Data from FDA - Curated by Toby Galbraith - Last updated 09 October 2017

Indication(s)

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE VIAGRA is indicated for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. VIAGRA is a phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitor indicated for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) ( 1)

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Advisory information

contraindications
4 CONTRAINDICATIONS Administration of VIAGRA to patients using nitric oxide donors, such as organic nitrates or organic nitrites in any form. VIAGRA was shown to potentiate the hypotensive effect of nitrates ( 4.1, 7.1, 12.2) Known hypersensitivity to sildenafil or any component of tablet ( 4.2) Administration with guanylate cyclase (GC) stimulators, such as riociguat ( 4.3) 4.1 Nitrates Consistent with its known effects on the nitric oxide/cGMP pathway [ see Clinical Pharmacology (12.1, 12.2) ], VIAGRA was shown to potentiate the hypotensive effects of nitrates, and its administration to patients who are using nitric oxide donors such as organic nitrates or organic nitrites in any form either regularly and/or intermittently is therefore contraindicated. After patients have taken VIAGRA, it is unknown when nitrates, if necessary, can be safely administered. Although plasma levels of sildenafil at 24 hours post dose are much lower than at peak concentration, it is unknown whether nitrates can be safely co-administered at this time point [ see Dosage and Administration (2.3), Drug Interactions (7.1), and Clinical Pharmacology (12.2) ]. 4.2 Hypersensitivity Reactions VIAGRA is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to sildenafil, as contained in VIAGRA and REVATIO, or any component of the tablet. Hypersensitivity reactions have been reported, including rash and urticaria [ see Adverse Reactions (6.1) ] . 4.3 Concomitant Guanylate Cyclase (GC) Stimulators Do not use VIAGRA in patients who are using a GC stimulator, such as riociguat. PDE5 inhibitors, including VIAGRA, may potentiate the hypotensive effects of GC stimulators.
Adverse reactions
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS The following are discussed in more detail in other sections of the labeling: Cardiovascular [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ] Prolonged Erection and Priapism [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ] Effects on the Eye [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) ] Hearing Loss [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) ] Hypotension when Co-administered with Alpha-blockers or Anti-hypertensives [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.5) ] Adverse Reactions with the Concomitant Use of Ritonavir [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.6) ] Combination with other PDE5 Inhibitors or Other Erectile Dysfunction Therapies [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.7) ] Effects on Bleeding [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.8) ] Counseling Patients About Sexually Transmitted Diseases [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.9) ] The most common adverse reactions reported in clinical trials (≥ 2%) are headache, flushing, dyspepsia, abnormal vision, nasal congestion, back pain, myalgia, nausea, dizziness, and rash. Most common adverse reactions (≥ 2%) include headache, flushing, dyspepsia, abnormal vision, nasal congestion, back pain, myalgia, nausea, dizziness and rash ( 6.1) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Pfizer at 1-800-438-1985 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch . 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice. VIAGRA was administered to over 3700 patients (aged 19–87 years) during pre-marketing clinical trials worldwide. Over 550 patients were treated for longer than one year. In placebo-controlled clinical studies, the discontinuation rate due to adverse reactions for VIAGRA (2.5%) was not significantly different from placebo (2.3%). In fixed-dose studies, the incidence of some adverse reactions increased with dose. The type of adverse reactions in flexible-dose studies, which reflect the recommended dosage regimen, was similar to that for fixed-dose studies. At doses above the recommended dose range, adverse reactions were similar to those detailed in Table 1 below but generally were reported more frequently. Table 1: Adverse Reactions Reported by ≥2% of Patients Treated with VIAGRA and More Frequent than Placebo in Fixed-Dose Phase II/III Studies Adverse Reaction 25 mg (n=312) 50 mg (n=511) 100 mg (n=506) Placebo (n=607) Headache 16% 21% 28% 7% Flushing 10% 19% 18% 2% Dyspepsia 3% 9% 17% 2% Abnormal vision Abnormal Vision: Mild to moderate in severity and transient, predominantly color tinge to vision, but also increased sensitivity to light, or blurred vision. 1% 2% 11% 1% Nasal congestion 4% 4% 9% 2% Back pain 3% 4% 4% 2% Myalgia 2% 2% 4% 1% Nausea 2% 3% 3% 1% Dizziness 3% 4% 3% 2% Rash 1% 2% 3% 1% When VIAGRA was taken as recommended (on an as-needed basis) in flexible-dose, placebo-controlled clinical trials of two to twenty-six weeks duration, patients took VIAGRA at least once weekly, and the following adverse reactions were reported: Table 2. Adverse Reactions Reported by ≥2% of Patients Treated with VIAGRA and More Frequent than Placebo in Flexible-Dose Phase II/III Studies Adverse Reaction VIAGRA PLACEBO N=734 N=725 Headache 16% 4% Flushing 10% 1% Dyspepsia 7% 2% Nasal Congestion 4% 2% Abnormal Vision Abnormal Vision: Mild and transient, predominantly color tinge to vision, but also increased sensitivity to light or blurred vision. In these studies, only one patient discontinued due to abnormal vision. 3% 0% Back pain 2% 2% Dizziness 2% 1% Rash 2% 1% The following events occurred in <2% of patients in controlled clinical trials; a causal relationship to VIAGRA is uncertain. Reported events include those with a plausible relation to drug use; omitted are minor events and reports too imprecise to be meaningful: Body as a Whole: face edema, photosensitivity reaction, shock, asthenia, pain, chills, accidental fall, abdominal pain, allergic reaction, chest pain, accidental injury. Cardiovascular: angina pectoris, AV block, migraine, syncope, tachycardia, palpitation, hypotension, postural hypotension, myocardial ischemia, cerebral thrombosis, cardiac arrest, heart failure, abnormal electrocardiogram, cardiomyopathy. Digestive: vomiting, glossitis, colitis, dysphagia, gastritis, gastroenteritis, esophagitis, stomatitis, dry mouth, liver function tests abnormal, rectal hemorrhage, gingivitis. Hemic and Lymphatic: anemia and leukopenia. Metabolic and Nutritional: thirst, edema, gout, unstable diabetes, hyperglycemia, peripheral edema, hyperuricemia, hypoglycemic reaction, hypernatremia. Musculoskeletal: arthritis, arthrosis, myalgia, tendon rupture, tenosynovitis, bone pain, myasthenia, synovitis. Nervous: ataxia, hypertonia, neuralgia, neuropathy, paresthesia, tremor, vertigo, depression, insomnia, somnolence, abnormal dreams, reflexes decreased, hypesthesia. Respiratory: asthma, dyspnea, laryngitis, pharyngitis, sinusitis, bronchitis, sputum increased, cough increased. Skin and Appendages: urticaria, herpes simplex, pruritus, sweating, skin ulcer, contact dermatitis, exfoliative dermatitis. Special Senses: sudden decrease or loss of hearing, mydriasis, conjunctivitis, photophobia, tinnitus, eye pain, ear pain, eye hemorrhage, cataract, dry eyes. Urogenital: cystitis, nocturia, urinary frequency, breast enlargement, urinary incontinence, abnormal ejaculation, genital edema and anorgasmia. Analysis of the safety database from controlled clinical trials showed no apparent difference in adverse reactions in patients taking VIAGRA with and without anti-hypertensive medication. This analysis was performed retrospectively, and was not powered to detect any pre-specified difference in adverse reactions. 6.2 Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of VIAGRA. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. These events have been chosen for inclusion either due to their seriousness, reporting frequency, lack of clear alternative causation, or a combination of these factors. Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular Serious cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and vascular events, including myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, ventricular arrhythmia, cerebrovascular hemorrhage, transient ischemic attack, hypertension, subarachnoid and intracerebral hemorrhages, and pulmonary hemorrhage have been reported post-marketing in temporal association with the use of VIAGRA. Most, but not all, of these patients had preexisting cardiovascular risk factors. Many of these events were reported to occur during or shortly after sexual activity, and a few were reported to occur shortly after the use of VIAGRA without sexual activity. Others were reported to have occurred hours to days after the use of VIAGRA and sexual activity. It is not possible to determine whether these events are related directly to VIAGRA, to sexual activity, to the patient's underlying cardiovascular disease, to a combination of these factors, or to other factors [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Patient Counseling Information (17) ]. Hemic and Lymphatic: vaso-occlusive crisis: In a small, prematurely terminated study of REVATIO (sildenafil) in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) secondary to sickle cell disease, vaso-occlusive crises requiring hospitalization were more commonly reported in patients who received sildenafil than in those randomized to placebo. The clinical relevance of this finding to men treated with VIAGRA for ED is not known. Nervous: seizure, seizure recurrence, anxiety, and transient global amnesia. Respiratory: epistaxis Special senses: Hearing: Cases of sudden decrease or loss of hearing have been reported postmarketing in temporal association with the use of PDE5 inhibitors, including VIAGRA. In some of the cases, medical conditions and other factors were reported that may have also played a role in the otologic adverse events. In many cases, medical follow-up information was limited. It is not possible to determine whether these reported events are related directly to the use of VIAGRA, to the patient's underlying risk factors for hearing loss, a combination of these factors, or to other factors [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) and Patient Counseling Information (17) ]. Ocular : diplopia, temporary vision loss/decreased vision, ocular redness or bloodshot appearance, ocular burning, ocular swelling/pressure, increased intraocular pressure, retinal edema, retinal vascular disease or bleeding, and vitreous traction/detachment. Non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION), a cause of decreased vision including permanent loss of vision, has been reported rarely post-marketing in temporal association with the use of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors, including VIAGRA. Most, but not all, of these patients had underlying anatomic or vascular risk factors for developing NAION, including but not necessarily limited to: low cup to disc ratio ("crowded disc"), age over 50, diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease, hyperlipidemia and smoking. It is not possible to determine whether these events are related directly to the use of PDE5 inhibitors, to the patient's underlying vascular risk factors or anatomical defects, to a combination of these factors, or to other factors [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) and Patient Counseling Information (17) ]. Urogenital: prolonged erection, priapism [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) and Patient Counseling Information (17) ], and hematuria.

Usage information

Dosing and administration
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION For most patients, the recommended dose is 50 mg taken, as needed, approximately 1 hour before sexual activity. However, VIAGRA may be taken anywhere from 30 minutes to 4 hours before sexual activity ( 2.1) Based on effectiveness and toleration, may increase to a maximum of 100 mg or decrease to 25 mg ( 2.1) Maximum recommended dosing frequency is once per day ( 2.1) 2.1 Dosage Information For most patients, the recommended dose is 50 mg taken, as needed, approximately 1 hour before sexual activity. However, VIAGRA may be taken anywhere from 30 minutes to 4 hours before sexual activity. The maximum recommended dosing frequency is once per day. Based on effectiveness and toleration, the dose may be increased to a maximum recommended dose of 100 mg or decreased to 25 mg. 2.2 Use with Food VIAGRA may be taken with or without food. 2.3 Dosage Adjustments in Specific Situations VIAGRA was shown to potentiate the hypotensive effects of nitrates and its administration in patients who use nitric oxide donors such as organic nitrates or organic nitrites in any form is therefore contraindicated [ see Contraindications (4.1), Drug Interactions (7.1), and Clinical Pharmacology (12.2) ] . When VIAGRA is co-administered with an alpha-blocker, patients should be stable on alpha-blocker therapy prior to initiating VIAGRA treatment and VIAGRA should be initiated at 25 mg [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.5), Drug Interactions (7.2), and Clinical Pharmacology (12.2) ]. 2.4 Dosage Adjustments Due to Drug Interactions Ritonavir The recommended dose for ritonavir-treated patients is 25 mg prior to sexual activity and the recommended maximum dose is 25 mg within a 48 hour period because concomitant administration increased the blood levels of sildenafil by 11-fold [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.6), Drug Interactions (7.4), and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. CYP3A4 Inhibitors Consider a starting dose of 25 mg in patients treated with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g., ketoconazole, itraconazole, or saquinavir) or erythromycin. Clinical data have shown that co-administration with saquinavir or erythromycin increased plasma levels of sildenafil by about 3 fold [ see Drug Interactions (7.4) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. 2.5 Dosage Adjustments in Special Populations Consider a starting dose of 25 mg in patients > 65 years, patients with hepatic impairment (e.g., cirrhosis), and patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance <30 mL/minute) because administration of VIAGRA in these patients resulted in higher plasma levels of sildenafil [ see Use in Specific Populations (8.5, 8.6, 8.7) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ] .
Use in special populations
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS Geriatric use: Consider a starting dose of 25 mg ( 2.5, 8.5) Severe renal impairment: Consider a starting dose of 25 mg ( 2.5, 8.6) Hepatic impairment: Consider a starting dose of 25 mg ( 2.5, 8.7) 8.1 Pregnancy Pregnancy Category B. VIAGRA is not indicated for use in women. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of sildenafil in pregnant women. Risk Summary Based on animal data, VIAGRA is not predicted to increase the risk of adverse developmental outcomes in humans. Animal Data No evidence of teratogenicity, embryotoxicity or fetotoxicity was observed in rats and rabbits which received up to 200 mg/kg/day during organogenesis. These doses represent, respectively, about 20 and 40 times the Maximum Recommended Human Dose (MRHD) on a mg/m 2 basis in a 50 kg subject. In the rat pre- and postnatal development study, the no observed adverse effect dose was 30 mg/kg/day given for 36 days. In the nonpregnant rat the AUC at this dose was about 20 times human AUC. 8.4 Pediatric Use VIAGRA is not indicated for use in pediatric patients. Safety and effectiveness have not been established in pediatric patients. 8.5 Geriatric Use Healthy elderly volunteers (65 years or over) had a reduced clearance of sildenafil resulting in approximately 84% and 107% higher plasma AUC values of sildenafil and its active N-desmethyl metabolite, respectively, compared to those seen in healthy young volunteers (18–45 years) [ see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. Due to age-differences in plasma protein binding, the corresponding increase in the AUC of free (unbound) sildenafil and its active N-desmethyl metabolite were 45% and 57%, respectively [ see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. Of the total number of subjects in clinical studies of Viagra, 18% were 65 years and older, while 2% were 75 years and older. No overall differences in safety or efficacy were observed between older (≥ 65 years of age) and younger (< 65 years of age) subjects. However, since higher plasma levels may increase the incidence of adverse reactions, a starting dose of 25 mg should be considered in older subjects due to the higher systemic exposure [ see Dosage and Administration (2.5) ]. 8.6 Renal Impairment No dose adjustment is required for mild (CLcr=50–80 mL/min) and moderate (CLcr=30–49 mL/min) renal impairment. In volunteers with severe renal impairment (Clcr<30 mL/min), sildenafil clearance was reduced, resulting in higher plasma exposure of sildenafil (~2 fold), approximately doubling of C max and AUC. A starting dose of 25 mg should be considered in patients with severe renal impairment [ see Dosage and Administration (2.5) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ] . 8.7 Hepatic Impairment In volunteers with hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class A and B), sildenafil clearance was reduced, resulting in higher plasma exposure of sildenafil (47% for C max and 85% for AUC). The pharmacokinetics of sildenafil in patients with severely impaired hepatic function (Child-Pugh Class C) have not been studied. A starting dose of 25 mg should be considered in patients with any degree of hepatic impairment [ see Dosage and Administration (2.5) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ] .

Interactions

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS VIAGRA can potentiate the hypotensive effects of nitrates, alpha blockers, and anti-hypertensives ( 4.1, 5.5, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 12.2) With concomitant use of alpha blockers, initiate VIAGRA at 25 mg dose ( 2.3) CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g., ritonavir, ketoconazole, itraconazole, erythromycin): Increase VIAGRA exposure ( 2.4, 7.4, 12.3) Ritonavir: Do not exceed a maximum single dose of 25 mg in a 48 hour period ( 2.4, 5.6) Erythromycin or strong CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g., ketoconazole, itraconazole, saquinavir): Consider a starting dose of 25 mg ( 2.4, 7.4) 7.1 Nitrates Administration of VIAGRA with nitric oxide donors such as organic nitrates or organic nitrites in any form is contraindicated. Consistent with its known effects on the nitric oxide/cGMP pathway, VIAGRA was shown to potentiate the hypotensive effects of nitrates [ see Dosage and Administration (2.3), Contraindications (4.1), Clinical Pharmacology (12.2) ] . 7.2 Alpha-blockers Use caution when co-administering alpha-blockers with VIAGRA because of potential additive blood pressure-lowering effects. When VIAGRA is co-administered with an alpha-blocker, patients should be stable on alpha-blocker therapy prior to initiating VIAGRA treatment and VIAGRA should be initiated at the lowest dose [ see Dosage and Administration (2.3), Warnings and Precautions (5.5), Clinical Pharmacology (12.2) ] . 7.3 Amlodipine When VIAGRA 100 mg was co-administered with amlodipine (5 mg or 10 mg) to hypertensive patients, the mean additional reduction on supine blood pressure was 8 mmHg systolic and 7 mmHg diastolic [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.5), Clinical Pharmacology (12.2) ]. 7.4 Ritonavir and other CYP3A4 inhibitors Co-administration of ritonavir, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, greatly increased the systemic exposure of sildenafil (11-fold increase in AUC). It is therefore recommended not to exceed a maximum single dose of 25 mg of VIAGRA in a 48 hour period [ see Dosage and Administration (2.4), Warnings and Precautions (5.6), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. Co-administration of erythromycin, a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor, resulted in a 160% and 182% increases in sildenafil C max and AUC, respectively. Co-administration of saquinavir, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, resulted in 140% and 210% increases in sildenafil C max and AUC, respectively. Stronger CYP3A4 inhibitors such as ketoconazole or itraconazole could be expected to have greater effects than seen with saquinavir. A starting dose of 25 mg of VIAGRA should be considered in patients taking erythromycin or strong CYP3A4 inhibitors (such as saquinavir, ketoconazole, itraconazole) [ see Dosage and Administration (2.4), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ] . 7.5 Alcohol In a drug-drug interaction study sildenafil 50 mg given with alcohol 0.5 g/kg in which mean maximum blood alcohol levels of 0.08% was achieved, sildenafil did not potentiate the hypotensive effect of alcohol in healthy volunteers [ see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2) ].

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number NDA020895
Agency product number BW9B0ZE037
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 55289-577
Date Last Revised 05-10-2017
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
Storage and handling Recommended Storage: Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15–30°C (59–86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].
Marketing authorisation holder PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.