Data from FDA (Food and Drug Administration, USA) - Curated by EPG Health - Last updated 22 November 2019

Indication(s)

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE ZEGERID® for oral suspension and ZEGERID capsules are indicated in adults for the: •short-term treatment of active duodenal ulcer. Most patients heal within four weeks. Some patients may require an additional four weeks of therapy. •short-term treatment (4 to 8 weeks) of active benign gastric ulcer. •treatment of heartburn and other symptoms associated with GERD for up to 4 weeks. •short-term treatment (4 to 8 weeks) of EE due to acid-mediated GERD which has been diagnosed by endoscopy in adults. oThe efficacy of ZEGERID used for longer than 8 weeks in patients with EE has not been established. If a patient does not respond to 8 weeks of treatment, an additional 4 weeks of treatment may be given. If there is recurrence of EE or GERD symptoms (e.g., heartburn), additional 4 to 8 week courses of ZEGERID may be considered. •maintenance of healing of EE due to acid-mediated GERD. Controlled studies do not extend beyond 12 months. ZEGERID for oral suspension is indicated in adults for the: •reduction of risk of upper GI bleeding in critically ill adult patients. ZEGERID is a proton pump inhibitor (PPI). ZEGERID for oral suspension and ZEGERID capsules are indicated in adults for: •Treatment of active duodenal ulcer (1) •Treatment of active benign gastric ulcer (1) •Treatment of erosive esophagitis (EE) due to acid-mediated gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) (1) •Maintenance of healing of EE (1)ZEGERID for oral suspension is indicated in adults for: •Reduction of risk of upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in critically ill patients (1)

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Advisory information

contraindications
4 CONTRAINDICATIONS • ZEGERID is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to substituted benzimidazoles or to any component of the formulation. Hypersensitivity reactions may include anaphylaxis, anaphylactic shock, angioedema, bronchospasm, acute interstitial nephritis, and urticaria. [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2), Adverse Reactions (6.2)] • Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), including ZEGERID, are contraindicated in patients receiving rilpivirine containing products [see Drug Interactions (7)]. •Known hypersensitivity to any components of the formulation (4) •Patients receiving rilpivirine-containing products (4, 7)
Adverse reactions
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS The following serious adverse reactions are described below and elsewhere in labeling: •Acute Interstitial Nephritis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)] • Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrhea [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)] •Bone Fracture [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)] •Cutaneous and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)] •Cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B-12) Deficiency [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)] •Hypomagnesemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)] •Fundic Gland Polyps [see Warnings and Precautions (5.13)] Most common adverse reactions (≥2%) are: headache, abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, and flatulence. (6.1) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Salix Pharmaceuticals, a division of Bausch Health US, LLC, at 1-800-321-4576 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. The safety of ZEGERID has been established, in part, based on oral studies of an oral delayed-release omeprazole product. Clinical Trials with Omeprazole In the U.S. clinical trial population of 465 adult patients, the adverse reactions summarized in Table 3 were reported to occur in 1% or more of patients on therapy with omeprazole. Table 3: Adverse Reactions Occurring in 1% or More of Adult Patients in US Clinical Trials of Omeprazole Therapy Omeprazole % (n = 465) Placebo % (n = 64) Ranitidine % (n = 195) Headache 7 6 8 Diarrhea 3 3 2 Abdominal Pain 2 3 3 Nausea 2 3 4 Upper Respiratory Infection (URI) 2 2 3 Dizziness 2 0 3 Vomiting 2 5 2 Rash 2 0 0 Constipation 1 0 0 Cough 1 0 2 Asthenia 1 2 2 Back Pain 1 0 1 Table 4 summarizes the adverse reactions that occurred in 1% or more of omeprazole-treated patients from international double-blind and open-label clinical trials in which 2,631 patients and subjects received omeprazole. Table 4: Adverse Reactions Occurring in 1% or More of Adult Patients in International Clinical Trials of Omeprazole Therapy Omeprazole % (N = 2631) Placebo % (N = 120) Abdominal Pain 5.2 3.3 Nausea 4.0 6.7 Diarrhea 3.7 2.5 Vomiting 3.2 10.0 Headache 2.9 2.5 Flatulence 2.7 5.8 Acid Regurgitation 1.9 3.3 Constipation 1.5 0.8 Asthenia 1.3 0.8 Clinical Trial of 40 mg ZEGERID for Oral Suspension Adverse reactions reported in at least 3% of critically ill adult patients in a clinical trial of 40 mg ZEGERID for oral suspension compared to intravenous cimetidine for up to 14 days are presented in Table 5. Table 5: Common Adverse Reactionsreported in at least 3% of patients in either treatment group. by Body System and Preferred Term in a Randomized Controlled Trial of Critically Ill Adult Patients Treated up to 14 Days Body System Preferred Term ZEGERID 40 mg for oral suspension once daily % (N=178) Intravenous Cimetidine 1,200 mg per day % (N=181) Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders Anemia NOS 7.9 7.7 Anemia NOS Aggravated 2.2 3.9 Thrombocytopenia 10.1 6.1 Cardiac Disorders Atrial Fibrillation 6.2 3.9 Bradycardia NOS 3.9 2.8 Supraventricular Tachycardia 3.4 1.1 Tachycardia NOS 3.4 3.3 Ventricular Tachycardia 4.5 3.3 Gastrointestinal Disorders In this trial, clinically significant upper gastrointestinal bleeding was considered a serious adverse reaction, but it is not included in this table. Constipation 4.5 4.4 Diarrhea NOS 3.9 8.3 Gastric Hypomotility 1.7 3.3 General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions Hyperpyrexia 4.5 1.7 Edema NOS 2.8 6.1 Pyrexia 20.2 16.0 Infections and Infestations Candidal Infection NOS 1.7 3.9 Oral Candidiasis 3.9 0.6 Sepsis NOS 5.1 5.0 Urinary Tract Infection 2.2 3.3 Investigations Liver Function Tests NOS Abnormal 1.7 3.3 Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders Fluid Overload 5.1 7.7 Hyperglycemia NOS 10.7 11.6 Hyperkalemia 2.2 3.3 Hypernatremia 1.7 5.0 Hypocalcemia 6.2 5.5 Hypoglycemia NOS 3.4 4.4 Hypokalemia 12.4 13.3 Hypomagnesemia 10.1 9.9 Hyponatremia 3.9 2.8 Hypophosphatemia 6.2 3.9 Psychiatric Disorders Agitation 3.4 8.8 Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome 3.4 3.9 Nosocomial Pneumonia 11.2 9.4 Pneumothorax NOS 0.6 4.4 Respiratory Failure 1.7 3.3 Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders Decubitus Ulcer 3.4 2.8 Rash NOS 5.6 6.1 Vascular Disorders Hypertension NOS 7.9 3.3 Hypotension NOS 9.6 6.6 NOS = not otherwise specified 6.2 Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Omeprazole Body as a Whole: Hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis, anaphylactic shock, angioedema, bronchospasm, interstitial nephritis, urticaria (see also Skin below), fever, pain, fatigue, malaise, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Cardiovascular: Chest pain or angina, tachycardia, bradycardia, palpitation, elevated blood pressure, and peripheral edema. Gastrointestinal: Pancreatitis (some fatal), anorexia, irritable colon, flatulence, fecal discoloration, esophageal candidiasis, mucosal atrophy of the tongue, dry mouth, stomatitis, abdominal swelling and fundic gland polyps. Gastroduodenal carcinoids have been reported in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome on long-term treatment with omeprazole. This finding is believed to be a manifestation of the underlying condition, which is known to be associated with such tumors. Hepatic: Mild and, rarely, marked elevations of liver function tests [ALT (SGPT), AST (SGOT), ᵞ-glutamyl transpeptidase, alkaline phosphatase, and bilirubin (jaundice)]. In rare instances, overt liver disease has occurred, including hepatocellular, cholestatic, or mixed hepatitis, liver necrosis (some fatal), hepatic failure (some fatal), and hepatic encephalopathy. Infections and Infestations: Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea. Metabolism and Nutritional Disorders: Hyponatremia, hypoglycemia, hypomagnesemia, and weight gain. Musculoskeletal: Muscle cramps, myalgia, muscle weakness, joint pain, bone fracture, and leg pain. Nervous System/Psychiatric: Psychic disturbances including depression, agitation, aggression, hallucinations, confusion, insomnia, nervousness, tremors, apathy, somnolence, anxiety, dream abnormalities; vertigo; paresthesia; and hemifacial dysesthesia. Respiratory: Epistaxis, pharyngeal pain. Skin: Severe generalized skin reactions including toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN; some fatal), Stevens-Johnson syndrome, cutaneous lupus erythematosus and erythema multiforme (some severe); purpura and/or petechiae (some with rechallenge); skin inflammation, urticaria, angioedema, pruritus, photosensitivity, alopecia, dry skin, and hyperhidrosis. Special Senses: Tinnitus, taste perversion. Ocular: Blurred vision, ocular irritation, dry eye syndrome, optic atrophy, anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, optic neuritis, and double vision. Urogenital: Interstitial nephritis (some with positive rechallenge), urinary tract infection, microscopic pyuria, urinary frequency, elevated serum creatinine, proteinuria, hematuria, glycosuria, testicular pain, and gynecomastia. Hematologic: Rare instances of pancytopenia, agranulocytosis (some fatal), thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, leukopenia, anemia, leukocytosis, and hemolytic anemia have been reported. Sodium Bicarbonate metabolic alkalosis, seizures, and tetany.

Usage information

Dosing and administration
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Indication Recommended Adult Dosage ZEGERID for oral suspension or ZEGERID capsules Active Duodenal Ulcer 20 mg once daily for 4 weeks; some patients may require an additional 4 weeks Active Benign Gastric Ulcer 40 mg once daily for 4 to 8 weeks Treatment of Symptomatic GERD 20 mg once daily for up to 4 weeks Treatment of EE due to Acid-Mediated GERD 20 mg once daily for 4 to 8 weeks* Maintenance of Healing of EE due to Acid-Mediated GERD 20 mg once daily** 40 mg ZEGERID for oral suspension Reduction of Risk of Upper GI Bleeding in Critically Ill Patients 40 mg initially followed by 40 mg 6 to 8 hours later and 40 mg once daily thereafter for 14 days * an additional 4 weeks of treatment may be given if no response; if recurrence additional 4 to 8-week courses may be considered. ** studied for 12 months. 2.1 Important Administration Instructions •ZEGERID (omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate) is available as a capsule and as a powder for oral suspension in 20 mg and 40 mg strengths of omeprazole for adult use. All recommended doses throughout the labeling are based upon omeprazole. •The sodium content of ZEGERID capsules and ZEGERID for oral suspension should be taken into consideration when prescribing this product [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]: oZEGERID capsule: each 20 mg and 40 mg capsule contains 1,100 mg (13 mEq) of sodium bicarbonate. The total content of sodium in each capsule is 304 mg. oZEGERID for oral suspension: each 20 mg and 40 mg packet of contains 1,680 mg (20 mEq) of sodium bicarbonate. The total content of sodium in each packet is 460 mg. •Due to the sodium bicarbonate content of ZEGERID: •Two packets of 20 mg ZEGERID for oral suspension are not interchangeable with one packet of 40 mg ZEGERID for oral suspension. •Two 20 mg ZEGERID capsules are not interchangeable with one 40 mg ZEGERID capsule. 2.2 Dosage Regimen The recommended dosage regimen by indication in adults of ZEGERID for oral suspension and ZEGERID capsules is summarized in Table 1. Only 40 mg ZEGERID for oral suspension is indicated for the reduction of risk of upper GI bleeding in critically ill adult patients and the dosage regimen is summarized in Table 2. All recommended dosages are based upon omeprazole content. Table 1: Recommended Dosage Regimen of ZEGERID for Oral Suspension and ZEGERID Capsules in Adults by Indication Indication Dosage of ZEGERID for oral suspension or ZEGERID capsules Treatment Duration Treatment of Active Duodenal Ulcer 20 mg once daily 4 weeksMost patients heal within 4 weeks. Some patients may require an additional 4 weeks of therapy. [see Clinical Studies (14.1)] The efficacy of ZEGERID used for longer than 8 weeks in patients with EE has not been established. If a patient does not respond to 8 weeks of treatment, an additional 4 weeks of treatment may be given. If there is recurrence of EE or GERD symptoms (e.g., heartburn), additional 4 to 8 week courses of ZEGERID may be considered. Treatment of Active Benign Gastric Ulcer 40 mg once daily 4 to 8 weeks Treatment of Symptomatic GERD 20 mg once daily Up to 4 weeks Treatment of EE due to Acid-Mediated GERD 20 mg once daily 4 to 8 weeks Maintenance of Healing of EE due to Acid-Mediated GERD 20 mg once daily Controlled studies do not extend beyond 12 months. Table 2: Recommended Dosage Regimen of 40 mg ZEGERID for Oral Suspension in Adults by Indication Indication Dosage of 40 mg ZEGERID for oral suspension Treatment Duration Reduction of Risk of Upper GI Bleeding in Critically Ill Patients 40 mg initially; followed by 40 mg 6 to 8 hours later; and 40 mg once daily thereafter 14 days 2.3 Preparation and Administration ZEGERID Capsules •Swallow capsules intact with water. Do not open the capsule and do not administer with liquids other than water. •Take on an empty stomach at least one hour before a meal [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. ZEGERID for Oral Suspension •ZEGERID for oral suspension is intended to be mixed with water and administered orally or via a nasogastric (NG) or orogastric (OG) tube. •If administered orally, take on an empty stomach at least one hour before a meal. •If administered via NG or OG tube, suspend enteral feeding approximately 3 hours before and 1 hour after administration of ZEGERID for oral suspension. Oral Administration oEmpty the contents of a packet into a small cup containing 5 to 10 mL of water. Do not mix with liquids or foods other than water. oStir well and drink immediately. oRefill cup with water and drink immediately. Nasogastric (NG) or Orogastric (OG) Tube Administration oAdd 20 mL of water to a catheter tipped syringe and then add the contents of a packet. Use an appropriately-sized catheter tipped syringe. Do not mix with liquids or foods other than water. o Shake the syringe to dissolve the powder. oAdminister through the NG or orogastric tube into the stomach right away. oRefill the syringe with an equal amount of water. oShake and flush any remaining contents from the NG tube or orogastric tube into the stomach.
Use in special populations
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS Hepatic Impairment and Asian Patients: Avoid use for maintenance of healing of erosive esophagitis. (8.6, 8.7) 8.1 Pregnancy Risk Summary There are no adequate and well-controlled studies with ZEGERID in pregnant women. ZEGERID contains omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate. Omeprazole There are no adequate and well-controlled studies with omeprazole in pregnant women. Available epidemiologic data fail to demonstrate an increased risk of major congenital malformations or other adverse pregnancy outcomes with first trimester omeprazole use. Reproduction studies in rats and rabbits resulted in dose-dependent embryo-lethality at omeprazole doses that were approximately 3.4 to 34 times an oral human dose of 40 mg (based on a body surface area for a 60 kg person). Teratogenicity was not observed in animal reproduction studies with administration of oral esomeprazole (an enantiomer of omeprazole) magnesium in rats and rabbits during organogenesis with doses about 68 times and 42 times, respectively, an oral human dose of 40 mg esomeprazole or 40 mg omeprazole (based on body surface area for a 60 kg person). Changes in bone morphology were observed in offspring of rats dosed through most of pregnancy and lactation at doses equal to or greater than approximately 34 times an oral human dose of 40 mg esomeprazole or 40 mg omeprazole. When maternal administration was confined to gestation only, there were no effects on bone physeal morphology in the offspring at any age (see Data). Sodium Bicarbonate Available data with sodium bicarbonate use in pregnant women are insufficient to identify a drug associated risk of major birth defects or miscarriage. Published animal studies report that sodium bicarbonate administered to rats, mice or rabbits during pregnancy did not cause adverse developmental effects in offspring. The estimated background risks of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population are unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively. Data Human Data There are no adequate and well-controlled studies with ZEGERID in pregnant women. Four published epidemiological studies compared the frequency of congenital abnormalities among infants born to women who used omeprazole during pregnancy with the frequency of abnormalities among infants of women exposed to H2-receptor antagonists or other controls. A population-based retrospective cohort epidemiological study from the Swedish Medical Birth Register, covering approximately 99% of pregnancies, from 1995-99, reported on 955 infants (824 exposed during the first trimester with 39 of these exposed beyond first trimester, and 131 exposed after the first trimester) whose mothers used omeprazole during pregnancy. The number of infants exposed in utero to omeprazole that had any malformation, low birth weight, low Apgar score, or hospitalization was similar to the number observed in this population. The number of infants born with ventricular septal defects and the number of stillborn infants was slightly higher in the omeprazole-exposed infants than the expected number in this population. A population-based retrospective cohort study covering all live births in Denmark from 1996-2009 reported on 1,800 live births whose mothers used omeprazole during the first trimester of pregnancy and 837,317 live births whose mothers did not use any PPI. The overall rate of birth defects in infants born to mothers with first trimester exposure to omeprazole was 2.9% and 2.6% in infants born to mothers not exposed to any PPI during the first trimester. A retrospective cohort study reported on 689 pregnant women exposed to either H2-blockers or omeprazole in the first trimester (134 exposed to omeprazole) and 1,572 pregnant women unexposed to either during the first trimester. The overall malformation rate in offspring born to mothers with first trimester exposure to omeprazole, an H2-blocker, or were unexposed was 3.6%, 5.5%, and 4.1% respectively. A small prospective observational cohort study followed 113 women exposed to omeprazole during pregnancy (89% first trimester exposures). The reported rate of major congenital malformations was 4% in the omeprazole group, 2% in controls exposed to non-teratogens, and 2.8% in disease-paired controls. Rates of spontaneous and elective abortions, preterm deliveries, gestational age at delivery, and mean birth weight were similar among the groups. Several studies have reported no apparent adverse short-term effects on the infant when single-dose oral or intravenous omeprazole was administered to over 200 pregnant women as premedication for cesarean section under general anesthesia. Animal Data Omeprazole Reproductive studies conducted with omeprazole in rats at oral doses up to 138 mg/kg/day (about 34 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis) and in rabbits at doses up to 69.1 mg/kg/day (about 34 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis) during organogenesis did not disclose any evidence for a teratogenic potential of omeprazole. In rabbits, omeprazole in a dose range of 6.9 to 69.1 mg/kg/day (about 3.4 to 34 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis) administered during organogenesis produced dose-related increases in embryo-lethality, fetal resorptions, and pregnancy disruptions. In rats, dose-related embryo/fetal toxicity and postnatal developmental toxicity were observed in offspring resulting from parents treated with omeprazole at 13.8 to 138.0 mg/kg/day (about 3.4 to 34 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis), administered prior to mating through the lactation period. Esomeprazole The data described below was generated from studies using esomeprazole, an enantiomer of omeprazole. The animal to human dose multiples are based on the assumption of equal systemic exposure to esomeprazole in humans following oral administration of either 40 mg esomeprazole or 40 mg omeprazole. No effects on embryo-fetal development were observed in reproduction studies with esomeprazole magnesium in rats at oral doses up to 280 mg/kg/day (about 68 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis) and in rabbits at oral doses up to 86 mg/kg/day (about 42 times an oral human dose of 40 mg of esomeprazole or 40 mg omeprazole on a body surface area basis) administered during organogenesis. A pre- and postnatal developmental toxicity study in rats with additional endpoints to evaluate bone development were performed with esomeprazole magnesium at oral doses of 14 to 280 mg/kg/day (about 3.4 to 68 times an oral human dose of 40 mg of esomeprazole or 40 mg omeprazole on a body surface area basis). Neonatal/early postnatal (birth to weaning) survival was decreased at doses equal to or greater than 138 mg/kg/day (about 34 times an oral human dose of 40 mg esomeprazole or 40 mg omeprazole on a body surface area basis). Body weight and body weight gain were reduced and neurobehavioral or general developmental delays in the immediate post-weaning timeframe were evident at doses equal to or greater than 69 mg/kg/day (about 17 times an oral human dose of 40 mg esomeprazole or 40 mg omeprazole on a body surface area basis). In addition, decreased femur length, width and thickness of cortical bone, decreased thickness of the tibial growth plate and minimal to mild bone marrow hypocellularity were noted at doses of esomeprazole magnesium equal to or greater than 14 mg/kg/day (about 3.4 times an oral human dose of 40 mg esomeprazole or 40 mg omeprazole on a body surface area basis). Physeal dysplasia in the femur was observed in offspring of rats treated with oral doses of esomeprazole magnesium at doses equal to or greater than 138 mg/kg/day (about 34 times an oral human dose of 40 mg esomeprazole or 40 mg omeprazole on a body surface area basis). Effects on maternal bone were observed in pregnant and lactating rats in a pre- and postnatal toxicity study when esomeprazole magnesium was administered at oral doses of 14 to 280 mg/kg/day (about 3.4 to 68 times an oral human dose of 40 mg esomeprazole or 40 mg omeprazole on a body surface area basis). When rats were dosed from gestational Day 7 through weaning on postnatal Day 21, a statistically significant decrease in maternal femur weight of up to 14% (as compared to placebo treatment) was observed at doses of esomeprazole magnesium equal to or greater than 138 mg/kg/day (about 34 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis). A pre- and postnatal development study in rats with esomeprazole strontium (using equimolar doses compared to esomeprazole magnesium study) produced similar results in dams and pups as described above. A follow up developmental toxicity study in rats with further time points to evaluate pup bone development from postnatal day 2 to adulthood was performed with esomeprazole magnesium at oral doses of 280 mg/kg/day (about 68 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis) where esomeprazole administration was from either gestational day 7 or gestational day 16 until parturition. When maternal administration was confined to gestation only, there were no effects on bone physeal morphology in the offspring at any age. 8.2 Lactation Risk Summary Available data from the published literature suggest both components of ZEGERID, omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate, are present in human milk. There are no clinical data on the effects of omeprazole or sodium bicarbonate on the breastfed infant or on milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for ZEGERID and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from ZEGERID or from the underlying maternal condition. 8.4 Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness of ZEGERID have not been established in pediatric patients. Juvenile Animal Data Esomeprazole, an enantiomer of omeprazole, was shown to decrease body weight, body weight gain, femur weight, femur length, and overall growth at oral doses about 34 to 68 times a daily human dose of 40 mg esomeprazole or 40 mg omeprazole based on body surface area in a juvenile rat toxicity study. The animal to human dose multiples are based on the assumption of equal systemic exposure to esomeprazole in humans following oral administration of either 40 mg esomeprazole or 40 mg omeprazole. A 28-day toxicity study with a 14-day recovery phase was conducted in juvenile rats with esomeprazole magnesium at doses of 70 to 280 mg/kg/day (about 17 to 68 times a daily oral human dose of 40 mg esomeprazole or 40 mg omeprazole on a body surface area basis). An increase in the number of deaths at the high dose of 280 mg/kg/day was observed when juvenile rats were administered esomeprazole magnesium from postnatal day 7 through postnatal day 35. In addition, doses equal to or greater than 140 mg/kg/day (about 34 times a daily oral human dose of 40 mg esomeprazole or 40 mg omeprazole on a body surface area basis), produced treatment-related decreases in body weight (approximately 14%) and body weight gain, decreases in femur weight and femur length, and affected overall growth. Comparable findings described above have also been observed in this study with another esomeprazole salt, esomeprazole strontium, at equimolar doses of esomeprazole. 8.5 Geriatric Use Omeprazole was administered to over 2000 elderly individuals (≥65 years of age) in clinical trials in the U.S. and Europe. There were no differences in safety and effectiveness between the elderly and younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in response between the elderly and younger subjects, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. Pharmacokinetic studies with buffered omeprazole have shown the elimination rate was somewhat decreased in the elderly and bioavailability was increased. The plasma clearance of omeprazole was 250 mL/min (about half that of young subjects). The plasma half-life averaged one hour, about twice that in nonelderly, healthy subjects taking ZEGERID. However, no dosage adjustment is necessary in the elderly. [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] 8.6 Hepatic Impairment In patients with hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class A, B, or C) exposure to omeprazole substantially increased compared to healthy subjects. Avoid use of ZEGERID in patients with hepatic impairment for maintenance of healing of erosive esophagitis [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] 8.7 Asian Population In studies of healthy subjects, Asians had approximately a four-fold higher exposure than Caucasians. Avoid use of ZEGERID in Asian patients for maintenance of healing of erosive esophagitis. [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.5)]

Interactions

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS Tables 6 and 7 include drugs with clinically important drug interactions and interaction with diagnostics when administered concomitantly with omeprazole and instructions for preventing or managing them. Consult the labeling of concomitantly used drugs to obtain further information about interactions with PPIs. Table 6: Clinically Relevant Interactions Affecting Drugs Co-Administered with Omeprazole and Interaction with Diagnostics Antiretrovirals Clinical Impact: The effect of PPIs on antiretroviral drugs is variable. The clinical importance and the mechanisms behind these interactions are not always known. •Decreased exposure of some antiretroviral drugs (e.g., rilpivirine, atazanavir and nelfinavir) when used concomitantly with omeprazole may reduce antiviral effect and promote the development of drug resistance [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. •Increased exposure of other antiretroviral drugs (e.g., saquinavir) when used concomitantly with omeprazole may increase toxicity [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. • There are other antiretroviral drugs which do not result in clinically relevant interactions with omeprazole. Intervention: Rilpivirine-containing products: Concomitant use with ZEGERID is contraindicated [see Contraindications (4)]. Atazanavir: Avoid concomitant use with ZEGERID. See prescribing information for atazanavir for dosing information. Nelfinavir: Avoid concomitant use with ZEGERID. See prescribing information for nelfinavir. Saquinavir: See the prescribing information for saquinavir for monitoring of potential saquinavir-related toxicities. Other antiretrovirals: See prescribing information for specific antiretroviral drugs. Warfarin Clinical Impact: Increased INR and prothrombin time in patients receiving PPIs, including omeprazole, and warfarin concomitantly. Increases in INR and prothrombin time may lead to abnormal bleeding and even death. Intervention: Monitor INR and prothrombin time and adjust the dose of warfarin, if needed, to maintain target INR range. Methotrexate Clinical Impact: Concomitant use of omeprazole with methotrexate (primarily at high dose) may elevate and prolong serum concentrations of methotrexate and/or its metabolite hydroxymethotrexate, possibly leading to methotrexate toxicities. No formal drug interaction studies of high-dose methotrexate with PPIs have been conducted [see Warnings and Precautions (5.12)]. Intervention: A temporary withdrawal of ZEGERID may be considered in some patients receiving high-dose methotrexate. CYP2C19 Substrates (e.g., clopidogrel, citalopram, cilostazol, phenytoin, diazepam) Clopidogrel Clinical Impact: Concomitant use of omeprazole 80 mg results in reduced plasma concentrations of the active metabolite of clopidogrel and a reduction in platelet inhibition [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. There are no adequate combination studies of a lower dose of omeprazole or a higher dose of clopidogrel in comparison with the approved dose of clopidogrel. Intervention: Avoid concomitant use with ZEGERID. Consider use of alternative anti-platelet therapy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]. Citalopram Clinical Impact: Increased exposure of citalopram leading to an increased risk of QT prolongation [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Intervention: Limit the dose of citalopram to a maximum of 20 mg per day. See prescribing information for citalopram. Cilostazol Clinical Impact: Increased exposure of one of the active metabolites of cilostazol (3,4-dihydro-cilostazol) [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. Intervention: Reduce the dose of cilostazol to 50 mg twice daily. See prescribing information for cilostazol. Phenytoin Clinical Impact: Potential for increased exposure of phenytoin. Intervention: Monitor phenytoin serum concentrations. Dose adjustment may be needed to maintain therapeutic drug concentrations. See prescribing information for phenytoin. Diazepam Clinical Impact: Increased exposure of diazepam [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Intervention: Monitor patients for increased sedation and reduce the dose of diazepam as needed. Digoxin Clinical Impact: Potential for increased exposure of digoxin [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. Intervention: Monitor digoxin concentrations. Dose adjustment may be needed to maintain therapeutic drug concentrations. See digoxin prescribing information. Drugs Dependent on Gastric pH for Absorption (e.g., iron salts, erlotinib, dasatinib, nilotinib, mycophenolate mofetil, ketoconazole/itraconazole) Clinical Impact: Omeprazole can reduce the absorption of other drugs due to its effect on reducing intragastric acidity. Intervention: Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF): Co-administration of omeprazole in healthy subjects and in transplant patients receiving MMF has been reported to reduce the exposure to the active metabolite, mycophenolic acid (MPA), possibly due to a decrease in MMF solubility at an increased gastric pH. The clinical relevance of reduced MPA exposure on organ rejection has not been established in transplant patients receiving ZEGERID and MMF. Use ZEGERID with caution in transplant patients receiving MMF [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. See the prescribing information for other drugs dependent on gastric pH for absorption. Tacrolimus Clinical Impact: Potential for increased exposure of tacrolimus, especially in transplant patients who are intermediate or poor metabolizers of CYP2C19. Intervention: Monitor tacrolimus whole blood concentrations. Dose adjustment may be needed to maintain therapeutic drug concentrations. See prescribing information for tacrolimus. Interactions with Investigations of Neuroendocrine Tumors Clinical Impact: Serum chromogranin A (CgA) levels increase secondary to PPI-induced decreases in gastric acidity. The increased CgA level may cause false positive results in diagnostic investigations for neuroendocrine tumors [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11), Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)]. Intervention: Temporarily stop PRILOSEC treatment at least 14 days before assessing CgA levels and consider repeating the test if initial CgA levels are high. If serial tests are performed (e.g., for monitoring), the same commercial laboratory should be used for testing, as reference ranges between tests may vary. Interaction with Secretin Stimulation Test Clinical Impact: Hyper-response in gastrin secretion in response to secretin stimulation test, falsely suggesting gastrinoma. Intervention: Temporarily stop ZEGERID treatment at least 14 days before assessing to allow gastrin levels to return to baseline [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)]. False Positive Urine Tests for THC Clinical Impact: There have been reports of false positive urine screening tests for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in patients receiving PPIs. Intervention: An alternative confirmatory method should be considered to verify positive results. Other Clinical Impact: There have been clinical reports of interactions with other drugs metabolized via the cytochrome P450 system (e.g., cyclosporine, disulfiram). Intervention: Monitor patients to determine if it is necessary to adjust the dosage of these other drugs when taken concomitantly with ZEGERID. Table 7: Clinically Relevant Interactions Affecting Omeprazole When Co-Administered with Other Drugs CYP2C19 or CYP3A4 Inducers Clinical Impact: Decreased exposure of omeprazole when used concomitantly with strong inducers [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. Intervention: St. John’s Wort, rifampin: Avoid concomitant use with ZEGERID [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10) ]. Ritonavir-containing products: see prescribing information for specific drugs. CYP2C19 or CYP3A4 Inhibitors Clinical Impact: Increased exposure of omeprazole [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. Intervention: Voriconazole: Dosage adjustment of ZEGERID is not required. See full prescribing information for a list of clinically important drug interactions. (7)

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Category Value
Authorisation number NDA021636
Agency product number 8MDF5V39QO
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 68012-052,68012-104,68012-102,68012-054
Date Last Revised 02-09-2019
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
RXCUI 616541
Marketing authorisation holder Santarus, Inc..