Data from FDA (Food and Drug Administration, USA) - Curated by Marshall Pearce - Last updated 06 November 2017

Indication(s)

INDICATIONS AND USAGE UNASYN is indicated for the treatment of infections due to susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms in the conditions listed below. Skin and Skin Structure Infections caused by beta-lactamase producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Efficacy for this organism in this organ system was studied in fewer than 10 infections. Klebsiella spp. (including K. pneumoniae ), Proteus mirabilis, Bacteroides fragilis, Enterobacter spp., and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus. NOTE: For information on use in pediatric patients see PRECAUTIONS–Pediatric Use and CLINICAL STUDIES sections. Intra-Abdominal Infections caused by beta-lactamase producing strains of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. (including K. pneumoniae ), Bacteroides spp. (including B. fragilis), and Enterobacter spp. Gynecological Infections caused by beta-lactamase producing strains of Escherichia coli, and Bacteroides spp. (including B. fragilis ). While UNASYN is indicated only for the conditions listed above, infections caused by ampicillin-susceptible organisms are also amenable to treatment with UNASYN due to its ampicillin content. Therefore, mixed infections caused by ampicillin-susceptible organisms and beta-lactamase producing organisms susceptible to UNASYN should not require the addition of another antibacterial. Appropriate culture and susceptibility tests should be performed before treatment in order to isolate and identify the organisms causing infection and to determine their susceptibility to UNASYN. Therapy may be instituted prior to obtaining the results from bacteriological and susceptibility studies when there is reason to believe the infection may involve any of the beta-lactamase producing organisms listed above in the indicated organ systems. Once the results are known, therapy should be adjusted if appropriate. To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain effectiveness of UNASYN and other antibacterial drugs, UNASYN should be used only to treat infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

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Advisory information

contraindications
CONTRAINDICATIONS The use of UNASYN is contraindicated in individuals with a history of serious hypersensitivity reactions (e.g., anaphylaxis or Stevens-Johnson syndrome) to ampicillin, sulbactam or to other beta-lactam antibacterial drugs (e.g., penicillins and cephalosporins). UNASYN is contraindicated in patients with a previous history of cholestatic jaundice/hepatic dysfunction associated with UNASYN.
Special warnings and precautions
PRECAUTIONS General A high percentage of patients with mononucleosis who receive ampicillin develop a skin rash. Thus, ampicillin class antibacterials should not be administered to patients with mononucleosis. In patients treated with UNASYN the possibility of superinfections with mycotic or bacterial pathogens should be kept in mind during therapy. If superinfections occur (usually involving Pseudomonas or Candida), the drug should be discontinued and/or appropriate therapy instituted. Prescribing UNASYN in the absence of proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria. Information for Patients Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including UNASYN should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When UNASYN is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by UNASYN or other antibacterial drugs in the future. Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibacterials which usually ends when the antibacterial is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibacterials, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the antibacterial. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible. Drug Interactions Probenecid decreases the renal tubular secretion of ampicillin and sulbactam. Concurrent use of probenecid with UNASYN may result in increased and prolonged blood levels of ampicillin and sulbactam. The concurrent administration of allopurinol and ampicillin increases substantially the incidence of rashes in patients receiving both drugs as compared to patients receiving ampicillin alone. It is not known whether this potentiation of ampicillin rashes is due to allopurinol or the hyperuricemia present in these patients. There are no data with UNASYN and allopurinol administered concurrently. UNASYN and aminoglycosides should not be reconstituted together due to the in vitro inactivation of aminoglycosides by the ampicillin component of UNASYN. Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions Administration of UNASYN will result in high urine concentration of ampicillin. High urine concentrations of ampicillin may result in false positive reactions when testing for the presence of glucose in urine using Clinitest™, Benedict's Solution or Fehling's Solution. It is recommended that glucose tests based on enzymatic glucose oxidase reactions (such as Clinistix™ or Testape™) be used. Following administration of ampicillin to pregnant women, a transient decrease in plasma concentration of total conjugated estriol, estriol-glucuronide, conjugated estrone and estradiol has been noted. This effect may also occur with UNASYN. Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility Long-term studies in animals have not been performed to evaluate carcinogenic or mutagenic potential. Pregnancy Reproduction studies have been performed in mice, rats, and rabbits at doses up to ten (10) times the human dose and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to UNASYN. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed. (see– PRECAUTIONS-Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions section). Labor and Delivery Studies in guinea pigs have shown that intravenous administration of ampicillin decreased the uterine tone, frequency of contractions, height of contractions, and duration of contractions. However, it is not known whether the use of UNASYN in humans during labor or delivery has immediate or delayed adverse effects on the fetus, prolongs the duration of labor, or increases the likelihood that forceps delivery or other obstetrical intervention or resuscitation of the newborn will be necessary. Nursing Mothers Low concentrations of ampicillin and sulbactam are excreted in the milk; therefore, caution should be exercised when UNASYN is administered to a nursing woman. Pediatric Use The safety and effectiveness of UNASYN have been established for pediatric patients one year of age and older for skin and skin structure infections as approved in adults. Use of UNASYN in pediatric patients is supported by evidence from adequate and well-controlled studies in adults with additional data from pediatric pharmacokinetic studies, a controlled clinical trial conducted in pediatric patients and post-marketing adverse events surveillance. (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, INDICATIONS AND USAGE, ADVERSE REACTIONS, DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, and CLINICAL STUDIES sections). The safety and effectiveness of UNASYN have not been established for pediatric patients for intra-abdominal infections.
Adverse reactions
ADVERSE REACTIONS Adult Patients UNASYN is generally well tolerated. The following adverse reactions have been reported in clinical trials. Local Adverse Reactions Pain at IM injection site – 16% Pain at IV injection site – 3% Thrombophlebitis – 3% Phlebitis – 1.2% Systemic Adverse Reactions The most frequently reported adverse reactions were diarrhea in 3% of the patients and rash in less than 2% of the patients. Additional systemic reactions reported in less than 1% of the patients were: itching, nausea, vomiting, candidiasis, fatigue, malaise, headache, chest pain, flatulence, abdominal distension, glossitis, urine retention, dysuria, edema, facial swelling, erythema, chills, tightness in throat, substernal pain, epistaxis and mucosal bleeding. Pediatric Patients Available safety data for pediatric patients treated with UNASYN demonstrate a similar adverse events profile to those observed in adult patients. Additionally, atypical lymphocytosis has been observed in one pediatric patient receiving UNASYN. Adverse Laboratory Changes Adverse laboratory changes without regard to drug relationship that were reported during clinical trials were: Hepatic: Increased AST (SGOT), ALT (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase, and LDH. Hematologic: Decreased hemoglobin, hematocrit, RBC, WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, platelets and increased lymphocytes, monocytes, basophils, eosinophils, and platelets. Blood Chemistry: Decreased serum albumin and total proteins. Renal: Increased BUN and creatinine. Urinalysis: Presence of RBC's and hyaline casts in urine. Postmarketing Experience In addition to adverse reactions reported from clinical trials, the following have been identified during post-marketing use of ampicillin sodium/sulbactam sodium or other products containing ampicillin. Because they are reported voluntarily from a population of unknown size, estimates of frequency cannot be made. These events have been chosen for inclusion due to a combination of their seriousness, frequency, or potential causal connection to ampicillin sodium/sulbactam sodium. Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders: Hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenic purpura, and agranulocytosis have been reported. These reactions are usually reversible on discontinuation of therapy and are believed to be hypersensitivity phenomena. Some individuals have developed positive direct Coombs Tests during treatment with UNASYN, as with other beta-lactam antibacterials. Gastrointestinal Disorders: Abdominal pain, cholestatic hepatitis, cholestasis, hyperbilirubinemia, jaundice, abnormal hepatic function, melena, gastritis, stomatitis, dyspepsia, black "hairy" tongue and Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS sections). General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions: Fatigue, malaise, and injection site reaction Immune System Disorders: Serious and fatal hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) reactions (See WARNINGS section), anaphylactic shock. Nervous System Disorders: Headache, convulsion, dizziness, somnolence, and sedation Renal and Urinary Disorders: Tubulointerstitial nephritis Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders: Dyspnea Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: Toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, angioedema, Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), erythema multiforme, exfoliative dermatitis, urticaria, and dermatitis (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS sections).

Usage information

Dosing and administration
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION The pharmacy bulk package is for preparation of solutions for IV infusion only. UNASYN should be administered by slow intravenous injection over at least 10–15 minutes or can also be delivered in greater dilutions with 50–100 mL of a compatible diluent as an intravenous infusion over 15–30 minutes. The recommended adult dosage of UNASYN is 1.5 g (1 g ampicillin as the sodium salt plus 0.5 g sulbactam as the sodium salt) to 3 g (2 g ampicillin as the sodium salt plus 1 g sulbactam as the sodium salt) every six hours. This 1.5 to 3 g range represents the total of ampicillin content plus the sulbactam content of UNASYN, and corresponds to a range of 1 g ampicillin/0.5 g sulbactam to 2 g ampicillin/1 g sulbactam. The total dose of sulbactam should not exceed 4 grams per day. Pediatric Patients 1 Year of Age or Older The recommended daily dose of UNASYN in pediatric patients is 300 mg per kg of body weight administered via intravenous infusion in equally divided doses every 6 hours. This 300 mg/kg/day dosage represents the total ampicillin content plus the sulbactam content of UNASYN, and corresponds to 200 mg ampicillin/100 mg sulbactam per kg per day. The safety and efficacy of UNASYN administered via intramuscular injection in pediatric patients have not been established. Pediatric patients weighing 40 kg or more should be dosed according to adult recommendations, and the total dose of sulbactam should not exceed 4 grams per day. The course of intravenous therapy should not routinely exceed 14 days. In clinical trials, most children received a course of oral antimicrobials following initial treatment with intravenous UNASYN. (see CLINICAL STUDIES section). Impaired Renal Function In patients with impairment of renal function the elimination kinetics of ampicillin and sulbactam are similarly affected, hence the ratio of one to the other will remain constant whatever the renal function. The dose of UNASYN in such patients should be administered less frequently in accordance with the usual practice for ampicillin and according to the following recommendations: TABLE 5 UNASYN Dosage Guide for Patients with Renal Impairment Creatinine Clearance (mL/min/1.73m2) Ampicillin/Sulbactam Half-Life (Hours) Recommended UNASYN Dosage ≥30 1 1.5–3 g q 6h–q 8h 15–29 5 1.5–3 g q 12h 5–14 9 1.5–3 g q 24h When only serum creatinine is available, the following formula (based on sex, weight, and age of the patient) may be used to convert this value into creatinine clearance. The serum creatinine should represent a steady state of renal function. Males weight (kg) × (140 − age) 72 × serum creatinine Females 0.85 × above value
Pregnancy and lactation
Nursing Mothers Low concentrations of ampicillin and sulbactam are excreted in the milk; therefore, caution should be exercised when UNASYN is administered to a nursing woman.

Interactions

Drug Interactions Probenecid decreases the renal tubular secretion of ampicillin and sulbactam. Concurrent use of probenecid with UNASYN may result in increased and prolonged blood levels of ampicillin and sulbactam. The concurrent administration of allopurinol and ampicillin increases substantially the incidence of rashes in patients receiving both drugs as compared to patients receiving ampicillin alone. It is not known whether this potentiation of ampicillin rashes is due to allopurinol or the hyperuricemia present in these patients. There are no data with UNASYN and allopurinol administered concurrently. UNASYN and aminoglycosides should not be reconstituted together due to the in vitro inactivation of aminoglycosides by the ampicillin component of UNASYN.

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number NDA050608
Agency product number DKQ4T82YE6
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 0049-0024
Date Last Revised 14-08-2017
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
RXCUI 240984
Storage and handling UNASYN sterile powder is to be stored at or below 30°C (86°F) prior to reconstitution.
Marketing authorisation holder Roerig