Data from FDA - Curated by EPG Health - Last updated 07 September 2018

Indication(s)

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE XARELTO is a factor Xa inhibitor indicated: to reduce the risk of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (1.1) for the treatment of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) (1.2) for the treatment of pulmonary embolism (PE) (1.3) for the reduction in the risk of recurrence of DVT and/or PE in patients at continued risk for recurrent DVT and/or PE after completion of initial treatment lasting at least 6 months (1.4) for the prophylaxis of DVT, which may lead to PE in patients undergoing knee or hip replacement surgery (1.5) 1.1 Reduction of Risk of Stroke and Systemic Embolism in Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation XARELTO is indicated to reduce the risk of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. There are limited data on the relative effectiveness of XARELTO and warfarin in reducing the risk of stroke and systemic embolism when warfarin therapy is well-controlled [see Clinical Studies (14.1)]. 1.2 Treatment of Deep Vein Thrombosis XARELTO is indicated for the treatment of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). 1.3 Treatment of Pulmonary Embolism XARELTO is indicated for the treatment of pulmonary embolism (PE). 1.4 Reduction in the Risk of Recurrence of Deep Vein Thrombosis and/or Pulmonary Embolism XARELTO is indicated for the reduction in the risk of recurrence of DVT and/or PE in patients at continued risk for recurrent DVT and/or PE after completion of initial treatment lasting at least 6 months. 1.5 Prophylaxis of Deep Vein Thrombosis Following Hip or Knee Replacement Surgery XARELTO is indicated for the prophylaxis of DVT, which may lead to PE in patients undergoing knee or hip replacement surgery.

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Advisory information

contraindications
4 CONTRAINDICATIONS XARELTO is contraindicated in patients with: active pathological bleeding [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)] severe hypersensitivity reaction to XARELTO (e.g., anaphylactic reactions) [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)] Active pathological bleeding (4) Severe hypersensitivity reaction to XARELTO (4)
Adverse reactions
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS The following adverse reactions are also discussed in other sections of the labeling: Increased risk of stroke after discontinuation in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation [see Boxed Warning and Warnings and Precautions (5.1)] Bleeding risk [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7)] Spinal/epidural hematoma [see Boxed Warning and Warnings and Precautions (5.3)] The most common adverse reaction (>5%) was bleeding. (6.1) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc. at 1-800-526-7736 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice. During clinical development for the approved indications, 18560 patients were exposed to XARELTO. These included 7111 patients who received XARELTO 15 mg or 20 mg orally once daily for a mean of 19 months (5558 for 12 months and 2512 for 24 months) to reduce the risk of stroke and systemic embolism in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (ROCKET AF); 6962 patients who received XARELTO 15 mg orally twice daily for three weeks followed by 20 mg orally once daily to treat DVT or PE (EINSTEIN DVT, EINSTEIN PE), 10 mg or 20 mg orally once daily (EINSTEIN Extension, EINSTEIN CHOICE) to reduce the risk of recurrence of DVT and/or PE; and 4487 patients who received XARELTO 10 mg orally once daily for prophylaxis of DVT following hip or knee replacement surgery (RECORD 1–3). Hemorrhage The most common adverse reactions with XARELTO were bleeding complications [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation In the ROCKET AF trial, the most frequent adverse reactions associated with permanent drug discontinuation were bleeding events, with incidence rates of 4.3% for XARELTO vs. 3.1% for warfarin. The incidence of discontinuations for non-bleeding adverse events was similar in both treatment groups. Table 1 shows the number of patients experiencing various types of bleeding events in the ROCKET AF trial. Table 1: Bleeding Events in ROCKET AFMajor bleeding events within each subcategory were counted once per patient, but patients may have contributed events to multiple subcategories. These events occurred during treatment or within 2 days of stopping treatment.- On Treatment Plus 2 Days Parameter XARELTO N=7111 n (%/year) Warfarin N=7125 n (%/year) XARELTO vs. Warfarin HR (95% CI) Abbreviations: HR = Hazard Ratio, CI = Confidence interval, CRNM = Clinically Relevant Non-Major. Major BleedingDefined as clinically overt bleeding associated with a decrease in hemoglobin of ≥2 g/dL, a transfusion of ≥2 units of packed red blood cells or whole blood, bleeding at a critical site, or with a fatal outcome. 395 (3.6) 386 (3.5) 1.04 (0.90, 1.20) Intracranial Hemorrhage (ICH) Intracranial bleeding events included intraparenchymal, intraventricular, subdural, subarachnoid and/or epidural hematoma. 55 (0.5) 84 (0.7) 0.67 (0.47, 0.93) Hemorrhagic StrokeHemorrhagic stroke in this table specifically refers to non-traumatic intraparenchymal and/or intraventricular hematoma in patients on treatment plus 2 days. 36 (0.3) 58 (0.5) 0.63 (0.42, 0.96) Other ICH 19 (0.2) 26 (0.2) 0.74 (0.41, 1.34) Gastrointestinal (GI)Gastrointestinal bleeding events included upper GI, lower GI, and rectal bleeding. 221 (2.0) 140 (1.2) 1.61 (1.30, 1.99) Fatal BleedingFatal bleeding is adjudicated death with the primary cause of death from bleeding. 27 (0.2) 55 (0.5) 0.50 (0.31, 0.79) ICH 24 (0.2) 42 (0.4) 0.58 (0.35, 0.96) Non-intracranial 3 (0.0) 13 (0.1) 0.23 (0.07, 0.82) Figure 1 shows the risk of major bleeding events across major subgroups. Figure 1: Risk of Major Bleeding Events by Baseline Characteristics in ROCKET AF – On Treatment Plus 2 Days Note: The figure above presents effects in various subgroups all of which are baseline characteristics and all of which were pre-specified (diabetic status was not pre-specified in the subgroup, but was a criterion for the CHADS2 score). The 95% confidence limits that are shown do not take into account how many comparisons were made, nor do they reflect the effect of a particular factor after adjustment for all other factors. Apparent homogeneity or heterogeneity among groups should not be over-interpreted. Figure 1 Treatment of Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) and/or Pulmonary Embolism (PE) EINSTEIN DVT and EINSTEIN PE Studies In the pooled analysis of the EINSTEIN DVT and EINSTEIN PE clinical studies, the most frequent adverse reactions leading to permanent drug discontinuation were bleeding events, with XARELTO vs. enoxaparin/Vitamin K antagonist (VKA) incidence rates of 1.7% vs. 1.5%, respectively. The mean duration of treatment was 208 days for XARELTO-treated patients and 204 days for enoxaparin/VKA-treated patients. Table 2 shows the number of patients experiencing major bleeding events in the pooled analysis of the EINSTEIN DVT and EINSTEIN PE studies. Table 2: Bleeding EventsBleeding event occurred after randomization and up to 2 days after the last dose of study drug. Although a patient may have had 2 or more events, the patient is counted only once in a category. in the Pooled Analysis of EINSTEIN DVT and EINSTEIN PE Studies Parameter XARELTOTreatment schedule in EINSTEIN DVT and EINSTEIN PE studies: XARELTO 15 mg twice daily for 3 weeks followed by 20 mg once daily; enoxaparin/VKA [enoxaparin: 1 mg/kg twice daily, VKA: individually titrated doses to achieve a target INR of 2.5 (range: 2.0–3.0)] N=4130 n (%) Enoxaparin/VKA N=4116 n (%) Major bleeding event 40 (1.0) 72 (1.7) Fatal bleeding 3 (<0.1) 8 (0.2) Intracranial 2 (<0.1) 4 (<0.1) Non-fatal critical organ bleeding 10 (0.2) 29 (0.7) IntracranialTreatment-emergent major bleeding events with at least >2 subjects in any pooled treatment group 3 (<0.1) 10 (0.2) Retroperitoneal 1 (<0.1) 8 (0.2) Intraocular 3 (<0.1) 2 (<0.1) Intra-articular 0 4 (<0.1) Non-fatal non-critical organ bleedingMajor bleeding which is not fatal or in a critical organ, but resulting in a decrease in Hb ≥ 2 g/dL and/or transfusion of ≥2 units of whole blood or packed red blood cells 27 (0.7) 37 (0.9) Decrease in Hb ≥ 2 g/dL 28 (0.7) 42 (1.0) Transfusion of ≥2 units of whole blood or packed red blood cells 18 (0.4) 25 (0.6) Clinically relevant non-major bleeding 357 (8.6) 357 (8.7) Any bleeding 1169 (28.3) 1153 (28.0) Reduction in the Risk of Recurrence of DVT and/or PE EINSTEIN CHOICE Study In the EINSTEIN CHOICE clinical study, the most frequent adverse reactions associated with permanent drug discontinuation were bleeding events, with incidence rates of 1% for XARELTO 10 mg, 2% for XARELTO 20 mg, and 1% for acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) 100 mg. The mean duration of treatment was 293 days for XARELTO 10 mg-treated patients and 286 days for aspirin 100 mg-treated patients. Table 3 shows the number of patients experiencing bleeding events in the EINSTEIN CHOICE study. Table 3: Bleeding EventsBleeding event occurred after the first dose and up to 2 days after the last dose of study drug. Although a patient may have had 2 or more events, the patient is counted only once in a category. in EINSTEIN CHOICE Parameter XARELTOTreatment schedule: XARELTO 10 mg once daily or aspirin 100 mg once daily. 10 mg N=1127 n (%) Acetylsalicylic Acid (aspirin) 100 mg N=1131 n (%) Major bleeding event 5 (0.4) 3 (0.3) Fatal bleeding 0 1 (<0.1) Non-fatal critical organ bleeding 2 (0.2) 1 (<0.1) Non-fatal non-critical organ bleedingMajor bleeding which is not fatal or in a critical organ, but resulting in a decrease in Hb ≥ 2 g/dL and/or transfusion of ≥ 2 units of whole blood or packed red blood cells. 3 (0.3) 1 (<0.1) Clinically relevant non-major (CRNM) bleedingBleeding which was clinically overt, did not meet the criteria for major bleeding, but was associated with medical intervention, unscheduled contact with a physician, temporary cessation of treatment, discomfort for the patient, or impairment of activities of daily life. 22 (2.0) 20 (1.8) Any bleeding 151 (13.4) 138 (12.2) In the EINSTEIN CHOICE study, there was an increased incidence of bleeding, including major and CRNM bleeding in the XARELTO 20 mg group compared to the XARELTO 10 mg or aspirin 100 mg groups. Prophylaxis of Deep Vein Thrombosis Following Hip or Knee Replacement Surgery In the RECORD clinical trials, the overall incidence rate of adverse reactions leading to permanent treatment discontinuation was 3.7% with XARELTO. The rates of major bleeding events and any bleeding events observed in patients in the RECORD clinical trials are shown in Table 4. Table 4: Bleeding EventsBleeding events occurring any time following the first dose of double-blind study medication (which may have been prior to administration of active drug) until two days after the last dose of double-blind study medication. Patients may have more than one event. in Patients Undergoing Hip or Knee Replacement Surgeries (RECORD 1–3) XARELTO 10 mg EnoxaparinIncludes the placebo-controlled period for RECORD 2, enoxaparin dosing was 40 mg once daily (RECORD 1–3) Total treated patients N=4487 n (%) N=4524 n (%) Major bleeding event 14 (0.3) 9 (0.2) Fatal bleeding 1 (<0.1) 0 Bleeding into a critical organ 2 (<0.1) 3 (0.1) Bleeding that required re-operation 7 (0.2) 5 (0.1) Extra-surgical site bleeding requiring transfusion of >2 units of whole blood or packed cells 4 (0.1) 1 (<0.1) Any bleeding eventIncludes major bleeding events 261 (5.8) 251 (5.6) Hip Surgery Studies N=3281 n (%) N=3298 n (%) Major bleeding event 7 (0.2) 3 (0.1) Fatal bleeding 1 (<0.1) 0 Bleeding into a critical organ 1 (<0.1) 1 (<0.1) Bleeding that required re-operation 2 (0.1) 1 (<0.1) Extra-surgical site bleeding requiring transfusion of >2 units of whole blood or packed cells 3 (0.1) 1 (<0.1) Any bleeding event 201 (6.1) 191 (5.8) Knee Surgery Study N=1206 n (%) N=1226 n (%) Major bleeding event 7 (0.6) 6 (0.5) Fatal bleeding 0 0 Bleeding into a critical organ 1 (0.1) 2 (0.2) Bleeding that required re-operation 5 (0.4) 4 (0.3) Extra-surgical site bleeding requiring transfusion of >2 units of whole blood or packed cells 1 (0.1) 0 Any bleeding event 60 (5.0) 60 (4.9) Following XARELTO treatment, the majority of major bleeding complications (≥60%) occurred during the first week after surgery. Other Adverse Reactions Non-hemorrhagic adverse reactions reported in ≥1% of XARELTO-treated patients in the EINSTEIN DVT and EINSTEIN PE studies are shown in Table 5. Table 5: Other Adverse ReactionsAdverse reaction with Relative Risk >1.5 for XARELTO versus comparator Reported by ≥1% of XARELTO-Treated Patients in EINSTEIN DVT and EINSTEIN PE Studies Body System Adverse Reaction EINSTEIN DVT Study XARELTO 20 mg N=1718 n (%) Enoxaparin/VKA N=1711 n (%) Gastrointestinal disorders Abdominal pain 46 (2.7) 25 (1.5) General disorders and administration site conditions Fatigue 24 (1.4) 15 (0.9) Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders Back pain 50 (2.9) 31 (1.8) Muscle spasm 23 (1.3) 13 (0.8) Nervous system disorders Dizziness 38 (2.2) 22 (1.3) Psychiatric disorders Anxiety 24 (1.4) 11 (0.6) Depression 20 (1.2) 10 (0.6) Insomnia 28 (1.6) 18 (1.1) EINSTEIN PE Study XARELTO 20 mg N=2412 n (%) Enoxaparin/VKA N=2405 n (%) Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders Pruritus 53 (2.2) 27 (1.1) Non-hemorrhagic adverse reactions reported in ≥1% of XARELTO-treated patients in RECORD 1–3 studies are shown in Table 6. Table 6: Other Adverse Drug ReactionsAdverse reaction occurring any time following the first dose of double-blind medication, which may have been prior to administration of active drug, until two days after the last dose of double-blind study medication Reported by ≥1% of XARELTO-Treated Patients in RECORD 1–3 Studies Body System Adverse Reaction XARELTO 10 mg N=4487 n (%) EnoxaparinIncludes the placebo-controlled period of RECORD 2, enoxaparin dosing was 40 mg once daily (RECORD 1–3) N=4524 n (%) Injury, poisoning and procedural complications Wound secretion 125 (2.8) 89 (2.0) Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders Pain in extremity 74 (1.7) 55 (1.2) Muscle spasm 52 (1.2) 32 (0.7) Nervous system disorders Syncope 55 (1.2) 32 (0.7) Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders Pruritus 96 (2.1) 79 (1.8) Blister 63 (1.4) 40 (0.9) Other clinical trial experience: In an investigational study of acute medically ill patients being treated with XARELTO 10 mg tablets, cases of pulmonary hemorrhage and pulmonary hemorrhage with bronchiectasis were observed. 6.2 Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of XARELTO. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Blood and lymphatic system disorders: agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia Gastrointestinal disorders: retroperitoneal hemorrhage Hepatobiliary disorders: jaundice, cholestasis, hepatitis (including hepatocellular injury) Immune system disorders: hypersensitivity, anaphylactic reaction, anaphylactic shock, angioedema Nervous system disorders: cerebral hemorrhage, subdural hematoma, epidural hematoma, hemiparesis Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: Stevens-Johnson syndrome

Usage information

Dosing and administration
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation: For patients with CrCl >50 mL/min: 20 mg orally, once daily with the evening meal (2.4) For patients with CrCl 15 – 50 mL/min: 15 mg orally, once daily with the evening meal (2.4) Treatment of DVT and/or PE: 15 mg orally twice daily with food for the first 21 days followed by 20 mg orally once daily with food for the remaining treatment (2.5) Reduction in the Risk of Recurrence of DVT and/or PE in patients at continued risk for DVT and/or PE: 10 mg once daily with or without food, after at least 6 months of standard anticoagulant treatment (2.6) Prophylaxis of DVT Following Hip or Knee Replacement Surgery: 10 mg orally once daily with or without food (2.7) 2.1 Recommended Dosage Indication Dosage Reduction in Risk of Stroke in Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation (2.4) CrCl >50 mL/min: 20 mg once daily with the evening meal CrCl 15 to 50 mL/min: 15 mg once daily with the evening meal Treatment of DVT (2.5) Treatment of PE (2.5) 15 mg twice daily with food, for first 21 days ▼after 21 days, transition to ▼ 20 mg once daily with food, for remaining treatment Reduction in the Risk of Recurrence of DVT and/or PE in patients at continued risk for DVT and/or PE (2.6) 10 mg once daily with or without food, after at least 6 months of standard anticoagulant treatment Prophylaxis of DVT Following Hip or Knee Replacement Surgery (2.7) Hip replacement: 10 mg once daily with or without food for 35 days Knee replacement: 10 mg once daily with or without food for 12 days 2.2 Important Food Effect Information The 15 mg and 20 mg XARELTO tablets should be taken with food, while the 10 mg tablet can be taken with or without food [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. In the nonvalvular atrial fibrillation efficacy study XARELTO was taken with the evening meal. 2.3 Switching to and from XARELTO Switching from Warfarin to XARELTO - When switching patients from warfarin to XARELTO, discontinue warfarin and start XARELTO as soon as the International Normalized Ratio (INR) is below 3.0 to avoid periods of inadequate anticoagulation. Switching from XARELTO to Warfarin - No clinical trial data are available to guide converting patients from XARELTO to warfarin. XARELTO affects INR, so INR measurements made during coadministration with warfarin may not be useful for determining the appropriate dose of warfarin. One approach is to discontinue XARELTO and begin both a parenteral anticoagulant and warfarin at the time the next dose of XARELTO would have been taken. Switching from XARELTO to Anticoagulants other than Warfarin - For patients currently taking XARELTO and transitioning to an anticoagulant with rapid onset, discontinue XARELTO and give the first dose of the other anticoagulant (oral or parenteral) at the time that the next XARELTO dose would have been taken [see Drug Interactions (7.4)]. Switching from Anticoagulants other than Warfarin to XARELTO - For patients currently receiving an anticoagulant other than warfarin, start XARELTO 0 to 2 hours prior to the next scheduled evening administration of the drug (e.g., low molecular weight heparin or non-warfarin oral anticoagulant) and omit administration of the other anticoagulant. For unfractionated heparin being administered by continuous infusion, stop the infusion and start XARELTO at the same time. 2.4 Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation For patients with creatinine clearance (CrCl) >50 mL/min, the recommended dose of XARELTO is 20 mg taken orally once daily with the evening meal. For patients with CrCl 15 to 50 mL/min, the recommended dose is 15 mg once daily with the evening meal [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6)]. 2.5 Treatment of Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) and/or Pulmonary Embolism (PE) The recommended dose of XARELTO for the initial treatment of acute DVT and/or PE is 15 mg taken orally twice daily with food for the first 21 days. After this initial treatment period, the recommended dose of XARELTO is 20 mg taken orally once daily with food, at approximately the same time each day [see Clinical Studies (14.2)]. 2.6 Reduction in the Risk of Recurrence of Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) and/or Pulmonary Embolism (PE) The recommended dose of XARELTO for the reduction in the risk of recurrence of DVT and/or PE after at least 6 months of standard anticoagulant treatment in patients at continued risk of DVT and/or PE is 10 mg taken orally once daily with or without food [see Clinical Studies (14.3)]. 2.7 Prophylaxis of Deep Vein Thrombosis Following Hip or Knee Replacement Surgery The recommended dose of XARELTO is 10 mg taken orally once daily with or without food. The initial dose should be taken 6 to 10 hours after surgery provided that hemostasis has been established [see Dosage and Administration (2.8)]. For patients undergoing hip replacement surgery, treatment duration of 35 days is recommended. For patients undergoing knee replacement surgery, treatment duration of 12 days is recommended. 2.8 Discontinuation for Surgery and other Interventions If anticoagulation must be discontinued to reduce the risk of bleeding with surgical or other procedures, XARELTO should be stopped at least 24 hours before the procedure to reduce the risk of bleeding [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. In deciding whether a procedure should be delayed until 24 hours after the last dose of XARELTO, the increased risk of bleeding should be weighed against the urgency of intervention. XARELTO should be restarted after the surgical or other procedures as soon as adequate hemostasis has been established, noting that the time to onset of therapeutic effect is short [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. If oral medication cannot be taken during or after surgical intervention, consider administering a parenteral anticoagulant. 2.9 Missed Dose If a dose of XARELTO is not taken at the scheduled time, administer the dose as soon as possible on the same day as follows: For patients receiving 15 mg twice daily: The patient should take XARELTO immediately to ensure intake of 30 mg XARELTO per day. In this particular instance, two 15 mg tablets may be taken at once. The patient should continue with the regular 15 mg twice daily intake as recommended on the following day. For patients receiving 20 mg, 15 mg or 10 mg once daily: The patient should take the missed XARELTO dose immediately. 2.10 Administration Options For patients who are unable to swallow whole tablets, 10 mg, 15 mg or 20 mg XARELTO tablets may be crushed and mixed with applesauce immediately prior to use and administered orally. After the administration of a crushed XARELTO 15 mg or 20 mg tablet, the dose should be immediately followed by food [see Dosage and Administration (2.2, 2.4, 2.5) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Administration via nasogastric (NG) tube or gastric feeding tube: After confirming gastric placement of the tube, 10 mg, 15 mg or 20 mg XARELTO tablets may be crushed and suspended in 50 mL of water and administered via an NG tube or gastric feeding tube. Since rivaroxaban absorption is dependent on the site of drug release, avoid administration of XARELTO distal to the stomach which can result in reduced absorption and thereby, reduced drug exposure. After the administration of a crushed XARELTO 15 mg or 20 mg tablet, the dose should then be immediately followed by enteral feeding [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Crushed 10 mg, 15 mg or 20 mg XARELTO tablets are stable in water and in applesauce for up to 4 hours. An in vitro compatibility study indicated that there is no adsorption of rivaroxaban from a water suspension of a crushed XARELTO tablet to PVC or silicone nasogastric (NG) tubing.
Use in special populations
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS Renal impairment: Avoid or adjust dose based on CrCl and Indication (8.6) Hepatic impairment: Avoid use in patients with Child-Pugh B and C hepatic impairment or with any degree of hepatic disease associated with coagulopathy (8.7) 8.1 Pregnancy Risk Summary The limited available data on XARELTO in pregnant women are insufficient to inform a drug-associated risk of adverse developmental outcomes. Use XARELTO with caution in pregnant patients because of the potential for pregnancy related hemorrhage and/or emergent delivery with an anticoagulant that is not readily reversible. The anticoagulant effect of XARELTO cannot be reliably monitored with standard laboratory testing. Consider the benefits and risks of XARELTO for the mother and possible risks to the fetus when prescribing XARELTO to a pregnant woman [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]. Adverse outcomes in pregnancy occur regardless of the health of the mother or the use of medications. The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated populations is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2–4% and 15–20%, respectively. Clinical Considerations Disease-Associated Maternal and/or Embryo/Fetal Risk Pregnancy is a risk factor for venous thromboembolism and that risk is increased in women with inherited or acquired thrombophilias. Pregnant women with thromboembolic disease have an increased risk of maternal complications including pre-eclampsia. Maternal thromboembolic disease increases the risk for intrauterine growth restriction, placental abruption and early and late pregnancy loss. Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions Based on the pharmacologic activity of Factor Xa inhibitors and the potential to cross the placenta, bleeding may occur at any site in the fetus and/or neonate. Labor or Delivery All patients receiving anticoagulants, including pregnant women, are at risk for bleeding and this risk may be increased during labor or delivery [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]. The risk of bleeding should be balanced with the risk of thrombotic events when considering the use of XARELTO in this setting. Data Human Data There are no adequate or well-controlled studies of XARELTO in pregnant women, and dosing for pregnant women has not been established. Post-marketing experience is currently insufficient to determine a rivaroxaban-associated risk for major birth defects or miscarriage. In an in vitro placenta perfusion model, unbound rivaroxaban was rapidly transferred across the human placenta. Animal Data Rivaroxaban crosses the placenta in animals. Rivaroxaban increased fetal toxicity (increased resorptions, decreased number of live fetuses, and decreased fetal body weight) when pregnant rabbits were given oral doses of ≥10 mg/kg rivaroxaban during the period of organogenesis. This dose corresponds to about 4 times the human exposure of unbound drug, based on AUC comparisons at the highest recommended human dose of 20 mg/day. Fetal body weights decreased when pregnant rats were given oral doses of 120 mg/kg during the period of organogenesis. This dose corresponds to about 14 times the human exposure of unbound drug. In rats, peripartal maternal bleeding and maternal and fetal death occurred at the rivaroxaban dose of 40 mg/kg (about 6 times maximum human exposure of the unbound drug at the human dose of 20 mg/day). 8.2 Lactation Risk Summary Rivaroxaban has been detected in human milk. There are insufficient data to determine the effects of rivaroxaban on the breastfed child or on milk production. Rivaroxaban and/or its metabolites were present in the milk of rats. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for XARELTO and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from XARELTO or from the underlying maternal condition (see Data). Data Animal data Following a single oral administration of 3 mg/kg of radioactive [14C]-rivaroxaban to lactating rats between Day 8 to 10 postpartum, the concentration of total radioactivity was determined in milk samples collected up to 32 hours post-dose. The estimated amount of radioactivity excreted with milk within 32 hours after administration was 2.1% of the maternal dose. 8.3 Females and Males of Reproductive Potential Females of reproductive potential requiring anticoagulation should discuss pregnancy planning with their physician. 8.4 Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established. 8.5 Geriatric Use Of the total number of patients in the RECORD 1–3 clinical studies evaluating XARELTO, about 54% were 65 years and over, while about 15% were >75 years. In ROCKET AF, approximately 77% were 65 years and over and about 38% were >75 years. In the EINSTEIN DVT, PE and Extension clinical studies approximately 37% were 65 years and over and about 16% were >75 years. In EINSTEIN CHOICE, approximately 39% were 65 years and over and about 12% were >75 years. In clinical trials the efficacy of XARELTO in the elderly (65 years or older) was similar to that seen in patients younger than 65 years. Both thrombotic and bleeding event rates were higher in these older patients, but the risk-benefit profile was favorable in all age groups [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) and Clinical Studies (14)]. 8.6 Renal Impairment In pharmacokinetic studies, compared to healthy subjects with normal creatinine clearance, rivaroxaban exposure increased by approximately 44 to 64% in subjects with renal impairment. Increases in pharmacodynamic effects were also observed [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation In the ROCKET AF trial, patients with CrCl 30 to 50 mL/min were administered XARELTO 15 mg once daily resulting in serum concentrations of rivaroxaban and clinical outcomes similar to those in patients with better renal function administered XARELTO 20 mg once daily. Patients with CrCl 15 to 30 mL/min were not studied, but administration of XARELTO 15 mg once daily is also expected to result in serum concentrations of rivaroxaban similar to those in patients with normal renal function [see Dosage and Administration (2.4) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease on Dialysis Clinical efficacy and safety studies with XARELTO did not enroll patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on dialysis. In patients with ESRD maintained on intermittent hemodialysis, administration of XARELTO 15 mg once daily will result in concentrations of rivaroxaban and pharmacodynamic activity similar to those observed in the ROCKET AF study [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2, 12.3)]. It is not known whether these concentrations will lead to similar stroke reduction and bleeding risk in patients with ESRD on dialysis as was seen in ROCKET AF. Treatment of DVT and/or PE and Reduction in the Risk of Recurrence of DVT and/or PE In the EINSTEIN trials, patients with CrCl values <30 mL/min at screening were excluded from the studies. Avoid the use of XARELTO in patients with CrCl <30 mL/min. Prophylaxis of DVT Following Hip or Knee Replacement Surgery The combined analysis of the RECORD 1–3 clinical efficacy studies did not show an increase in bleeding risk for patients with CrCl 30 to 50 mL/min and reported a possible increase in total venous thromboemboli in this population. Observe closely and promptly evaluate any signs or symptoms of blood loss in patients with CrCl 30 to 50 mL/min. Avoid the use of XARELTO in patients with CrCl <30 mL/min. 8.7 Hepatic Impairment In a pharmacokinetic study, compared to healthy subjects with normal liver function, AUC increases of 127% were observed in subjects with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh B). The safety or PK of XARELTO in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh C) has not been evaluated [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Avoid the use of XARELTO in patients with moderate (Child-Pugh B) and severe (Child-Pugh C) hepatic impairment or with any hepatic disease associated with coagulopathy.

Interactions

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS Combined P-gp and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors and inducers: Avoid concomitant use (7.2, 7.3) Anticoagulants: Avoid concomitant use (7.4) 7.1 General Inhibition and Induction Properties Rivaroxaban is a substrate of CYP3A4/5, CYP2J2, and the P-gp and ATP-binding cassette G2 (ABCG2) transporters. Combined P-gp and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors increase exposure to rivaroxaban and may increase the risk of bleeding. Combined P-gp and strong CYP3A4 inducers decrease exposure to rivaroxaban and may increase the risk of thromboembolic events. 7.2 Drugs that Inhibit Cytochrome P450 3A4 Enzymes and Drug Transport Systems Interaction with Combined P-gp and Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors Avoid concomitant administration of XARELTO with known combined P-gp and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g., ketoconazole and ritonavir) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Although clarithromycin is a combined P-gp and strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, pharmacokinetic data suggests that no precautions are necessary with concomitant administration with XARELTO as the change in exposure is unlikely to affect the bleeding risk [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Interaction with Combined P-gp and Moderate CYP3A4 Inhibitors in Patients with Renal Impairment XARELTO should not be used in patients with CrCl 15 to <80 mL/min who are receiving concomitant combined P-gp and moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g., erythromycin) unless the potential benefit justifies the potential risk [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. 7.3 Drugs that Induce Cytochrome P450 3A4 Enzymes and Drug Transport Systems Avoid concomitant use of XARELTO with drugs that are combined P-gp and strong CYP3A4 inducers (e.g., carbamazepine, phenytoin, rifampin, St. John's wort) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. 7.4 Anticoagulants and NSAIDs/Aspirin Coadministration of enoxaparin, warfarin, aspirin, clopidogrel and chronic NSAID use may increase the risk of bleeding [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Avoid concurrent use of XARELTO with other anticoagulants due to increased bleeding risk unless benefit outweighs risk. Promptly evaluate any signs or symptoms of blood loss if patients are treated concomitantly with aspirin, other platelet aggregation inhibitors, or NSAIDs [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number NDA202439
Agency product number 9NDF7JZ4M3
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 50458-578,50458-579,50458-580,50458-584
Date Last Revised 21-11-2017
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
RXCUI 1114198
Storage and handling Store at 25°C (77°F) or room temperature; excursions permitted to 15°–30°C (59°–86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Keep out of the reach of children.
Marketing authorisation holder Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Warnings WARNING: (A) PREMATURE DISCONTINUATION OF XARELTO INCREASES THE RISK OF THROMBOTIC EVENTS, (B) SPINAL/EPIDURAL HEMATOMA WARNING: (A) PREMATURE DISCONTINUATION OF XARELTO INCREASES THE RISK OF THROMBOTIC EVENTS, (B) SPINAL/EPIDURAL HEMATOMA See full prescribing information for complete boxed warning (A) Premature discontinuation of XARELTO increases the risk of thrombotic events Premature discontinuation of any oral anticoagulant, including XARELTO, increases the risk of thrombotic events. To reduce this risk, consider coverage with another anticoagulant if XARELTO is discontinued for a reason other than pathological bleeding or completion of a course of therapy (2.3, 2.8, 5.1, 14.1). (B) Spinal/epidural hematoma Epidural or spinal hematomas have occurred in patients treated with XARELTO who are receiving neuraxial anesthesia or undergoing spinal puncture. These hematomas may result in long-term or permanent paralysis (5.2, 5.3, 6.2). Monitor patients frequently for signs and symptoms of neurological impairment and if observed, treat urgently. Consider the benefits and risks before neuraxial intervention in patients who are or who need to be anticoagulated (5.3). A. Premature discontinuation of XARELTO increases the risk of thrombotic events Premature discontinuation of any oral anticoagulant, including XARELTO, increases the risk of thrombotic events. If anticoagulation with XARELTO is discontinued for a reason other than pathological bleeding or completion of a course of therapy, consider coverage with another anticoagulant [see Dosage and Administration (2.3, 2.8), Warnings and Precautions (5.1), and Clinical Studies (14.1)]. B. Spinal/epidural hematoma Epidural or spinal hematomas have occurred in patients treated with XARELTO who are receiving neuraxial anesthesia or undergoing spinal puncture. These hematomas may result in long-term or permanent paralysis. Consider these risks when scheduling patients for spinal procedures. Factors that can increase the risk of developing epidural or spinal hematomas in these patients include: use of indwelling epidural catheters concomitant use of other drugs that affect hemostasis, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), platelet inhibitors, other anticoagulants a history of traumatic or repeated epidural or spinal punctures a history of spinal deformity or spinal surgery optimal timing between the administration of XARELTO and neuraxial procedures is not known [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2, 5.3) and Adverse Reactions (6.2)]. Monitor patients frequently for signs and symptoms of neurological impairment. If neurological compromise is noted, urgent treatment is necessary [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]. Consider the benefits and risks before neuraxial intervention in patients anticoagulated or to be anticoagulated for thromboprophylaxis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].