Data from FDA - Curated by EPG Health - Last updated 14 August 2018

Indication(s)

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE Zometa is a bisphosphonate indicated for the treatment of: Hypercalcemia of malignancy. (1.1) Patients with multiple myeloma and patients with documented bone metastases from solid tumors, in conjunction with standard antineoplastic therapy. Prostate cancer should have progressed after treatment with at least one hormonal therapy. (1.2) Limitations of Use: The safety and efficacy of Zometa has not been established for use in hyperparathyroidism or non-tumor-related hypercalcemia. 1.1 Hypercalcemia of Malignancy Zometa is indicated for the treatment of hypercalcemia of malignancy defined as an albumin-corrected calcium (cCa) of greater than or equal to 12 mg/dL [3.0 mmol/L] using the formula: cCa in mg/dL=Ca in mg/dL + 0.8 (4.0 g/dL - patient albumin [g/dL]). 1.2 Multiple Myeloma and Bone Metastases of Solid Tumors Zometa is indicated for the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma and patients with documented bone metastases from solid tumors, in conjunction with standard antineoplastic therapy. Prostate cancer should have progressed after treatment with at least one hormonal therapy. 1.3 Limitations of Use The safety and efficacy of Zometa in the treatment of hypercalcemia associated with hyperparathyroidism or with other non–tumor-related conditions have not been established.

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Advisory information

contraindications
4 CONTRAINDICATIONS Hypersensitivity to Zoledronic Acid or Any Components of Zometa Hypersensitivity reactions including rare cases of urticaria and angioedema, and very rare cases of anaphylactic reaction/shock have been reported [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)]. Hypersensitivity to any component of Zometa (4)
Adverse reactions
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS The most common adverse events (greater than 25%) were nausea, fatigue, anemia, bone pain, constipation, fever, vomiting, and dyspnea. (6.1) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation at 1-888-669-6682 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. Hypercalcemia of Malignancy The safety of Zometa was studied in 185 patients with hypercalcemia of malignancy (HCM) who received either Zometa 4 mg given as a 5-minute intravenous infusion (n=86) or pamidronate 90 mg given as a 2-hour intravenous infusion (n=103). The population was aged 33-84 years, 60% male and 81% Caucasian, with breast, lung, head and neck, and renal cancer as the most common forms of malignancy. NOTE: pamidronate 90 mg was given as a 2-hour intravenous infusion. The relative safety of pamidronate 90 mg given as a 2-hour intravenous infusion compared to the same dose given as a 24-hour intravenous infusion has not been adequately studied in controlled clinical trials. Renal Toxicity Administration of Zometa 4 mg given as a 5-minute intravenous infusion has been shown to result in an increased risk of renal toxicity, as measured by increases in serum creatinine, which can progress to renal failure. The incidence of renal toxicity and renal failure has been shown to be reduced when Zometa 4 mg is given as a 15-minute intravenous infusion. Zometa should be administered by intravenous infusion over no less than 15 minutes [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3), Dosage and Administration (2.4)]. The most frequently observed adverse events were fever, nausea, constipation, anemia, and dyspnea (see Table 4). Table 4 provides adverse events that were reported by 10% or more of the 189 patients treated with Zometa 4 mg or pamidronate 90 mg from the two HCM trials. Adverse events are listed regardless of presumed causality to study drug. Table 4: Percentage of Patients with Adverse Events greater than or equal to 10% Reported in Hypercalcemia of Malignancy Clinical Trials by Body System Zometa Pamidronate 4 mg 90 mg n (%) n (%) Patients Studied Total No. of Patients Studied 86 (100) 103 (100) Total No. of Patients with any AE 81 (94) 95 (92) Body as a Whole Fever 38 (44) 34 (33) Progression of Cancer 14 (16) 21 (20) Cardiovascular Hypotension 9 (11) 2 (2) Digestive Nausea 25 (29) 28 (27) Constipation 23 (27) 13 (13) Diarrhea 15 (17) 17 (17) Abdominal Pain 14 (16) 13 (13) Vomiting 12 (14) 17 (17) Anorexia 8 (9) 14 (14) Hemic and Lymphatic System Anemia 19 (22) 18 (18) Infections Moniliasis 10 (12) 4 (4) Laboratory Abnormalities Hypophosphatemia 11 (13) 2 (2) Hypokalemia 10 (12) 16 (16) Hypomagnesemia 9 (11) 5 (5) Musculoskeletal Skeletal Pain 10 (12) 10 (10) Nervous Insomnia 13 (15) 10 (10) Anxiety 12 (14) 8 (8) Confusion 11 (13) 13 (13) Agitation 11 (13) 8 (8) Respiratory Dyspnea 19 (22) 20 (19) Coughing 10 (12) 12 (12) Urogenital Urinary Tract Infection 12 (14) 15 (15) The following adverse events from the two controlled multicenter HCM trials (n=189) were reported by a greater percentage of patients treated with Zometa 4 mg than with pamidronate 90 mg and occurred with a frequency of greater than or equal to 5% but less than 10%. Adverse events are listed regardless of presumed causality to study drug: asthenia, chest pain, leg edema, mucositis, dysphagia, granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, pancytopenia, nonspecific infection, hypocalcemia, dehydration, arthralgias, headache and somnolence. Rare cases of rash, pruritus, and chest pain have been reported following treatment with Zometa. Acute Phase Reaction Within three days after Zometa administration, an acute phase reaction has been reported in patients, with symptoms including pyrexia, fatigue, bone pain and/or arthralgias, myalgias, chills, and influenza-like illness. These symptoms usually resolve within a few days. Pyrexia has been the most commonly associated symptom, occurring in 44% of patients. Mineral and Electrolyte Abnormalities Electrolyte abnormalities, most commonly hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, and hypomagnesemia, can occur with bisphosphonate use. Grade 3 and Grade 4 laboratory abnormalities for serum creatinine, serum calcium, serum phosphorus, and serum magnesium observed in two clinical trials of Zometa in patients with HCM are shown in Table 5 and 6. Table 5: Grade 3 Laboratory Abnormalities for Serum Creatinine, Serum Calcium, Serum Phosphorus, and Serum Magnesium in Two Clinical Trials in Patients with HCM Grade 3 Laboratory Parameter Zometa Pamidronate 4 mg 90 mg n/N (%) n/N (%) Serum Creatinine1 2/86 (2%) 3/100 (3%) Hypocalcemia2 1/86 (1%) 2/100 (2%) Hypophosphatemia3 36/70 (51%) 27/81 (33%) Hypomagnesemia4 0/71 — 0/84 — Table 6: Grade 4 Laboratory Abnormalities for Serum Creatinine, Serum Calcium, Serum Phosphorus, and Serum Magnesium in Two Clinical Trials in Patients with HCM 1Grade 3 (greater than 3x Upper Limit of Normal); Grade 4 (greater than 6x Upper Limit of Normal) 2Grade 3 (less than 7 mg/dL); Grade 4 (less than 6 mg/dL) 3Grade 3 (less than 2 mg/dL); Grade 4 (less than 1 mg/dL) 4Grade 3 (less than 0.8 mEq/L); Grade 4 (less than 0.5 mEq/L) Grade 4 Laboratory Parameter Zometa Pamidronate 4 mg 90 mg n/N (%) n/N (%) Serum Creatinine1 0/86 — 1/100 (1%) Hypocalcemia2 0/86 — 0/100 — Hypophosphatemia3 1/70 (1%) 4/81 (5%) Hypomagnesemia4 0/71 — 1/84 (1%) Injection-Site Reactions Local reactions at the infusion-site, such as redness or swelling, were observed infrequently. In most cases, no specific treatment is required and the symptoms subside after 24-48 hours. Ocular Adverse Events Ocular inflammation such as uveitis and scleritis can occur with bisphosphonate use, including Zometa. No cases of iritis, scleritis, or uveitis were reported during these clinical trials. However, cases have been seen in postmarketing use [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)]. Multiple Myeloma and Bone Metastases of Solid Tumors The safety analysis includes patients treated in the core and extension phases of the trials. The analysis includes the 2042 patients treated with Zometa 4 mg, pamidronate 90 mg, or placebo in the three controlled multicenter bone metastases trials, including 969 patients completing the efficacy phase of the trial, and 619 patients that continued in the safety extension phase. Only 347 patients completed the extension phases and were followed for 2 years (or 21 months for the other solid tumor patients). The median duration of exposure for safety analysis for Zometa 4 mg (core plus extension phases) was 12.8 months for breast cancer and multiple myeloma, 10.8 months for prostate cancer, and 4.0 months for other solid tumors. Table 7 describes adverse events that were reported by 10% or more of patients. Adverse events are listed regardless of presumed causality to study drug. Table 7: Percentage of Patients with Adverse Events greater than or equal to 10% Reported in Three Bone Metastases Clinical Trials by Body System Zometa Pamidronate Placebo 4 mg 90 mg n (%) n (%) n (%) Patients Studied Total No. of Patients 1031 (100) 556 (100) 455 (100) Total No. of Patients with any AE 1015 (98) 548 (99) 445 (98) Blood and Lymphatic Anemia 344 (33) 175 (32) 128 (28) Neutropenia 124 (12) 83 (15) 35 (8) Thrombocytopenia 102 (10) 53 (10) 20 (4) Gastrointestinal Nausea 476 (46) 266 (48) 171 (38) Vomiting 333 (32) 183 (33) 122 (27) Constipation 320 (31) 162 (29) 174 (38) Diarrhea 249 (24) 162 (29) 83 (18) Abdominal Pain 143 (14) 81 (15) 48 (11) Dyspepsia 105 (10) 74 (13) 31 (7) Stomatitis 86 (8) 65 (12) 14 (3) Sore Throat 82 (8) 61 (11) 17 (4) General Disorders and Administration Site Fatigue 398 (39) 240 (43) 130 (29) Pyrexia 328 (32) 172 (31) 89 (20) Weakness 252 (24) 108 (19) 114 (25) Edema Lower Limb 215 (21) 126 (23) 84 (19) Rigors 112 (11) 62 (11) 28 (6) Infections Urinary Tract Infection 124 (12) 50 (9) 41 (9) Upper Respiratory Tract Infection 101 (10) 82 (15) 30 (7) Metabolism Anorexia 231 (22) 81 (15) 105 (23) Weight Decreased 164 (16) 50 (9) 61 (13) Dehydration 145 (14) 60 (11) 59 (13) Appetite Decreased 130 (13) 48 (9) 45 (10) Musculoskeletal Bone Pain 569 (55) 316 (57) 284 (62) Myalgia 239 (23) 143 (26) 74 (16) Arthralgia 216 (21) 131 (24) 73 (16) Back Pain 156 (15) 106 (19) 40 (9) Pain in Limb 143 (14) 84 (15) 52 (11) Neoplasms Malignant Neoplasm Aggravated 205 (20) 97 (17) 89 (20) Nervous Headache 191 (19) 149 (27) 50 (11) Dizziness (excluding vertigo) 180 (18) 91 (16) 58 (13) Insomnia 166 (16) 111 (20) 73 (16) Paresthesia 149 (15) 85 (15) 35 (8) Hypoesthesia 127 (12) 65 (12) 43 (10) Psychiatric Depression 146 (14) 95 (17) 49 (11) Anxiety 112 (11) 73 (13) 37 (8) Confusion 74 (7) 39 (7) 47 (10) Respiratory Dyspnea 282 (27) 155 (28) 107 (24) Cough 224 (22) 129 (23) 65 (14) Skin Alopecia 125 (12) 80 (14) 36 (8) Dermatitis 114 (11) 74 (13) 38 (8) Grade 3 and Grade 4 laboratory abnormalities for serum creatinine, serum calcium, serum phosphorus, and serum magnesium observed in three clinical trials of Zometa in patients with bone metastases are shown in Tables 8 and 9. Table 8: Grade 3 Laboratory Abnormalities for Serum Creatinine, Serum Calcium, Serum Phosphorus, and Serum Magnesium in Three Clinical Trials in Patients with Bone Metastases 1Grade 3 (greater than 3x Upper Limit of Normal); Grade 4 (greater than 6x Upper Limit of Normal) *Serum creatinine data for all patients randomized after the 15-minute infusion amendment 2Grade 3 (less than 7 mg/dL); Grade 4 (less than 6 mg/dL) 3Grade 3 (less than 2 mg/dL); Grade 4 (less than 1 mg/dL) 4Grade 3 (greater than 3 mEq/L); Grade 4 (greater than 8 mEq/L) 5Grade 3 (less than 0.9 mEq/L); Grade 4 (less than 0.7 mEq/L) Grade 3 Laboratory Parameter Zometa Pamidronate Placebo 4 mg 90 mg n/N (%) n/N (%) n/N (%) Serum Creatinine 1* 7/529 (1%) 4/268 (2%) 4/241 (2%) Hypocalcemia 2 6/973 (<1%) 4/536 (<1%) 0/415 — Hypophosphatemia 3 115/973 (12%) 38/537 (7%) 14/415 (3%) Hypermagnesemia 4 19/971 (2%) 2/535 (<1%) 8/415 (2%) Hypomagnesemia 5 1/971 (<1%) 0/535 — 1/415 (<1%) Table 9: Grade 4 Laboratory Abnormalities for Serum Creatinine, Serum Calcium, Serum Phosphorus, and Serum Magnesium in Three Clinical Trials in Patients with Bone Metastases 1Grade 3 (greater than 3x Upper Limit of Normal); Grade 4 (greater than 6x Upper Limit of Normal) *Serum creatinine data for all patients randomized after the 15-minute infusion amendment 2Grade 3 (less than 7 mg/dL); Grade 4 (less than 6 mg/dL) 3Grade 3 (less than 2 mg/dL); Grade 4 (less than 1 mg/dL) 4Grade 3 (greater than 3 mEq/L); Grade 4 (greater than 8 mEq/L) 5Grade 3 (less than 0.9 mEq/L); Grade 4 (less than 0.7 mEq/L) Grade 4 Laboratory Parameter Zometa Pamidronate Placebo 4 mg 90 mg n/N (%) n/N (%) n/N (%) Serum Creatinine 1* 2/529 (<1%) 1/268 (<1%) 0/241 — Hypocalcemia 2 7/973 (<1%) 3/536 (<1%) 2/415 (<1%) Hypophosphatemia 3 5/973 (<1%) 0/537 — 1/415 (<1%) Hypermagnesemia 4 0/971 — 0/535 — 2/415 (<1%) Hypomagnesemia 5 2/971 (<1%) 1/535 (<1%) 0/415 — Among the less frequently occurring adverse events (less than 15% of patients), rigors, hypokalemia, influenza-like illness, and hypocalcemia showed a trend for more events with bisphosphonate administration (Zometa 4 mg and pamidronate groups) compared to the placebo group. Less common adverse events reported more often with Zometa 4 mg than pamidronate included decreased weight, which was reported in 16% of patients in the Zometa 4 mg group compared with 9% in the pamidronate group. Decreased appetite was reported in slightly more patients in the Zometa 4 mg group (13%) compared with the pamidronate (9%) and placebo (10%) groups, but the clinical significance of these small differences is not clear. Renal Toxicity In the bone metastases trials, renal deterioration was defined as an increase of 0.5 mg/dL for patients with normal baseline creatinine (less than 1.4 mg/dL) or an increase of 1.0 mg/dL for patients with an abnormal baseline creatinine (greater than or equal to1.4 mg/dL). The following are data on the incidence of renal deterioration in patients receiving Zometa 4 mg over 15 minutes in these trials (see Table 10). Table 10: Percentage of Patients with Treatment-Emergent Renal Function Deterioration by Baseline Serum Creatinine* *Table includes only patients who were randomized to the trial after a protocol amendment that lengthened the infusion duration of Zometa to 15 minutes. Patient Population/Baseline Creatinine Multiple Myeloma and Breast Cancer Zometa 4 mg Pamidronate 90 mg n/N (%) n/N (%) Normal 27/246 (11%) 23/246 (9%) Abnormal 2/26 (8%) 2/22 (9%) Total 29/272 (11%) 25/268 (9%) Solid Tumors Zometa 4 mg Placebo n/N (%) n/N (%) Normal 17/154 (11%) 10/143 (7%) Abnormal 1/11 (9%) 1/20 (5%) Total 18/165 (11%) 11/163 (7%) Prostate Cancer Zometa 4 mg Placebo n/N (%) n/N (%) Normal 12/82 (15%) 8/68 (12%) Abnormal 4/10 (40%) 2/10 (20%) Total 16/92 (17%) 10/78 (13%) The risk of deterioration in renal function appeared to be related to time on study, whether patients were receiving Zometa (4 mg over 15 minutes), placebo, or pamidronate. In the trials and in postmarketing experience, renal deterioration, progression to renal failure, and dialysis have occurred in patients with normal and abnormal baseline renal function, including patients treated with 4 mg infused over a 15-minute period. There have been instances of this occurring after the initial Zometa dose. 6.2 Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been reported during postapproval use of Zometa. Because these reports are from a population of uncertain size and are subject to confounding factors, it is not possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Osteonecrosis of the Jaw Cases of osteonecrosis (primarily involving the jaw but also of other anatomical sites including hip, femur and external auditory canal) have been reported predominantly in cancer patients treated with intravenous bisphosphonates including Zometa. Many of these patients were also receiving chemotherapy and corticosteroids which may be a risk factor for ONJ. Caution is advised when Zometa is administered with anti-angiogenic drugs as an increased incidence of ONJ has been observed with concomitant use of these drugs. Data suggests a greater frequency of reports of ONJ in certain cancers, such as advanced breast cancer and multiple myeloma. The majority of the reported cases are in cancer patients following invasive dental procedures, such as tooth extraction. It is therefore prudent to avoid invasive dental procedures as recovery may be prolonged [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]. Acute Phase Reaction Within three days after Zometa administration, an acute phase reaction has been reported, with symptoms including pyrexia, fatigue, bone pain and/or arthralgias, myalgias, chills, influenza-like illness and arthritis with subsequent joint swelling; these symptoms usually resolve within three days of onset, but resolution could take up to 7 to 14 days. However, some of these symptoms have been reported to persist for a longer duration. Musculoskeletal Pain Severe and occasionally incapacitating bone, joint, and/or muscle pain has been reported with bisphosphonate use [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]. Atypical Subtrochanteric and Diaphyseal Femoral Fractures Atypical subtrochanteric and diaphyseal femoral fractures have been reported with bisphosphonate therapy, including Zometa [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]. Ocular Adverse Events Cases of uveitis, scleritis, episcleritis, conjunctivitis, iritis, and orbital inflammation including orbital edema have been reported during postmarketing use. In some cases, symptoms resolved with topical steroids. Hypersensitivity Reactions There have been rare reports of allergic reaction with intravenous zoledronic acid including angioedema and bronchoconstriction. Very rare cases of anaphylactic reaction/shock have been reported. Cases of Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis have also been reported. Additional adverse reactions reported in postmarketing use include: CNS: taste disturbance, hyperesthesia, tremor; Special Senses: blurred vision; uveitis; Gastrointestinal: dry mouth; Skin: Increased sweating; Musculoskeletal: muscle cramps; Cardiovascular: hypertension, bradycardia, hypotension (associated with syncope or circulatory collapse primarily in patients with underlying risk factors); Respiratory: bronchospasms, interstitial lung disease (ILD) with positive rechallenge; Renal: hematuria, proteinuria, acquired Fanconi syndrome; General Disorders and Administration Site: weight increase, influenza-like illness (pyrexia, asthenia, fatigue or malaise) persisting for greater than 30 days; Laboratory Abnormalities: hyperkalemia, hypernatremia, hypocalcemia (cardiac arrhythmias and neurologic adverse events including seizures, tetany, and numbness have been reported due to severe hypocalcemia).

Usage information

Dosing and administration
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit. Hypercalcemia of malignancy (2.1) 4 mg as a single-use intravenous infusion over no less than 15 minutes. 4 mg as retreatment after a minimum of 7 days. Multiple myeloma and bone metastasis from solid tumors. (2.2) 4 mg as a single-use intravenous infusion over no less than 15 minutes every 3-4 weeks for patients with creatinine clearance of greater than 60 mL/min. Reduce the dose for patients with renal impairment. Coadminister oral calcium supplements of 500 mg and a multiple vitamin containing 400 international units of vitamin D daily. Administer through a separate vented infusion line and do not allow to come in contact with any calcium or divalent cation-containing solutions. (2.3) 2.1 Hypercalcemia of Malignancy The maximum recommended dose of Zometa in hypercalcemia of malignancy (albumin-corrected serum calcium greater than or equal to 12 mg/dL [3.0 mmol/L]) is 4 mg. The 4 mg dose must be given as a single-dose intravenous infusion over no less than 15 minutes. Patients who receive Zometa should have serum creatinine assessed prior to each treatment. Dose adjustments of Zometa are not necessary in treating patients for hypercalcemia of malignancy presenting with mild-to-moderate renal impairment prior to initiation of therapy (serum creatinine less than 400 µmol/L or less than 4.5 mg/dL). Patients should be adequately rehydrated prior to administration of Zometa [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Consideration should be given to the severity of, as well as the symptoms of, tumor-induced hypercalcemia when considering use of Zometa. Vigorous saline hydration, an integral part of hypercalcemia therapy, should be initiated promptly and an attempt should be made to restore the urine output to about 2 L/day throughout treatment. Mild or asymptomatic hypercalcemia may be treated with conservative measures (i.e., saline hydration, with or without loop diuretics). Patients should be hydrated adequately throughout the treatment, but overhydration, especially in those patients who have cardiac failure, must be avoided. Diuretic therapy should not be employed prior to correction of hypovolemia. Retreatment with Zometa 4 mg may be considered if serum calcium does not return to normal or remain normal after initial treatment. It is recommended that a minimum of 7 days elapse before retreatment, to allow for full response to the initial dose. Renal function must be carefully monitored in all patients receiving Zometa and serum creatinine must be assessed prior to retreatment with Zometa [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. 2.2 Multiple Myeloma and Bone Metastases of Solid Tumors The recommended dose of Zometa in patients with multiple myeloma and metastatic bone lesions from solid tumors for patients with creatinine clearance (CrCl) greater than 60 mL/min is 4 mg infused over no less than 15 minutes every 3 to 4 weeks. The optimal duration of therapy is not known. Upon treatment initiation, the recommended Zometa doses for patients with reduced renal function (mild and moderate renal impairment) are listed in Table 1. These doses are calculated to achieve the same area under the curve (AUC) as that achieved in patients with creatinine clearance of 75 mL/min. CrCl is calculated using the Cockcroft-Gault formula [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Table 1: Reduced Doses for Patients with Baseline CrCl Less than or Equal to 60 mL/min *Doses calculated assuming target AUC of 0.66(mg•hr/L) (CrCl=75 mL/min) Baseline Creatinine Clearance (mL/min) Zometa Recommended Dose (mg)* greater than 60 4 50-60 3.5 40-49 3.3 30-39 3 During treatment, serum creatinine should be measured before each Zometa dose and treatment should be withheld for renal deterioration. In the clinical studies, renal deterioration was defined as follows: For patients with normal baseline creatinine, increase of 0.5 mg/dL For patients with abnormal baseline creatinine, increase of 1.0 mg/dL In the clinical studies, Zometa treatment was resumed only when the creatinine returned to within 10% of the baseline value. Zometa should be reinitiated at the same dose as that prior to treatment interruption. Patients should also be administered an oral calcium supplement of 500 mg and a multiple vitamin containing 400 international units of vitamin D daily. 2.3 Preparation of Solution Zometa must not be mixed with calcium or other divalent cation-containing infusion solutions, such as Lactated Ringer’s solution, and should be administered as a single intravenous solution in a line separate from all other drugs. 4 mg per 100 mL Single-Use Ready-to-Use Bottle Bottles of Zometa ready-to-use solution for infusion contain overfill allowing for the administration of 100 mL of solution (equivalent to 4 mg zoledronic acid). This solution is ready-to-use and may be administered directly to the patient without further preparation. For single-use only. To prepare reduced doses for patients with baseline CrCl less than or equal to 60 mL/min, withdraw the specified volume of the Zometa solution from the bottle (see Table 2) and replace with an equal volume of sterile 0.9% Sodium Chloride, USP, or 5% Dextrose Injection, USP. Administer the newly-prepared dose-adjusted solution to the patient by infusion. Follow proper aseptic technique. Properly discard previously withdrawn volume of ready-to-use solution - do not store or reuse. Table 2: Preparation of Reduced Doses–Zometa Ready-to-Use Bottle Remove and discard the following Zometa ready-to-use solution (mL) Replace with the following volume of sterile 0.9% Sodium Chloride, USP or 5% Dextrose Injection, USP (mL) Dose (mg) 12.0 12.0 3.5 18.0 18.0 3.3 25.0 25.0 3.0 If not used immediately after dilution with infusion media, for microbiological integrity, the solution should be refrigerated at 2°C–8°C (36°F–46°F). The refrigerated solution should then be equilibrated to room temperature prior to administration. The total time between dilution, storage in the refrigerator, and end of administration must not exceed 24 hours. 4 mg per 5 mL Single-Use Vial Vials of Zometa concentrate for infusion contain overfill allowing for the withdrawal of 5 mL of concentrate (equivalent to 4 mg zoledronic acid). This concentrate should immediately be diluted in 100 mL of sterile 0.9% Sodium Chloride, USP, or 5% Dextrose Injection, USP, following proper aseptic technique, and administered to the patient by infusion. Do not store undiluted concentrate in a syringe, to avoid inadvertent injection. To prepare reduced doses for patients with baseline CrCl less than or equal to 60 mL/min, withdraw the specified volume of the Zometa concentrate from the vial for the dose required (see Table 3). Table 3: Preparation of Reduced Doses–Zometa Concentrate Remove and Use Zometa Volume (mL) Dose (mg) 4.4 3.5 4.1 3.3 3.8 3.0 The withdrawn concentrate must be diluted in 100 mL of sterile 0.9% Sodium Chloride, USP, or 5% Dextrose Injection, USP. If not used immediately after dilution with infusion media, for microbiological integrity, the solution should be refrigerated at 2°C-8°C (36°F-46°F). The refrigerated solution should then be equilibrated to room temperature prior to administration. The total time between dilution, storage in the refrigerator, and end of administration must not exceed 24 hours. 2.4 Method of Administration Due to the risk of clinically significant deterioration in renal function, which may progress to renal failure, single doses of Zometa should not exceed 4 mg and the duration of infusion should be no less than 15 minutes [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]. In the trials and in postmarketing experience, renal deterioration, progression to renal failure and dialysis, have occurred in patients, including those treated with the approved dose of 4 mg infused over 15 minutes. There have been instances of this occurring after the initial Zometa dose.
Use in special populations
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS Nursing Mothers: It is not known whether Zometa is excreted in human milk. (8.3) Pediatric Use: Not indicated for use in pediatric patients. (8.4) Geriatric Use: Special care to monitor renal function. (8.5) 8.1 Pregnancy Pregnancy Category D [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)] There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of Zometa in pregnant women. Zometa may cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Bisphosphonates, such as Zometa, are incorporated into the bone matrix and are gradually released over periods of weeks to years. The extent of bisphosphonate incorporation into adult bone, and hence, the amount available for release back into the systemic circulation, is directly related to the total dose and duration of bisphosphonate use. Although there are no data on fetal risk in humans, bisphosphonates do cause fetal harm in animals, and animal data suggest that uptake of bisphosphonates into fetal bone is greater than into maternal bone. Therefore, there is a theoretical risk of fetal harm (e.g., skeletal and other abnormalities) if a woman becomes pregnant after completing a course of bisphosphonate therapy. The impact of variables such as time between cessation of bisphosphonate therapy to conception, the particular bisphosphonate used, and the route of administration (intravenous versus oral) on this risk has not been established. If this drug is used during pregnancy or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking or after taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus. In female rats given subcutaneous doses of zoledronic acid of 0.01, 0.03, or 0.1 mg/kg/day beginning 15 days before mating and continuing through gestation, the number of stillbirths was increased and survival of neonates was decreased in the mid- and high-dose groups (greater than or equal to 0.2 times the human systemic exposure following an intravenous dose of 4 mg, based on an AUC comparison). Adverse maternal effects were observed in all dose groups (with a systemic exposure of greater than or equal to 0.07 times the human systemic exposure following an intravenous dose of 4 mg, based on an AUC comparison) and included dystocia and periparturient mortality in pregnant rats allowed to deliver. Maternal mortality may have been related to drug-induced inhibition of skeletal calcium mobilization, resulting in periparturient hypocalcemia. This appears to be a bisphosphonate-class effect. In pregnant rats given a subcutaneous dose of zoledronic acid of 0.1, 0.2, or 0.4 mg/kg/day during gestation, adverse fetal effects were observed in the mid- and high-dose groups (with systemic exposures of 2.4 and 4.8 times, respectively, the human systemic exposure following an intravenous dose of 4 mg, based on an AUC comparison). These adverse effects included increases in pre- and postimplantation losses, decreases in viable fetuses, and fetal skeletal, visceral, and external malformations. Fetal skeletal effects observed in the high-dose group included unossified or incompletely ossified bones, thickened, curved, or shortened bones, wavy ribs, and shortened jaw. Other adverse fetal effects observed in the high-dose group included reduced lens, rudimentary cerebellum, reduction or absence of liver lobes, reduction of lung lobes, vessel dilation, cleft palate, and edema. Skeletal variations were also observed in the low-dose group (with systemic exposure of 1.2 times the human systemic exposure following an intravenous dose of 4 mg, based on an AUC comparison). Signs of maternal toxicity were observed in the high-dose group and included reduced body weights and food consumption, indicating that maximal exposure levels were achieved in this study. In pregnant rabbits given subcutaneous doses of zoledronic acid of 0.01, 0.03, or 0.1 mg/kg/day during gestation (less than or equal to 0.5 times the human intravenous dose of 4 mg, based on a comparison of relative body surface areas), no adverse fetal effects were observed. Maternal mortality and abortion occurred in all treatment groups (at doses greater than or equal to 0.05 times the human intravenous dose of 4 mg, based on a comparison of relative body surface areas). Adverse maternal effects were associated with, and may have been caused by, drug-induced hypocalcemia. 8.3 Nursing Mothers It is not known whether zoledronic acid is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from Zometa, a decision should be made to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. Zoledronic acid binds to bone long term and may be released over weeks to years. 8.4 Pediatric Use Zometa is not indicated for use in children. The safety and effectiveness of zoledronic acid was studied in a one-year, active-controlled trial of 152 pediatric subjects (74 receiving zoledronic acid). The enrolled population was subjects with severe osteogenesis imperfecta, aged 1-17 years, 55% male, 84% Caucasian, with a mean lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) of 0.431 gm/cm2, which is 2.7 standard deviations below the mean for age-matched controls (BMD Z-score of -2.7). At one year, increases in BMD were observed in the zoledronic acid treatment group. However, changes in BMD in individual patients with severe osteogenesis imperfecta did not necessarily correlate with the risk for fracture or the incidence or severity of chronic bone pain. The adverse events observed with Zometa use in children did not raise any new safety findings beyond those previously seen in adults treated for hypercalcemia of malignancy or bone metastases. However, adverse reactions seen more commonly in pediatric patients included pyrexia (61%), arthralgia (26%), hypocalcemia (22%) and headache (22%). These reactions, excluding arthralgia, occurred most frequently within 3 days after the first infusion and became less common with repeat dosing. Because of long-term retention in bone, Zometa should only be used in children if the potential benefit outweighs the potential risk. Plasma zoledronic acid concentration data was obtained from 10 patients with severe osteogenesis imperfecta (4 in the age group of 3-8 years and 6 in the age group of 9-17 years) infused with 0.05 mg/kg dose over 30 min. Mean Cmax and AUC(0-last) was 167 ng/mL and 220 ng•h/mL, respectively. The plasma concentration time profile of zoledronic acid in pediatric patients represent a multi-exponential decline, as observed in adult cancer patients at an approximately equivalent mg/kg dose. 8.5 Geriatric Use Clinical studies of Zometa in hypercalcemia of malignancy included 34 patients who were 65 years of age or older. No significant differences in response rate or adverse reactions were seen in geriatric patients receiving Zometa as compared to younger patients. Controlled clinical studies of Zometa in the treatment of multiple myeloma and bone metastases of solid tumors in patients over age 65 revealed similar efficacy and safety in older and younger patients. Because decreased renal function occurs more commonly in the elderly, special care should be taken to monitor renal function.
Pregnancy and lactation
8.3 Nursing Mothers It is not known whether zoledronic acid is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from Zometa, a decision should be made to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. Zoledronic acid binds to bone long term and may be released over weeks to years.

Interactions

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS In vitro studies indicate that the plasma protein binding of zoledronic acid is low, with the unbound fraction ranging from 60%-77%. In vitro studies also indicate that zoledronic acid does not inhibit microsomal CYP450 enzymes. In vivo studies showed that zoledronic acid is not metabolized, and is excreted into the urine as the intact drug. Aminoglycosides: May have an additive effect to lower serum calcium for prolonged periods. (7.1) Loop diuretics: Concomitant use with Zometa may increase risk of hypocalcemia. (7.2) Nephrotoxic drugs: Use with caution. (7.3) 7.1 Aminoglycosides and Calcitonin Caution is advised when bisphosphonates are administered with aminoglycosides or calcitonin, since these agents may have an additive effect to lower serum calcium level for prolonged periods. This effect has not been reported in Zometa clinical trials. 7.2 Loop Diuretics Caution should also be exercised when Zometa is used in combination with loop diuretics due to an increased risk of hypocalcemia. 7.3 Nephrotoxic Drugs Caution is indicated when Zometa is used with other potentially nephrotoxic drugs. 7.4 Thalidomide No dose adjustment for Zometa 4 mg is needed when coadministered with thalidomide. In a pharmacokinetic study of 24 patients with multiple myeloma, Zometa 4 mg given as a 15-minute infusion was administered either alone or with thalidomide (100 mg once daily on days 1-14 and 200 mg once daily on days 15-28). Coadministration of thalidomide with Zometa did not significantly change the pharmacokinetics of zoledronic acid or creatinine clearance.

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number NDA021223
Agency product number 6XC1PAD3KF
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 0078-0590,0078-0387
Date Last Revised 28-12-2016
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
RXCUI 351945
Marketing authorisation holder Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation