more prone to develop adverse reactions. Thus, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at a lower dose.