Data from FDA - Curated by Toby Galbraith - Last updated 02 September 2017

Indication(s)

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE Zolmitriptan orally disintegrating tablets are a serotonin (5-HT)1B/1D receptor agonist (triptan) indicated for the acute treatment of migraine with or without aura in adults (1) Limitations of Use: Use only after a clear diagnosis of migraine has been established (1) Not indicated for the prophylactic therapy of migraine (1) Not indicated for the treatment of cluster headache (1) Zolmitriptan orally disintegrating tablets are indicated for the acute treatment of migraine with or without aura in adults. Limitations of Use Only use zolmitriptan if a clear diagnosis of migraine has been established. If a patient has no response to zolmitriptan treatment for the first migraine attack, reconsider the diagnosis of migraine before zolmitriptan is administered to treat any subsequent attacks. Zolmitriptan orally disintegrating tablets are not indicated for the prevention of migraine attacks. Safety and effectiveness of zolmitriptan have not been established for cluster headache.

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Advisory information

contraindications
4 CONTRAINDICATIONS History of coronary artery disease (CAD) or coronary vasospasm (4) Symptomatic Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome or other cardiac accessory conduction pathway disorders (4) History of stroke, transient ischemic attack, or hemiplegic or basilar migraine (4) Peripheral vascular disease (4) Ischemic bowel disease (4) Uncontrolled hypertension (4) Recent (within 24 hours) use of another 5-HT1 agonist (e.g., another triptan), or an ergotamine-containing medication (4) Monamine oxidase (MAO)-A inhibitor used in past 2 weeks (4) Known hypersensitivity to zolmitriptan (4) Zolmitriptan orally disintegrating tablets are contraindicated in patients with: Ischemic coronary artery disease (angina pectoris, history of myocardial infarction, or documented silent ischemia), other significant underlying cardiovascular disease, or c oronary artery vasospasm including Prinzmetal's angina [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ] Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome or arrhythmias associated with other cardiac accessory conduction pathway disorders [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ] History of stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), or history of hemiplegic or basilar migraine because these patients are at a higher risk of stroke [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) ] Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5) ] Ischemic bowel disease [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5) ] Uncontrolled hypertension [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8) ] Recent use (i.e., within 24 hours) of another 5-HT 1 agonist, ergotamine-containing medication, or ergot-type medication (such as dihydroergotamine or methysergide) [see Drug Interactions (7.1, 7.3) ] Concurrent administration of a monoamine oxidase (MAO)-A inhibitor or recent use of a MAO-A inhibitor (that is within 2 weeks) [see Drug Interactions (7.2) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ] Known hypersensitivity to zolmitriptan (angioedema and anaphylaxis seen) [see Adverse Reactions (6.2) ]
Adverse reactions
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS Most common adverse reactions (> 5% and > placebo) were neck/throat/jaw pain/tightness/pressure, dizziness, paresthesia, asthenia, somnolence, warm/cold sensation, nausea, heaviness sensation, and dry mouth (6.1) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Zydus Pharmaceuticals Inc. at 1-877-993-8779 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. The following adverse reactions are described elsewhere in other sections of the prescribing information: Myocardial Ischemia, Myocardial Infarction, and Prinzmetal Angina [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Arrthymias [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Chest and or Throat, Neck and Jaw Pain/Tightness/Pressure [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]. Cerebrovascular Events [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]. Other Vasospasm Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]. Medication Overuse Headache [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]. Serotonin Syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]. Increase in Blood Pressure [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)]. Risks in Patients with Phenylketonuria [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)]. 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical studies are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical studies of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical studies of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. In a long-term, open-label study where patients were allowed to treat multiple migraine attacks for up to 1 year, 8% (167 out of 2,058) withdrew from the trial because of adverse reaction. The most common adverse reactions (> 5% and > placebo) in these trials were neck/throat/jaw pain, dizziness, paresthesia, asthenia, somnolence, warm/cold sensation, nausea, heaviness sensation, and dry mouth. Table 1 lists the adverse reactions that occurred in > 2% of the 2,074 patients in any one of the zolmitriptan 1 mg, 2.5 mg, or 5 mg dose groups in the controlled clinical trials of zolmitriptan in patients with migraines (Studies 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5) [see Clinical Studies (14)]. Only adverse reactions that were at least 2% more frequent in a zolmitriptan group compared to the placebo group are included. Several of the adverse reactions appear dose related, notably paresthesia, sensation of heaviness or tightness in chest, neck, jaw, and throat, dizziness, somnolence and possibly asthenia and nausea. Table 1Adverse Reaction Incidence in Five Pooled Placebo-Controlled Migraine Clinical Trials1 1Only adverse reactions that were at least 2% more frequent in a zolmitriptan group compared to the placebo group are included. Placebo ( n = 401 ) Zolmitriptan 1 mg ( n = 163 ) Zolmitriptan 2 . 5 mg ( n = 498 ) Zolmitriptan 5 mg ( n = 1012 ) ATYPICAL SENSATIONS 6 % 12 % 12 % 18 % Paresthesia (all types) 2% 5% 7% 9% Warm/cold sensation 4% 6% 5% 7% PAIN AND PRESSURE SENSATIONS 7 % 13 % 14 % 22 % Chest-pain/tightness/pressure and/or heaviness 1% 2% 3% 4% Neck/throat/jaw - pain/tightness/pressure 3% 4% 7% 10% Heaviness other than chest or neck 1% 1% 2% 5% Other- Pressure/tightness/heaviness 0 2% 2% 2% DIGESTIVE 8 % 11 % 16 % 14 % Dry mouth 2% 5% 3% 3% Dyspepsia 1% 3% 2% 1% Dysphagia 0% 0% 0% 2% Nausea 4% 4% 9% 6% NEUROLOGICAL 10 % 11 % 17 % 21 % Dizziness 4% 6% 8% 10% Somnolence 3% 5% 6% 8% Vertigo 0% 0% 0% 2% OTHER Asthenia 3% 5% 3% 9% Sweating 1% 0% 2% 3% There were no differences in the incidence of adverse reactions in controlled clinical trials in the following subgroups: gender, weight, age, use of prophylactic medications, or presence of aura. There were insufficient data to assess the impact of race on the incidence of adverse reactions. Less Common Adverse Reactions with Zolmitriptan Tablets In the paragraphs that follow, the frequencies of less commonly reported adverse clinical reactions are presented. Because the reports include reactions observed in open and uncontrolled studies, the role of zolmitriptan in their causation cannot be reliably determined. Furthermore, variability associated with adverse reaction reporting, the terminology used to describe adverse reactions, etc., limit the value of the quantitative frequency estimates provided. Adverse reaction frequencies were calculated as the number of patients who used zolmitriptan tablets and reported a reaction divided by the total number of patients exposed to zolmitriptan tablets (n=4,027). Reactions were further classified within body system categories and enumerated in order of decreasing frequency using the following definitions: infrequent adverse reactions (those occurring in 1/100 to 1/1,000 patients) and rare adverse reactions (those occurring in less than 1/1,000 patients). General Infrequent were allergic reactions. Cardiovascular Infrequent were arrhythmias, hypertension, and syncope. Rare was tachycardia. Neurological Infrequent were agitation, anxiety, depression, emotional lability and insomnia; Rare were amnesia, hallucinations, and cerebral ischemia. Skin Infrequent were pruritus, rash and urticaria. Urogenital Infrequent were polyuria, urinary frequency and urinary urgency. Adverse Reactions with Zolmitriptan Oral Disintegrating Tablets The adverse reaction profile seen with zolmitriptan oral disintegrating tablets was similar to that seen with zolmitriptan tablets. 6.2 Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions were identified during post approval use of zolmitriptan. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. The reactions enumerated include all except those already listed in the Clinical Trials Experience section above or the Warnings and Precautions section. Hypersensitivity Reactions As with other 5-HT1B/1D agonists, there have been reports of anaphylaxis, anaphylactoid, and hypersensitivity reactions including angioedema in patients receiving zolmitriptan. Zolmitriptan is contraindicated in patients with a history of hypersensitivity reaction to zolmitriptan.

Usage information

Dosing and administration
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Recommended starting dose: 1.25 mg or 2.5 mg (2.1) Maximum single dose: 5 mg (2.1) May repeat dose after 2 hours if needed; not to exceed 10 mg in any 24 hour period (2.1) Do not break zolmitriptan orally disintegrating tablets (2.2) Moderate or Severe Hepatic Impairment: 1.25 mg recommended (2.3, 8.6) 2.1 Dosing Information The recommended starting dose of zolmitriptan tablets is 1.25 mg or 2.5 mg. The 1.25 mg dose can be achieved by manually breaking the functionally-scored 2.5 mg tablet in half. The maximum recommended single dose of zolmitriptan tablets is 5 mg. In controlled clinical trials, a greater proportion of patients had headache response following a 2.5 mg or 5 mg dose than following a 1 mg dose. There was little added benefit from the 5 mg dose compared to the 2.5 mg dose, but adverse reactions were more frequent with the 5 mg dose. If the migraine has not resolved by 2 hours after taking zolmitriptan, or returns after a transient improvement, a second dose may be administered at least 2 hours after the first dose. The maximum daily dose is 10 mg in any 24 hour period. The safety of zolmitriptan in the treatment of an average of more than three migraines in a 30 day period has not been established. 2.2 Administration of Zolmitriptan Orally Disintegrating Tablets Instruct patients not to break zolmitriptan orally disintegrating tablets because they are not functionally-scored. Administration with liquid is not necessary. Orally disintegrating tablets are packaged in a blister pack. Instruct patients not to remove the tablet from the blister until just prior to dosing. Subsequently, instruct patients to peel the blister pack open, and to place the orally disintegrating tablet on the tongue, where it will dissolve and it will be swallowed with the saliva. 2.3 Dosing in Patients with Hepatic Impairment The recommended dose of zolmitriptan in patients with moderate to severe hepatic impairment is 1.25 mg (one-half of one 2.5 mg zolmitriptan tablet) because of increased zolmitriptan blood levels in these patients and elevation of blood pressure in some of these patients. Limit the total daily dose in patients with severe hepatic impairment to no more than 5 mg per day. The use of zolmitriptan orally disintegrating tablets is not recommended in patients with moderate or severe hepatic impairment because these orally disintegrating tablets should not be broken in half [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6), and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. 2.4 Dosing in Patients taking Cimetidine If zolmitriptan is coadministered with cimetidine, limit the maximum single dose of zolmitriptan to 2.5 mg, not to exceed 5 mg in any 24 hour period [see Drug Interactions (7.5), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Use in special populations
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS Pregnancy: Based on animal data, may cause fetal harm (8.1) 8.1 Pregnancy Pregnancy Category C There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women; therefore, zolmitriptan should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. In reproductive toxicity studies in rats and rabbits, oral administration of zolmitriptan to pregnant animals resulted in embryolethality and fetal abnormalities (malformations and variations) at clinically relevant exposures. When zolmitriptan was administered to pregnant rats during the period of organogenesis at oral doses of 100, 400, and 1200 mg/kg/day (plasma exposures (AUCs) ≈280, 1100, and 5000 times the human AUC at the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 10 mg/day), there was a dose-related increase in embryolethality. A no-effect dose for embryolethality was not established. When zolmitriptan was administered to pregnant rabbits during the period of organogenesis at oral doses of 3, 10, and 30 mg/kg/day (plasma AUCs ≈1, 11, and 42 times the human AUC at the MRHD), there were increases in embryolethality and in fetal malformations and variations. The no-effect dose for adverse effects on embryo-fetal development was associated with a plasma AUC similar to that in humans at the MRHD. When female rats were given zolmitriptan during gestation, parturition, and lactation at oral doses of 25, 100, and 400 mg/kg/day (plasma AUCs ≈70, 280, and 1100 times that in human at the MRHD), an increased incidence of hydronephrosis was found in the offspring. The no-effect dose was associated with a plasma AUC ≈280 times that in humans at the MRHD. 8.3 Nursing Mothers It is not known whether zolmitriptan is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from zolmitriptan, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. In rats, oral dosing with zolmitriptan resulted in levels in milk up to 4 times higher than in plasma. 8.4 Pediatric Use The safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established. Therefore, zolmitriptan is not recommended for use in patients under 18 years of age. One randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of zolmitriptan tablets (2.5, 5 and 10 mg) evaluated 696 pediatric patients (aged 12 to 17 years) with migraines. This study did not demonstrate the efficacy of zolmitriptan compared to placebo in the treatment of migraine in adolescents. Adverse reactions in the adolescent patients treated with zolmitriptan were similar in nature and frequency to those reported in clinical trials in adults treated with zolmitriptan. Zolmitriptan has not been studied in pediatric patients less than 12 years old. In the postmarketing experience with triptans, including zolmitriptan, there were no additional adverse reactions seen in pediatric patients that were not seen in adults. 8.5 Geriatric Use Clinical studies of zolmitriptan did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. A cardiovascular evaluation is recommended for geriatric patients who have other cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., diabetes, hypertension, smoking, obesity, strong family history of coronary artery disease) prior to receiving zolmitriptan [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. The pharmacokinetics of zolmitriptan were similar in geriatric patients (aged > 65 years) compared to younger patients [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. 8.6 Patients with Hepatic Impairment: After oral zolmitriptan administration, zolmitriptan blood levels were increased in patients with moderate to severe hepatic impairment, and significant elevation in blood pressure was observed in some of these patients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)]. Therefore, adjust the zolmitriptan dose and administer with caution in patients with moderate or severe hepatic impairment [see Dosage and Administration (2.3) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Pregnancy and lactation
8.3 Nursing Mothers It is not known whether zolmitriptan is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from zolmitriptan, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. In rats, oral dosing with zolmitriptan resulted in levels in milk up to 4 times higher than in plasma.

Interactions

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS 7.1 Ergot-containing Drugs Ergot-containing drugs have been reported to cause prolonged vasospastic reactions. Because these effects may be additive, use of ergotamine-containing or ergot-type medications (like dihydroergotamine or methysergide) and zolmitriptan within 24 hours of each other is contraindicated [see Contraindications (4)]. 7.2 MAO-A Inhibitors MAO-A inhibitors increase the systemic exposure of zolmitriptan and its active N-desmethyl metabolite. Therefore, the use of zolmitriptan in patients receiving MAO-A inhibitors is contraindicated [see Contraindications (4) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. 7.3 5-HT1B/1D agonists Concomitant use of other 5-HT1B/1D agonists (including triptans) within 24 hours of zolmitriptan treatment is contraindicated because the risk of vasospastic reactions may be additive [see Contraindications (4)]. 7.4 Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Serotonin Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors Cases of life-threatening serotonin syndrome have been reported during coadministration of triptans and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]. 7.5 Cimetidine Following administration of cimetidine, the half-life and blood levels of zolmitriptan and its active N-desmethyl metabolite were approximately doubled [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. If cimetidine and zolmitriptan are used concomitantly, limit the maximum single dose of zolmitriptan to 2.5 mg, not to exceed 5 mg in any 24 hour period [see Dosage and Administration, (2.4) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number ANDA202890
Agency product number 2FS66TH3YW
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 68382-715,68382-717
Date Last Revised 29-06-2017
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
RXCUI 351134
Marketing authorisation holder Zydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc.