Data from FDA - Curated by Toby Galbraith - Last updated 28 July 2017

Indication(s)

INDICATIONS AND USAGE Zebutal® (butalbital, acetaminophen and caffeine capsules) USP 50 mg/325 mg/40 mg is indicated for the relief of the symptom complex of tension (or muscle contraction) headache. Evidence supporting the efficacy and safety of this combination product in the treatment of multiple recurrent headaches is unavailable. Caution in this regard is required because butalbital is habit-forming and potentially abusable.

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Advisory information

contraindications
CONTRAINDICATIONS This product is contraindicated under the following conditions: •Hypersensitivity or intolerance to any component of this product. •Patients with porphyria.
Special warnings and precautions
PRECAUTIONS General Zebutal® should be prescribed with caution in certain special-risk patients, such as the elderly or debilitated, and those with severe impairment of renal or hepatic function, or acute abdominal conditions. Information for Patients/Caregivers •Do not take Zebutal® if you are allergic to any of its ingredients. •If you develop signs of allergy such as a rash or difficulty breathing, stop taking Zebutal® and contact your healthcare provider immediately. •Do not take more than 4000 milligrams of acetaminophen per day. Call your doctor if you took more than the recommended dose. This product may impair mental and/or physical abilities required for the performance of potentially hazardous tasks such as driving a car or operating machinery. Such tasks should be avoided while taking this product. Alcohol and other CNS depressants may produce an additive CNS depression, when taken with this combination product, and should be avoided. Butalbital may be habit-forming. Patients should take the drug only for as long as it is prescribed, in the amounts prescribed, and no more frequently than prescribed. Laboratory Tests In patients with severe hepatic or renal disease, effects of therapy should be monitored with serial liver and/or renal function tests. Drug Interactions The CNS effects of butalbital may be enhanced by monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. Butalbital, acetaminophen and caffeine may enhance the effects of: other narcotic analgesics, alcohol, general anesthetics, tranquilizers such as chlordiazepoxide, sedative-hypnotics, or other CNS depressants, causing increased CNS depression. Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions Acetaminophen may produce false-positive test results for urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility No adequate studies have been conducted in animals to determine whether acetaminophen or butalbital have a potential for carcinogenesis, mutagenesis or impairment of fertility. Pregnancy Teratogenic Effects Pregnancy Category C Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with this combination product. It is also not known whether butalbital, acetaminophen and caffeine can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproduction capacity. This product should be given to a pregnant woman only when clearly needed. Nonteratogenic Effects Withdrawal seizures were reported in a two-day-old male infant whose mother had taken a butalbital-containing drug during the last two months of pregnancy. Butalbital was found in the infant’s serum. The infant was given phenobarbital 5 mg/kg, which was tapered without further seizure or other withdrawal symptoms. Nursing Mothers Caffeine, barbiturates and acetaminophen are excreted in breast milk in small amounts, but the significance of their effects on nursing infants is not known. Because of potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from butalbital, acetaminophen and caffeine, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below the age of 12 have not been established. Geriatric Use Clinical studies of butalbital, acetaminophen and caffeine capsules did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. Butalbital is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.
Adverse reactions
ADVERSE REACTIONS Frequently Observed The most frequently reported adverse reactions are drowsiness, lightheadedness, dizziness, sedation, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and intoxicated feeling. Infrequently Observed All adverse events tabulated below are classified as infrequent. Central Nervous Systems: headache, shaky feeling, tingling, agitation, fainting, fatigue, heavy eyelids, high energy, hot spells, numbness, sluggishness, seizure. Mental confusion, excitement or depression can also occur due to intolerance, particularly in elderly or debilitated patients, or due to overdosage of butalbital. Autonomic Nervous System: dry mouth, hyperhidrosis. Gastrointestinal: difficulty swallowing, heartburn, flatulence, constipation. Cardiovascular: tachycardia. Musculoskeletal: leg pain, muscle fatigue. Genitourinary: diuresis. Miscellaneous: pruritus, fever, earache, nasal congestion, tinnitus, euphoria, allergic reactions. Several cases of dermatological reactions, including toxic epidermal necrolysis and erythema multiforme, have been reported. The following adverse drug events may be borne in mind as potential effects of the components of this product. Potential effects of high dosage are listed in the OVERDOSAGE section. Acetaminophen:allergic reactions, rash, thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis. Caffeine:cardiac stimulation, irritability, tremor, dependence, nephrotoxicity, hyperglycemia.

Usage information

Dosing and administration
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION One or two capsules every four hours. Total daily dosage should not exceed 6 capsules. Extended and repeated use of this product is not recommended because of the potential for physical dependence.
Pregnancy and lactation
Nursing Mothers Caffeine, barbiturates and acetaminophen are excreted in breast milk in small amounts, but the significance of their effects on nursing infants is not known. Because of potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from butalbital, acetaminophen and caffeine, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Interactions

Drug Interactions The CNS effects of butalbital may be enhanced by monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. Butalbital, acetaminophen and caffeine may enhance the effects of: other narcotic analgesics, alcohol, general anesthetics, tranquilizers such as chlordiazepoxide, sedative-hypnotics, or other CNS depressants, causing increased CNS depression.

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number ANDA089007
Agency product number KHS0AZ4JVK
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 68308-554
Date Last Revised 12-06-2017
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
RXCUI 238153
Marketing authorisation holder Mayne Pharma Inc.
Warnings HEPATOTOXICITY ACETAMINOPHEN HAS BEEN ASSOCIATED WITH CASES OF ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, AT TIMES RESULTING IN LIVER TRANSPLANT AND DEATH. MOST OF THE CASES OF LIVER INJURY ARE ASSOCIATED WITH THE USE OF ACETAMINOPHEN AT DOSES THAT EXCEED 4000 MILLIGRAMS PER DAY, AND OFTEN INVOLVE MORE THAN ONE ACETAMINOPHEN-CONTAINING PRODUCT.