Data from FDA - Curated by EPG Health - Last updated 18 December 2019

Indication(s)

INDICATIONS AND USAGE ZIAC (bisoprolol fumarate and hydrochlorothiazide) is indicated in the management of hypertension.

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Advisory information

contraindications
CONTRAINDICATIONS ZIAC is contraindicated in patients in cardiogenic shock, overt cardiac failure (see WARNINGS), second or third degree AV block, marked sinus bradycardia, anuria, and hypersensitivity to either component of this product or to other sulfonamide-derived drugs.
Special warnings and precautions
PRECAUTIONS General Electrolyte and Fluid Balance Status Although the probability of developing hypokalemia is reduced with ZIAC because of the very low dose of HCTZ employed, periodic determination of serum electrolytes should be performed, and patients should be observed for signs of fluid or electrolyte disturbances, i.e., hyponatremia, hypochloremic alkalosis, hypokalemia, and hypomagnesemia. Thiazides have been shown to increase the urinary excretion of magnesium; this may result in hypomagnesemia. Warning signs or symptoms of fluid and electrolyte imbalance include dryness of mouth, thirst, weakness, lethargy, drowsiness, restlessness, muscle pains or cramps, muscular fatigue, hypotension, oliguria, tachycardia, and gastrointestinal disturbances such as nausea and vomiting. Hypokalemia may develop, especially with brisk diuresis when severe cirrhosis is present, during concomitant use of corticosteroids or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or after prolonged therapy. Interference with adequate oral electrolyte intake will also contribute to hypokalemia. Hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia can provoke ventricular arrhythmias or sensitize or exaggerate the response of the heart to the toxic effects of digitalis. Hypokalemia may be avoided or treated by potassium supplementation or increased intake of potassium-rich foods. Dilutional hyponatremia may occur in edematous patients in hot weather; appropriate therapy is water restriction rather than salt administration, except in rare instances when the hyponatremia is life threatening. In actual salt depletion, appropriate replacement is the therapy of choice. Parathyroid Disease Calcium excretion is decreased by thiazides, and pathologic changes in the parathyroid glands, with hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia, have been observed in a few patients on prolonged thiazide therapy. Hyperuricemia Hyperuricemia or acute gout may be precipitated in certain patients receiving thiazide diuretics. Bisoprolol fumarate, alone or in combination with HCTZ, has been associated with increases in uric acid. However, in U.S. clinical trials, the incidence of treatment-related increases in uric acid was higher during therapy with HCTZ 25 mg (25%) than with B/H 6.25 mg (10%). Because of the very low dose of HCTZ employed, hyperuricemia may be less likely with ZIAC. Non-melanoma skin cancer An increased risk of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) [basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)] with increasing cumulative dose of hydrochlorothiazide exposure has been observed in two epidemiological studies based on the Danish National Cancer Registry. Photosensitizing actions of hydrochlorothiazide could act as a possible mechanism for NMSC. Patients taking hydrochlorothiazide should be informed of the risk of NMSC and advised to regularly check their skin for any new lesions and promptly report any suspicious skin lesions. Possible preventive measures such as limited exposure to sunlight and UV rays and, in case of exposure, adequate protection should be advised to the patients in order to minimize the risk of skin cancer. Suspicious skin lesions should be promptly examined potentially including histological examinations of biopsies. The use of hydrochlorothiazide may also need to be reconsidered in patients who have experienced previous NMSC (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Pharmacodynamics and ADVERSE REACTIONS). Drug Interactions ZIAC may potentiate the action of other antihypertensive agents used concomitantly. ZIAC should not be combined with other beta-blocking agents. Patients receiving catecholamine-depleting drugs, such as reserpine or guanethidine, should be closely monitored because the added beta-adrenergic blocking action of bisoprolol fumarate may produce excessive reduction of sympathetic activity. In patients receiving concurrent therapy with clonidine, if therapy is to be discontinued, it is suggested that ZIAC be discontinued for several days before the withdrawal of clonidine. ZIAC should be used with caution when myocardial depressants or inhibitors of AV conduction, such as certain calcium antagonists (particularly of the phenylalkylamine [verapamil] and benzothiazepine [diltiazem] classes), or antiarrhythmic agents, such as disopyramide, are used concurrently. Both digitalis glycosides and beta-blockers slow atrioventricular conduction and decrease heart rate. Concomitant use can increase the risk of bradycardia. Bisoprolol Fumarate Concurrent use of rifampin increases the metabolic clearance of bisoprolol fumarate, shortening its elimination half-life. However, initial dose modification is generally not necessary. Pharmacokinetic studies document no clinically relevant interactions with other agents given concomitantly, including thiazide diuretics and cimetidine. There was no effect of bisoprolol fumarate on prothrombin times in patients on stable doses of warfarin. Risk of Anaphylactic Reaction While taking beta-blockers, patients with a history of severe anaphylactic reaction to a variety of allergens may be more reactive to repeated challenge, either accidental, diagnostic, or therapeutic. Such patients may be unresponsive to the usual doses of epinephrine used to treat allergic reactions. Hydrochlorothiazide When given concurrently the following drugs may interact with thiazide diuretics. Alcohol, barbiturates, or narcotics - potentiation of orthostatic hypotension may occur. Antidiabetic drugs (oral agents and insulin) - dosage adjustment of the antidiabetic drug may be required. Other antihypertensive drugs - additive effect or potentiation. Cholestyramine and colestipol resins - Absorption of hydrochlorothiazide is impaired in the presence of anionic exchange resins. Single doses of cholestyramine and colestipol resins bind the hydrochlorothiazide and reduce its absorption in the gastrointestinal tract by up to 85 percent and 43 percent, respectively. Corticosteroids, ACTH - Intensified electrolyte depletion, particularly hypokalemia. Pressor amines (e.g., norepinephrine) - possible decreased response to pressor amines but not sufficient to preclude their use. Skeletal muscle relaxants, nondepolarizing (e.g., tubocurarine) - possible increased responsiveness to the muscle relaxant. Lithium - generally should not be given with diuretics. Diuretic agents reduce the renal clearance of lithium and add a high risk of lithium toxicity. Refer to the package insert for lithium preparations before use of such preparations with ZIAC. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs - In some patients, the administration of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent can reduce the diuretic, natriuretic, and antihypertensive effects of loop, potassium sparing, and thiazide diuretics. Therefore, when ZIAC and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents are used concomitantly, the patient should be observed closely to determine if the desired effect of the diuretic is obtained. In patients receiving thiazides, sensitivity reactions may occur with or without a history of allergy or bronchial asthma. Photosensitivity reactions and possible exacerbation or activation of systemic lupus erythematosus have been reported in patients receiving thiazides. The antihypertensive effects of thiazides may be enhanced in the post-sympathectomy patient. Laboratory Test Interactions Based on reports involving thiazides, ZIAC (bisoprolol fumarate and hydrochlorothiazide) may decrease serum levels of protein-bound iodine without signs of thyroid disturbance. Because it includes a thiazide, ZIAC should be discontinued before carrying out tests for parathyroid function (see PRECAUTIONS - Parathyroid Disease).
Adverse reactions
ADVERSE REACTIONS ZIAC Bisoprolol fumarate/HCTZ 6.25 mg is well tolerated in most patients. Most adverse effects (AEs) have been mild and transient. In more than 65,000 patients treated worldwide with bisoprolol fumarate, occurrences of bronchospasm have been rare. Discontinuation rates for AEs were similar for bisoprolol fumarate/HCTZ 6.25 mg and placebo-treated patients. In the United States, 252 patients received bisoprolol fumarate (2.5, 5, 10, or 40 mg)/HCTZ 6.25 mg and 144 patients received placebo in two controlled trials. In Study 1, bisoprolol fumarate 5/HCTZ 6.25 mg was administered for 4 weeks. In Study 2, bisoprolol fumarate 2.5, 10, or 40/HCTZ 6.25 mg was administered for 12 weeks. All adverse experiences, whether drug related or not, and drug related adverse experiences in patients treated with bisoprolol fumarate 2.5-10/HCTZ 6.25 mg, reported during comparable, 4 week treatment periods by at least 2% of bisoprolol fumarate/HCTZ 6.25 mg-treated patients (plus additional selected adverse experiences) are presented in the following table: % of Patients with Adverse Experiences Averages adjusted to combine across studies. Body System/ Adverse Experience All Adverse Experiences Drug Related Adverse Experiences PlaceboCombined across studies. B2.5-40/H6.25 Placebo B2.5-10/H6.25 (n=144) (n=252) (n=144) (n=221) % % % % Cardiovascular bradycardia 0.7 1.1 0.7 0.9 arrhythmia 1.4 0.4 0.0 0.0 peripheral ischemia 0.9 0.7 0.9 0.4 chest pain 0.7 1.8 0.7 0.9 Respiratory bronchospasm 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 cough 1.0 2.2 0.7 1.5 rhinitis 2.0 0.7 0.7 0.9 URI 2.3 2.1 0.0 0.0 Body as a Whole asthenia 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 fatigue 2.7 4.6 1.7 3.0 peripheral edema 0.7 1.1 0.7 0.9 Central Nervous System dizziness 1.8 5.1 1.8 3.2 headache 4.7 4.5 2.7 0.4 Musculoskeletal muscle cramps 0.7 1.2 0.7 1.1 myalgia 1.4 2.4 0.0 0.0 Psychiatric insomnia 2.4 1.1 2.0 1.2 somnolence 0.7 1.1 0.7 0.9 loss of libido 1.2 0.4 1.2 0.4 impotence 0.7 1.1 0.7 1.1 Gastrointestinal diarrhea 1.4 4.3 1.2 1.1 nausea 0.9 1.1 0.9 0.9 dyspepsia 0.7 1.2 0.7 0.9 Other adverse experiences that have been reported with the individual components are listed below. Bisoprolol Fumarate In clinical trials worldwide, or in postmarketing experience, a variety of other AEs, in addition to those listed above, have been reported. While in many cases it is not known whether a causal relationship exists between bisoprolol and these AEs, they are listed to alert the physician to a possible relationship. Central Nervous System Unsteadiness, dizziness, vertigo, headache, syncope, paresthesia, hypoesthesia, hyperesthesia, sleep disturbance/vivid dreams, insomnia, somnolence, depression, anxiety/restlessness, decreased concentration/memory. Cardiovascular Bradycardia, palpitations and other rhythm disturbances, cold extremities, claudication, hypotension, orthostatic hypotension, chest pain, congestive heart failure, dyspnea on exertion. Gastrointestinal Gastric/epigastric/abdominal pain, peptic ulcer, gastritis, dyspepsia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, dry mouth. Musculoskeletal Arthralgia, muscle/joint pain, back/neck pain, muscle cramps, twitching/tremor. Skin Rash, acne, eczema, psoriasis, skin irritation, pruritus, purpura, flushing, sweating, alopecia, dermatitis, exfoliative dermatitis (very rarely), cutaneous vasculitis. Special Senses Visual disturbances, ocular pain/pressure, abnormal lacrimation, tinnitus, decreased hearing, earache, taste abnormalities. Metabolic Gout. Respiratory Asthma, bronchospasm, bronchitis, dyspnea, pharyngitis, rhinitis, sinusitis, URI (upper respiratory infection). Genitourinary Decreased libido/impotence, Peyronie’s disease (very rarely), cystitis, renal colic, polyuria. General Fatigue, asthenia, chest pain, malaise, edema, weight gain, angioedema. In addition, a variety of adverse effects have been reported with other beta-adrenergic blocking agents and should be considered potential adverse effects: Central Nervous System Reversible mental depression progressing to catatonia, hallucinations, an acute reversible syndrome characterized by disorientation to time and place, emotional lability, slightly clouded sensorium. Allergic Fever, combined with aching and sore throat, laryngospasm, and respiratory distress. Hematologic Agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia. Gastrointestinal Mesenteric arterial thrombosis and ischemic colitis. Miscellaneous The oculomucocutaneous syndrome associated with the beta-blocker practolol has not been reported with bisoprolol fumarate during investigational use or extensive foreign marketing experience. Hydrochlorothiazide The following adverse experiences, in addition to those listed in the above table, have been reported with hydrochlorothiazide (generally with doses of 25 mg or greater). General Weakness. Neoplasms benign, malignant and unspecified (including cysts and polyps) Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC)[basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma(SCC)]. Based on available data from epidemiological studies, cumulative dose-dependent association between hydrochlorothiazide and NMSC has been observed. Central Nervous System Vertigo, paresthesia, restlessness. Cardiovascular Orthostatic hypotension (may be potentiated by alcohol, barbiturates, or narcotics). Gastrointestinal Anorexia, gastric irritation, cramping, constipation, jaundice (intrahepatic cholestatic jaundice), pancreatitis, cholecystitis, sialadenitis, dry mouth. Musculoskeletal Muscle spasm. Hypersensitive Reactions Purpura, photosensitivity, rash, urticaria, necrotizing angiitis (vasculitis and cutaneous vasculitis), fever, respiratory distress including pneumonitis and pulmonary edema, anaphylactic reactions. Special Senses Transient blurred vision, xanthopsia. Metabolic Gout. Genitourinary Sexual dysfunction, renal failure, renal dysfunction, interstitial nephritis. Skin Erythema multiforme including Stevens-Johnson syndrome, exfoliative dermatitis including toxic epidermal necrolysis. Laboratory Abnormalities ZIAC Because of the low dose of hydrochlorothiazide in ZIAC (bisoprolol fumarate and hydrochlorothiazide), adverse metabolic effects with bisoprolol fumarate/HCTZ 6.25 mg are less frequent and of smaller magnitude than with HCTZ 25 mg. Laboratory data on serum potassium from the U.S. placebo-controlled trials are shown in the following table: Serum Potassium Data from U.S. Placebo Controlled Studies Placebo Combined across studies. B2.5/ H6.25 mg B5/ H6.25 mg B10/ H6.25 mg HCTZ 25 mg (N=130Patients with normal serum potassium at baseline.) (N=28) (N=149) (N=28) (N=142) Potassium Mean ChangeMean change from baseline at Week 4. (mEq/L) +0.04 +0.11 -0.08 0.00 -0.30% HypokalemiaPercentage of patients with abnormality at Week 4. 0.0% 0.0% 0.7% 0.0% 5.5% Treatment with both beta blockers and thiazide diuretics is associated with increases in uric acid. However, the magnitude of the change in patients treated with B/H 6.25 mg was smaller than in patients treated with HCTZ 25 mg. Mean increases in serum triglycerides were observed in patients treated with bisoprolol fumarate and hydrochlorothiazide 6.25 mg. Total cholesterol was generally unaffected, but small decreases in HDL cholesterol were noted. Other laboratory abnormalities that have been reported with the individual components are listed below. Bisoprolol Fumarate In clinical trials, the most frequently reported laboratory change was an increase in serum triglycerides, but this was not a consistent finding. Sporadic liver test abnormalities have been reported. In the U.S. controlled trials experience with bisoprolol fumarate treatment for 4-12 weeks, the incidence of concomitant elevations in SGOT and SGPT from 1 to 2 times normal was 3.9%, compared to 2.5% for placebo. No patient had concomitant elevations greater than twice normal. In the long-term, uncontrolled experience with bisoprolol fumarate treatment for 6-18 months, the incidence of one or more concomitant elevations in SGOT and SGPT from 1 to 2 times normal was 6.2%. The incidence of multiple occurrences was 1.9%. For concomitant elevations in SGOT and SGPT of greater than twice normal, the incidence was 1.5%. The incidence of multiple occurrences was 0.3%. In many cases these elevations were attributed to underlying disorders, or resolved during continued treatment with bisoprolol fumarate. Other laboratory changes included small increases in uric acid, creatinine, BUN, serum potassium, glucose, and phosphorus and decreases in WBC and platelets. There have been occasional reports of eosinophilia. These were generally not of clinical importance and rarely resulted in discontinuation of bisoprolol fumarate. As with other beta-blockers, ANA conversions have also been reported on bisoprolol fumarate. About 15% of patients in long-term studies converted to a positive titer, although about one-third of these patients subsequently reconverted to a negative titer while on continued therapy. Hydrochlorothiazide Hyperglycemia, glycosuria, hyperuricemia, hypokalemia and other electrolyte imbalances (see PRECAUTIONS), hyperlipidemia, hypercalcemia, leukopenia, agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia, aplastic anemia, and hemolytic anemia have been associated with HCTZ therapy.

Usage information

Dosing and administration
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Bisoprolol is an effective treatment of hypertension in once-daily doses of 2.5 to 40 mg, while hydrochlorothiazide is effective in doses of 12.5 to 50 mg. In clinical trials of bisoprolol/hydrochlorothiazide combination therapy using bisoprolol doses of 2.5 to 20 mg and hydrochlorothiazide doses of 6.25 to 25 mg, the antihypertensive effects increased with increasing doses of either component. The adverse effects (see WARNINGS) of bisoprolol are a mixture of dose-dependent phenomena (primarily bradycardia, diarrhea, asthenia, and fatigue) and dose-independent phenomena (eg, occasional rash); those of hydrochlorothiazide are a mixture of dose-dependent phenomena (primarily hypokalemia) and dose-independent phenomena (eg, possibly pancreatitis); the dose-dependent phenomena for each being much more common than the dose-independent phenomena. The latter consist of those few that are truly idiosyncratic in nature or those that occur with such low frequency that a dose relationship may be difficult to discern. Therapy with a combination of bisoprolol and hydrochlorothiazide will be associated with both sets of dose-independent adverse effects, and to minimize these, it may be appropriate to begin combination therapy only after a patient has failed to achieve the desired effect with monotherapy. On the other hand, regimens that combine low doses of bisoprolol and hydrochlorothiazide should produce minimal dose-dependent adverse effects, eg, bradycardia, diarrhea, asthenia and fatigue, and minimal dose-dependent adverse metabolic effects, ie, decreases in serum potassium (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY). Therapy Guided by Clinical Effect A patient whose blood pressure is not adequately controlled with 2.5-20 mg bisoprolol daily may instead be given ZIAC. Patients whose blood pressures are adequately controlled with 50 mg of hydrochlorothiazide daily, but who experience significant potassium loss with this regimen, may achieve similar blood pressure control without electrolyte disturbance if they are switched to ZIAC. Initial Therapy Antihypertensive therapy may be initiated with the lowest dose of ZIAC, one 2.5/6.25 mg tablet once daily. Subsequent titration (14 day intervals) may be carried out with ZIAC tablets up to the maximum recommended dose 20/12.5 mg (two 10/6.25 mg tablets) once daily, as appropriate. Replacement Therapy The combination may be substituted for the titrated individual components. Cessation of Therapy If withdrawal of ZIAC therapy is planned, it should be achieved gradually over a period of about 2 weeks. Patients should be carefully observed. Patients with Renal or Hepatic Impairment: As noted in the WARNINGS section, caution must be used in dosing/titrating patients with hepatic impairment or renal dysfunction. Since there is no indication that hydrochlorothiazide is dialyzable, and limited data suggest that bisoprolol is not dialyzable, drug replacement is not necessary in patients undergoing dialysis. Geriatric Patients: Dosage adjustment on the basis of age is not usually necessary, unless there is also significant renal or hepatic dysfunction (see above and WARNINGS section). Pediatric Patients: There is no pediatric experience with ZIAC.
Pregnancy and lactation
Nursing Mothers Bisoprolol fumarate alone or in combination with HCTZ has not been studied in nursing mothers. Thiazides are excreted in human breast milk. Small amounts of bisoprolol fumarate (<2% of the dose) have been detected in the milk of lactating rats. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Interactions

Drug Interactions ZIAC may potentiate the action of other antihypertensive agents used concomitantly. ZIAC should not be combined with other beta-blocking agents. Patients receiving catecholamine-depleting drugs, such as reserpine or guanethidine, should be closely monitored because the added beta-adrenergic blocking action of bisoprolol fumarate may produce excessive reduction of sympathetic activity. In patients receiving concurrent therapy with clonidine, if therapy is to be discontinued, it is suggested that ZIAC be discontinued for several days before the withdrawal of clonidine. ZIAC should be used with caution when myocardial depressants or inhibitors of AV conduction, such as certain calcium antagonists (particularly of the phenylalkylamine [verapamil] and benzothiazepine [diltiazem] classes), or antiarrhythmic agents, such as disopyramide, are used concurrently. Both digitalis glycosides and beta-blockers slow atrioventricular conduction and decrease heart rate. Concomitant use can increase the risk of bradycardia.

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number NDA020186
Agency product number UR59KN573L
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 51285-050,51285-040,51285-047
Date Last Revised 09-01-2019
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
RXCUI 854921
Storage and handling Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Dispense in a tight container. Distributed by: TEVA PHARMACEUTICALS USA, INC. North Wales, PA 19454 ZIAC-001 Rev. 01/2019
Marketing authorisation holder Teva Women's Health, Inc.