Data from FDA - Curated by EPG Health - Last updated 19 June 2018

Indication(s)

1. INDICATIONS AND USAGE TYSABRI is an integrin receptor antagonist indicated for treatment of: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) TYSABRI is indicated as monotherapy for the treatment of patients with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. TYSABRI increases the risk of PML. When initiating and continuing treatment with TYSABRI, physicians should consider whether the expected benefit of TYSABRI is sufficient to offset this risk. See important information regarding the risk of PML with TYSABRI. (1.1, 5.1) Crohn's Disease (CD) TYSABRI is indicated for inducing and maintaining clinical response and remission in adult patients with moderately to severely active Crohn's disease with evidence of inflammation who have had an inadequate response to, or are unable to tolerate, conventional CD therapies and inhibitors of TNF-α. (1.2) Important Limitations: In CD, TYSABRI should not be used in combination with immunosuppressants or inhibitors of TNF-α. (1.2) 1.1. Multiple Sclerosis (MS) TYSABRI is indicated as monotherapy for the treatment of patients with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. TYSABRI increases the risk of PML. When initiating and continuing treatment with TYSABRI, physicians should consider whether the expected benefit of TYSABRI is sufficient to offset this risk. See important information regarding the risk of PML with TYSABRI [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. 1.2. Crohn's Disease (CD) TYSABRI is indicated for inducing and maintaining clinical response and remission in adult patients with moderately to severely active Crohn's disease with evidence of inflammation who have had an inadequate response to, or are unable to tolerate, conventional CD therapies and inhibitors of TNF-α. TYSABRI should not be used in combination with immunosuppressants (e.g., 6-mercaptopurine, azathioprine, cyclosporine, or methotrexate) or inhibitors of TNF-α [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

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Advisory information

contraindications
4. CONTRAINDICATIONS TYSABRI is contraindicated in patients who have or have had progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. TYSABRI is contraindicated in patients who have had a hypersensitivity reaction to TYSABRI. Observed reactions range from urticaria to anaphylaxis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]. Patients who have or have had PML (4) Patients who have had a hypersensitivity reaction to TYSABRI (4, 5.3)
Adverse reactions
6. ADVERSE REACTIONS The following serious adverse reactions are described below and elsewhere in the labeling: Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)] Herpes Infections [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)] Hepatotoxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)] Hypersensitivity/Antibody Formation [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5 )] Immunosuppression/Infections [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6 )] Most common adverse reactions (incidence ≥ 10%): MS - headache, fatigue, arthralgia, urinary tract infection, lower respiratory tract infection, gastroenteritis, vaginitis, depression, pain in extremity, abdominal discomfort, diarrhea NOS, and rash (6.1) CD - headache, upper respiratory tract infections, nausea, and fatigue (6.1) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Biogen at 1-800-456-2255 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch . 6.1. Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. The most common adverse reactions (incidence ≥ 10%) were headache and fatigue in both the multiple sclerosis (MS) and Crohn's disease (CD) studies. Other common adverse reactions (incidence ≥ 10%) in the MS population were arthralgia, urinary tract infection, lower respiratory tract infection, gastroenteritis, vaginitis, depression, pain in extremity, abdominal discomfort, diarrhea NOS, and rash. Other common adverse reactions (incidence ≥ 10%) in the CD population were upper respiratory tract infections and nausea. The most frequently reported adverse reactions resulting in clinical intervention (i.e., discontinuation of TYSABRI) in the MS studies were urticaria (1%) and other hypersensitivity reactions (1%), and in the CD studies (Studies CD1 and CD2) were the exacerbation of Crohn's disease (4.2%) and acute hypersensitivity reactions (1.5%) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]. A total of 1617 multiple sclerosis patients in controlled studies received TYSABRI, with a median duration of exposure of 28 months. A total of 1563 patients received TYSABRI in all CD studies for a median exposure of 5 months; of these patients, 33% (n=518) received at least one year of treatment and 19% (n=297) received at least two years of treatment. Multiple Sclerosis Clinical Studies The most common serious adverse reactions in Study MS1 [see Clinical Studies (14.1)] with TYSABRI were infections (3.2% versus 2.6% in placebo, including urinary tract infection [0.8% versus 0.3%] and pneumonia [0.6% versus 0%]), acute hypersensitivity reactions (1.1% versus 0.3%, including anaphylaxis/anaphylactoid reaction [0.8% versus 0%]), depression (1.0% versus 1.0%, including suicidal ideation or attempt [0.6% versus 0.3%]), and cholelithiasis (1.0% versus 0.3%). In Study MS2, serious adverse reactions of appendicitis were also more common in patients who received TYSABRI (0.8% versus 0.2% in placebo). Table 2 enumerates adverse reactions and selected laboratory abnormalities that occurred in Study MS1 at an incidence of at least 1 percentage point higher in TYSABRI-treated patients than was observed in placebo-treated patients. Table 2: Adverse Reactions in Study MS1 (Monotherapy Study) Adverse Reactions (Preferred Term) TYSABRI n=627 % Placebo n=312 % *Percentage based on female patients only. ** Acute versus other hypersensitivity reactions are defined as occurring within 2 hours post-infusion versus more than 2 hours. General Headache 38 33 Fatigue 27 21 Arthralgia 19 14 Chest discomfort 5 3 Other hypersensitivity reactions** 5 2 Acute hypersensitivity reactions** 4 <1 Seasonal allergy 3 2 Rigors 3 <1 Weight increased 2 <1 Weight decreased 2 <1 Infection Urinary tract infection 21 17 Lower respiratory tract infection 17 16 Gastroenteritis 11 9 Vaginitis* 10 6 Tooth infections 9 7 Herpes 8 7 Tonsillitis 7 5 Psychiatric Depression 19 16 Musculoskeletal/Connective Tissue Disorders Pain in extremity Muscle cramp Joint swelling 16 5 2 14 3 1 Gastrointestinal Abdominal discomfort Diarrhea NOS Abnormal liver function test 11 10 5 10 9 4 Skin Rash Dermatitis Pruritus Night sweats 12 7 4 1 9 4 2 0 Menstrual Disorders* Irregular menstruation Dysmenorrhea Amenorrhea Ovarian cyst 5 3 2 2 4 <1 1 <1 Neurologic Disorders Vertigo Somnolence 6 2 5 <1 Renal and Urinary Disorders Urinary urgency/frequency Urinary incontinence 9 4 7 3 Injury Limb injury NOS Skin laceration Thermal burn 3 2 1 2 <1 <1 In Study MS2, peripheral edema was more common in patients who received TYSABRI (5% versus 1% in placebo). Crohn's Disease Clinical Studies The following serious adverse reactions in the induction Studies CD1 and CD2 [see Clinical Studies (14.2)] were reported more commonly with TYSABRI than placebo and occurred at an incidence of at least 0.3%: intestinal obstruction or stenosis (2% vs. 1% in placebo), acute hypersensitivity reactions (0.5% vs. 0%), abdominal adhesions (0.3% vs. 0%), and cholelithiasis (0.3% vs. 0%). Similar serious adverse reactions were seen in the maintenance Study CD3. Table 3 enumerates adverse reactions that occurred in Studies CD1 and CD2 (median exposure of 2.8 months). Table 4 enumerates adverse reactions that occurred in Study CD3 (median exposure of 11.0 months). Table 3: Adverse Reactions in Studies CD1 and CD2 (Induction Studies) Adverse Reactions* TYSABRI n=983 % Placebo n=431 % * Occurred at an incidence of at least 1% higher in TYSABRI-treated patients than placebo-treated patients. ** Percentage based on female patients only. General Headache Fatigue Arthralgia Influenza-like illness Acute hypersensitivity reactions Tremor 32 10 8 5 2 1 23 8 6 4 <1 <1 Infection Upper respiratory tract infection Vaginal infections** Viral infection Urinary tract infection 22 4 3 3 16 2 2 1 Respiratory Pharyngolaryngeal pain Cough 6 3 4 <1 Gastrointestinal Nausea Dyspepsia Constipation Flatulence Aphthous stomatitis 17 5 4 3 2 15 3 2 2 <1 Skin Rash Dry skin 6 1 4 0 Menstrual Disorder Dysmenorrhea** 2 <1 Table 4: Adverse Reactions in Study CD3 (Maintenance Study) Adverse Reactions* TYSABRI n=214 % Placebo n=214 % * Occurred at an incidence of at least 2% higher in TYSABRI-treated patients than placebo-treated patients. ** Percentage based on female patients only. General Headache Influenza-like illness Peripheral edema Toothache 37 11 6 4 31 6 3 <1 Infection Influenza Sinusitis Vaginal infections** Viral infection 12 8 8 7 5 4 <1 3 Respiratory Cough 7 5 Gastrointestinal Lower abdominal pain 4 2 Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Back pain 12 8 Menstrual Disorder Dysmenorrhea** 6 3 Infections Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) occurred in three patients who received TYSABRI in clinical trials [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Two cases of PML were observed in the 1869 patients with multiple sclerosis who were treated for a median of 120 weeks. These two patients had received TYSABRI in addition to interferon beta-1a [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. The third case occurred after eight doses in one of the 1043 patients with Crohn's disease who were evaluated for PML. In the postmarketing setting, additional cases of PML have been reported in TYSABRI-treated multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease patients who were not receiving concomitant immunomodulatory therapy. In Studies MS1 and MS2 [see Clinical Studies (14.1)], the rate of any type of infection was approximately 1.5 per patient-year in both TYSABRI-treated patients and placebo-treated patients. The infections were predominately upper respiratory tract infections, influenza, and urinary tract infections. In Study MS1, the incidence of serious infection was approximately 3% in TYSABRI-treated patients and placebo-treated patients. Most patients did not interrupt treatment with TYSABRI during infections. The only opportunistic infection in the multiple sclerosis clinical trials was a case of cryptosporidial gastroenteritis with a prolonged course. In Studies CD1 and CD2 [see Clinical Studies (14.2)], the rate of any type of infection was 1.7 per patient-year in TYSABRI-treated patients and 1.4 per patient-year in placebo-treated patients. In Study CD3, the incidence of any type of infection was 1.7 per patient-year in TYSABRI-treated patients and was similar in placebo-treated patients. The most common infections were nasopharyngitis, upper respiratory tract infection, and influenza. The majority of patients did not interrupt TYSABRI therapy during infections, and recovery occurred with appropriate treatment. Concurrent use of TYSABRI in CD clinical trials with chronic steroids and/or methotrexate, 6-MP, and azathioprine did not result in an increase in overall infections compared to TYSABRI alone; however, the concomitant use of such agents could lead to an increased risk of serious infections. In Studies CD1 and CD2, the incidence of serious infection was approximately 2.1% in both TYSABRI-treated patients and placebo-treated patients. In Study CD3, the incidence of serious infection was approximately 3.3% in TYSABRI-treated patients and approximately 2.8% in placebo-treated patients. In clinical studies for CD, opportunistic infections (pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, pulmonary mycobacterium avium intracellulare, bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, and burkholderia cepacia) have been observed in <1% of TYSABRI-treated patients; some of these patients were receiving concurrent immunosuppressants [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]. Two serious non-bacterial meningitides occurred in TYSABRI-treated patients compared to none in placebo-treated patients. Infusion-related Reactions An infusion-related reaction was defined in clinical trials as any adverse event occurring within two hours of the start of an infusion. In MS clinical trials, approximately 24% of TYSABRI-treated multiple sclerosis patients experienced an infusion-related reaction, compared to 18% of placebo-treated patients. In the controlled CD clinical trials, infusion-related reactions occurred in approximately 11% of patients treated with TYSABRI compared to 7% of placebo-treated patients. Reactions more common in the TYSABRI-treated MS patients compared to the placebo-treated MS patients included headache, dizziness, fatigue, urticaria, pruritus, and rigors. Acute urticaria was observed in approximately 2% of patients. Other hypersensitivity reactions were observed in 1% of patients receiving TYSABRI. Serious systemic hypersensitivity infusion reactions occurred in <1% of patients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]. All patients recovered with treatment and/or discontinuation of the infusion. Infusion-related reactions that were more common in CD patients receiving TYSABRI than those receiving placebo included headache, nausea, urticaria, pruritus, and flushing. Serious infusion reactions occurred in Studies CD1, CD2, and CD3 at an incidence of <1% in TYSABRI-treated patients. MS and CD patients who became persistently positive for antibodies to TYSABRI were more likely to have an infusion-related reaction than those who were antibody-negative. 6.2. Immunogenicity As with all therapeutic proteins, there is a potential for immunogenicity. The detection of antibody formation is highly dependent on the sensitivity and specificity of the assay. Additionally, the observed incidence of antibody (including neutralizing antibody) positivity in an assay may be influenced by several factors including assay methodology, sample handling, timing of sample collection, concomitant medications, and underlying disease. For these reasons, comparison of the incidence of antibodies to natlizumab in the studies described below with the incidence of antibodies in other studies or to other products may be misleading. Patients in Study MS1 [see Clinical Studies (14.1)] were tested for antibodies to natalizumab every 12 weeks. The assays used were unable to detect low to moderate levels of antibodies to natalizumab. Approximately 9% of patients receiving TYSABRI developed detectable antibodies at least once during treatment. Approximately 6% of patients had positive antibodies on more than one occasion. Approximately 82% of patients who became persistently antibody-positive developed detectable antibodies by 12 weeks. Anti-natalizumab antibodies were neutralizing in vitro. The presence of anti-natalizumab antibodies was correlated with a reduction in serum natalizumab levels. In Study MS1, the Week 12 pre-infusion mean natalizumab serum concentration in antibody-negative patients was 15 mcg/mL compared to 1.3 mcg/mL in antibody-positive patients. Persistent antibody-positivity resulted in a substantial decrease in the effectiveness of TYSABRI. The risk of increased disability and the annualized relapse rate were similar in persistently antibody-positive TYSABRI-treated patients and patients who received placebo. A similar phenomenon was also observed in Study MS2. Infusion-related reactions that were most often associated with persistent antibody-positivity included urticaria, rigors, nausea, vomiting, headache, flushing, dizziness, pruritus, tremor, feeling cold, and pyrexia. Additional adverse reactions more common in persistently antibody-positive patients included myalgia, hypertension, dyspnea, anxiety, and tachycardia. Patients in CD studies [see Clinical Studies (14.2)] were first tested for antibodies at Week 12, and in a substantial proportion of patients, this was the only test performed given the 12-week duration of placebo-controlled studies. Approximately 10% of patients were found to have anti-natalizumab antibodies on at least one occasion. Five percent (5%) of patients had positive antibodies on more than one occasion. Persistent antibodies resulted in reduced efficacy and an increase in infusion-related reactions with symptoms that include urticaria, pruritus, nausea, flushing, and dyspnea. The long-term immunogenicity of TYSABRI and the effects of low to moderate levels of antibody to natalizumab are unknown [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5), Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. 6.3. Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of TYSABRI. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Blood disorders: hemolytic anemia

Usage information

Dosing and administration
2. DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION 300 mg infused intravenously over one hour, every four weeks. Do not give as an intravenous push or bolus (2.1, 2.2) TYSABRI solution must be administered within 8 hours of preparation (2.3) Observe patients during the infusion and for one hour after the infusion is complete (2.4) In CD, discontinue in patients that have not experienced therapeutic benefit by 12 weeks of induction therapy, and in patients that cannot discontinue chronic concomitant steroids within six months of starting therapy (2.2) 2.1. Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Only prescribers registered in the MS TOUCH® Prescribing Program may prescribe TYSABRI for multiple sclerosis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. The recommended dose of TYSABRI for multiple sclerosis is 300 mg intravenous infusion over one hour every four weeks. 2.2. Crohn's Disease (CD) Only prescribers registered in the CD TOUCH® Prescribing Program may prescribe TYSABRI for Crohn's disease [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. The recommended dose of TYSABRI for Crohn's disease is 300 mg intravenous infusion over one hour every four weeks. TYSABRI should not be used with concomitant immunosuppressants (e.g., 6-mercaptopurine, azathioprine, cyclosporine, or methotrexate) or concomitant inhibitors of TNF-α. Aminosalicylates may be continued during treatment with TYSABRI. If the patient with Crohn's disease has not experienced therapeutic benefit by 12 weeks of induction therapy, discontinue TYSABRI. For patients with Crohn's disease who start TYSABRI while on chronic oral corticosteroids, commence steroid tapering as soon as a therapeutic benefit of TYSABRI has occurred; if the patient with Crohn's disease cannot be tapered off of oral corticosteroids within six months of starting TYSABRI, discontinue TYSABRI. Other than the initial six-month taper, prescribers should consider discontinuing TYSABRI for patients who require additional steroid use that exceeds three months in a calendar year to control their Crohn's disease. 2.3. Dilution Instructions Use aseptic technique when preparing TYSABRI solution for intravenous infusion. Each vial is intended for single use only. Discard any unused portion. TYSABRI is a colorless, clear to slightly opalescent solution. Inspect the TYSABRI vial for particulate material and discoloration prior to dilution and administration. If visible particulates are observed and/or the liquid in the vial is discolored, the vial must not be used. To prepare the diluted solution, withdraw 15 mL of TYSABRI from the vial using a sterile needle and syringe. Inject TYSABRI into 100 mL of 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP. No other intravenous diluents may be used to prepare the TYSABRI diluted solution. Gently invert the TYSABRI diluted solution to mix completely. Do not shake. Inspect the solution visually for particulate material prior to administration. The final dosage diluted solution has a concentration of 2.6 mg/mL. Following dilution, infuse TYSABRI solution immediately, or refrigerate the diluted solution at 2°C to 8°C, and use within 8 hours. If stored at 2°C to 8°C, allow the diluted solution to warm to room temperature prior to infusion. DO NOT FREEZE. 2.4. Administration Instructions Infuse TYSABRI 300 mg in 100 mL 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP, over approximately one hour (infusion rate approximately 5 mg per minute). Do not administer TYSABRI as an intravenous push or bolus injection. After the infusion is complete, flush with 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP. Observe patients during the infusion and for one hour after the infusion is complete. Promptly discontinue the infusion upon the first observation of any signs or symptoms consistent with a hypersensitivity-type reaction [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]. Use of filtration devices during administration has not been evaluated. Other medications should not be injected into infusion set side ports or mixed with TYSABRI.
Use in special populations
8. USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS Pregnancy: Based on animal data, may cause fetal harm. (8.1) 8.1. Pregnancy Risk Summary There are no adequate data on the developmental risk associated with the use of TYSABRI in pregnant women. In animal studies, administration of natalizumab during pregnancy produced fetal immunologic and hematologic effects in monkeys at doses similar to the human dose and reduced offspring survival in guinea pigs at doses greater than the human dose. These doses were not maternally toxic but produced the expected pharmacological effects in maternal animals [see Data ]. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively. The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. Data Animal Data In developmental toxicity studies conducted in guinea pigs and monkeys, at natalizumab doses up to 30 mg/kg (7 times the recommended human dose based on body weight [mg/kg]), transplacental transfer and in utero exposure of the embryo/fetus was demonstrated in both species. In a study in which pregnant guinea pigs were administered natalizumab (0, 3, 10, or 30 mg/kg) by intravenous (IV) infusion on alternate days throughout organogenesis (gestation days [GD] 4-30), no effects on embryofetal development were observed. When pregnant monkeys were administered natalizumab (0, 3, 10, or 30 mg/kg) by IV infusion on alternative days throughout organogenesis (GDs 20-70), serum levels in fetuses at delivery were approximately 35% of maternal serum natalizumab levels. There were no effects on embryofetal development; however, natalizumab-related immunological and hematologic changes were observed in the fetuses at the two highest doses. These changes included decreases in lymphocytes (CD3+ and CD20+), changes in lymphocyte subpopulation percentages, mild anemia, reduced platelet count, increased spleen weights, and reduced liver and thymus weights associated with increased splenic extramedullary hematopoiesis, thymic atrophy, and decreased hepatic hematopoiesis. In a study in which monkeys were exposed to natalizumab during pregnancy (IV infusion of 30 mg/kg) on alternate days from GD20 to GD70 or GD20 to term, abortions were increased approximately 2-fold compared to controls. In offspring born to mothers administered natalizumab on alternate days from GD20 until delivery, hematologic effects (decreased lymphocyte and platelet counts) were also observed. These effects were reversed upon clearance of natalizumab. There was no evidence of anemia in these offspring. Offspring exposed in utero and during lactation had a normal immune response to challenge with a T-cell dependent antigen. In a study in which pregnant guinea pigs were exposed to natalizumab (30 mg/kg IV) on alternate dates during GDs 30-64, a reduction in pup survival was observed. 8.2. Lactation Risk Summary Natalizumab has been detected in human milk. There are no data on the effects of this exposure on the breastfed infant or the effects of the drug on milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for TYSABRI and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from TYSABRI or from the underlying maternal condition. 8.4. Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients with multiple sclerosis or Crohn's disease below the age of 18 years have not been established. TYSABRI is not indicated for use in pediatric patients. 8.5. Geriatric Use Clinical studies of TYSABRI did not include sufficient numbers of patients aged 65 years and over to determine whether they respond differently than younger patients. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients.

Interactions

7. DRUG INTERACTIONS Because of the potential for increased risk of PML and other infections, Crohn's disease patients receiving TYSABRI should not be treated with concomitant immunosuppressants (e.g., 6-mercaptopurine, azathioprine, cyclosporine, or methotrexate) or inhibitors of TNF-α, and corticosteroids should be tapered in those patients with Crohn's disease who are on chronic corticosteroids when they start TYSABRI therapy [see Indications and Usage (1.2), Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.6)]. Ordinarily, MS patients receiving chronic immunosuppressant or immunomodulatory therapy should not be treated with TYSABRI [see Indications and Usage (1.1), Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.6)].

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number BLA125104
Agency product number 3JB47N2Q2P
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 64406-008
Date Last Revised 24-04-2018
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
RXCUI 603541
Marketing authorisation holder Biogen Inc.
Warnings WARNING: PROGRESSIVE MULTIFOCAL LEUKOENCEPHALOPATHY TYSABRI increases the risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), an opportunistic viral infection of the brain that usually leads to death or severe disability. Risk factors for the development of PML include duration of therapy, prior use of immunosuppressants, and presence of anti-JCV antibodies. These factors should be considered in the context of expected benefit when initiating and continuing treatment with TYSABRI [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ]. Healthcare professionals should monitor patients on TYSABRI for any new sign or symptom that may be suggestive of PML. TYSABRI dosing should be withheld immediately at the first sign or symptom suggestive of PML. For diagnosis, an evaluation that includes a gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the brain and, when indicated, cerebrospinal fluid analysis for JC viral DNA are recommended [ see Contraindications (4), Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ]. Because of the risk of PML, TYSABRI is available only through a restricted program under a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) called the TOUCH® Prescribing Program [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ]. WARNING: PROGRESSIVE MULTIFOCAL LEUKOENCEPHALOPATHY See full prescribing information for complete boxed warning TYSABRI increases the risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), an opportunistic viral infection of the brain that usually leads to death or severe disability (5.1) Risk factors for the development of PML include duration of therapy, prior use of immunosuppressants, and presence of anti-JCV antibodies. These factors should be considered in the context of expected benefit when initiating and continuing treatment with TYSABRI ( 5.1 ) Monitor patients, and withhold TYSABRI immediately at the first sign or symptom suggestive of PML (4, 5.1 ) Because of the risk of PML, TYSABRI is available only through a restricted distribution program called the TOUCH ® Prescribing Program (5.1, 5.2)