Data from FDA (Food and Drug Administration, USA) - Curated by EPG Health - Last updated 23 May 2017

Indication(s)

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE TYKERB® is indicated in combination with: •capecitabine for the treatment of patients with advanced or metastatic breast cancer whose tumors overexpress human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and who have received prior therapy including an anthracycline, a taxane, and trastuzumab. Limitation of Use: Patients should have disease progression on trastuzumab prior to initiation of treatment with TYKERB in combination with capecitabine. •letrozole for the treatment of postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer that overexpresses the HER2 receptor for whom hormonal therapy is indicated. TYKERB in combination with an aromatase inhibitor has not been compared to a trastuzumab-containing chemotherapy regimen for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. TYKERB is a kinase inhibitor indicated in combination with: (1) •capecitabine, for the treatment of patients with advanced or metastatic breast cancer whose tumors overexpress human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and who have received prior therapy including an anthracycline, a taxane, and trastuzumab. • Limitation of Use: Patients should have disease progression on trastuzumab prior to initiation of treatment with TYKERB in combination with capecitabine. •letrozole for the treatment of postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer that overexpresses the HER2 receptor for whom hormonal therapy is indicated. TYKERB in combination with an aromatase inhibitor has not been compared to a trastuzumab-containing chemotherapy regimen for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer.

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Advisory information

contraindications
4 CONTRAINDICATIONS TYKERB is contraindicated in patients with known severe hypersensitivity (e.g., anaphylaxis) to this product or any of its components. Known severe hypersensitivity (e.g., anaphylaxis) to this product or any of its components. (4)
Adverse reactions
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS The most common (greater than 20%) adverse reactions during treatment with TYKERB plus capecitabine were diarrhea, palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia, nausea, rash, vomiting, and fatigue. The most common (greater than or equal to 20%) adverse reactions during treatment with TYKERB plus letrozole were diarrhea, rash, nausea, and fatigue. (6.1) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation at 1-888-669-6682 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. HER2-Positive Metastatic Breast Cancer: The safety of TYKERB has been evaluated in more than 12,000 patients in clinical trials. The efficacy and safety of TYKERB in combination with capecitabine in breast cancer was evaluated in 198 patients in a randomized, Phase 3 trial [see Clinical Studies (14.1)]. Adverse reactions which occurred in at least 10% of patients in either treatment arm and were higher in the combination arm are shown in Table 1. The most common adverse reactions (greater than 20%) during therapy with TYKERB plus capecitabine were gastrointestinal (diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting), dermatologic (palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia and rash), and fatigue. Diarrhea was the most common adverse reaction resulting in discontinuation of study medication. The most common Grade 3 and 4 adverse reactions (NCI CTCAE v3) were diarrhea and palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia. Selected laboratory abnormalities are shown in Table 2. Table 1. Adverse Reactions Occurring in Greater Than or Equal to 10% of Patients TYKERB 1,250 mg/day + Capecitabine 2,000 mg/m2/day Capecitabine 2,500 mg/m2/day (N = 198) (N = 191) All Grades a Grade 3 Grade 4 All Grades a Grade 3 Grade 4 Reactions % % % % % % Gastrointestinal disorders Diarrhea 65 13 1 40 10 0 Nausea 44 2 0 43 2 0 Vomiting 26 2 0 21 2 0 Stomatitis 14 0 0 11 <1 0 Dyspepsia 11 <1 0 3 0 0 Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders Palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia 53 12 0 51 14 0 Rashb 28 2 0 14 1 0 Dry skin 10 0 0 6 0 0 General disorders and administrative site conditions Mucosal inflammation 15 0 0 12 2 0 Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders Pain in extremity 12 1 0 7 <1 0 Back pain 11 1 0 6 <1 0 Respiratory, thoracic, and mediastinal disorders Dyspnea 12 3 0 8 2 0 Psychiatric disorders Insomnia 10 <1 0 6 0 0 a National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3. b Grade 3 dermatitis acneiform was reported in less than 1% of patients in the group receiving TYKERB plus capecitabine. Table 2. Selected Laboratory Abnormalities TYKERB 1,250 mg/day + Capecitabine 2,000 mg/m2/day Capecitabine 2,500 mg/m2/day All Gradesa Grade 3 Grade 4 All Gradesa Grade 3 Grade 4 Parameters % % % % % % Hematologic Hemoglobin 56 <1 0 53 1 0 Platelets 18 <1 0 17 <1 <1 Neutrophils 22 3 <1 31 2 1 Hepatic Total Bilirubin 45 4 0 30 3 0 AST 49 2 <1 43 2 0 ALT 37 2 0 33 1 0 a National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3. Hormone Receptor-Positive, Metastatic Breast Cancer: In a randomized clinical trial of patients (N = 1,286) with hormone receptor-positive, metastatic breast cancer, who had not received chemotherapy for their metastatic disease, patients received letrozole with or without TYKERB. In this trial, the safety profile of TYKERB was consistent with previously reported results from trials of TYKERB in the advanced or metastatic breast cancer population. Adverse reactions which occurred in at least 10% of patients in either treatment arm and were higher in the combination arm are shown in Table 3. Selected laboratory abnormalities are shown in Table 4. Table 3. Adverse Reactions Occurring in Greater Than or Equal to 10% of Patients TYKERB 1,500 mg/day + Letrozole 2.5 mg/day Letrozole 2.5 mg/day (N = 654) (N = 624) All Grades a Grade 3 Grade 4 All Grades a Grade 3 Grade 4 Reactions % % % % % % Gastrointestinal disorders Diarrhea 64 9 <1 20 <1 0 Nausea 31 <1 0 21 <1 0 Vomiting 17 1 <1 11 <1 <1 Anorexia 11 <1 0 9 <1 0 Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders Rashb 44 1 0 13 0 0 Dry skin 13 <1 0 4 0 0 Alopecia 13 <1 0 7 0 0 Pruritus 12 <1 0 9 <1 0 Nail Disorder 11 <1 0 <1 0 0 General disorders and administrative site conditions Fatigue 20 2 0 17 <1 0 Asthenia 12 <1 0 11 <1 0 Nervous system disorders Headache 14 <1 0 13 <1 0 Respiratory, thoracic, and mediastinal disorders Epistaxis 11 <1 0 2 <1 0 a National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3. b In addition to the rash reported under "Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders", 3 additional subjects in each treatment arm had rash under "Infections and infestations"; none were Grade 3 or 4. Table 4. Selected Laboratory Abnormalitie TYKERB 1,500 mg/day + Letrozole 2.5 mg/day Letrozole 2.5 mg/day All Grades a Grade 3 Grade 4 All Grades a Grade 3 Grade 4 Hepatic Parameters % % % % % % AST 53 6 0 36 2 <1 ALT 46 5 <1 35 1 0 Total Bilirubin 22 <1 <1 11 1 <1 a National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3. Decreases in Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction: Due to potential cardiac toxicity with HER2 (ErbB2) inhibitors, LVEF was monitored in clinical trials at approximately 8-week intervals. LVEF decreases were defined as signs or symptoms of deterioration in left ventricular cardiac function that are greater than or equal to Grade 3 (NCI CTCAE), or a greater than or equal to 20% decrease in left ventricular cardiac ejection fraction relative to baseline which is below the institution's lower limit of normal. Among 198 patients who received combination treatment with TYKERB/capecitabine, 3 experienced Grade 2 and one had Grade 3 LVEF adverse reactions (NCI CTCAE v3) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Among 654 patients who received combination treatment with TYKERB/letrozole, 26 patients experienced Grade 1 or 2 and 6 patients had Grade 3 or 4 LVEF adverse reactions. Hepatotoxicity: TYKERB has been associated with hepatotoxicity [see Boxed Warning and Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Interstitial Lung Disease/Pneumonitis: TYKERB has been associated with interstitial lung disease and pneumonitis in monotherapy or in combination with other chemotherapies [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]. 6.2 Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of TYKERB. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Immune System Disorders: Hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis [see Contraindications (4)]. Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: Nail disorders including paronychia. Severe cutaneous adverse reactions including Stevens Johnson Syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidural necrolysis (TEN). Cardiac Disorders: Ventricular arrhythmias/Torsades de Points (TdP). Electrocardiogram QT prolongation.

Usage information

Dosing and administration
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION The recommended dosage of TYKERB for advanced or metastatic breast cancer is 1,250 mg (5 tablets) given orally once daily on Days 1-21 continuously in combination with capecitabine 2,000 mg/m2/day (administered orally in 2 doses approximately 12 hours apart) on Days 1-14 in a repeating 21-day cycle. (2.1) The recommended dose of TYKERB for hormone receptor-positive, HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer is 1,500 mg (6 tablets) given orally once daily continuously in combination with letrozole. When TYKERB is coadministered with letrozole, the recommended dose of letrozole is 2.5 mg once daily. (2.1) •TYKERB should be taken at least one hour before or one hour after a meal. However, capecitabine should be taken with food or within 30 minutes after food. (2.1) •TYKERB should be taken once daily. Do not divide daily doses of TYKERB. (2.1, 12.3) •Modify dose for cardiac and other toxicities, severe hepatic impairment, diarrhea, and CYP3A4 drug interactions. (2.2) 2.1 Recommended Dosing HER2-Positive Metastatic Breast Cancer: The recommended dose of TYKERB is 1,250 mg given orally once daily on Days 1-21 continuously in combination with capecitabine 2,000 mg/m2/day (administered orally in 2 doses approximately 12 hours apart) on Days 1-14 in a repeating 21-day cycle. TYKERB should be taken at least one hour before or one hour after a meal. The dose of TYKERB should be once daily (5 tablets administered all at once); dividing the daily dose is not recommended [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Capecitabine should be taken with food or within 30 minutes after food. If a day’s dose is missed, the patient should not double the dose the next day. Treatment should be continued until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity occurs. Hormone Receptor-Positive, HER2-Positive Metastatic Breast Cancer: The recommended dose of TYKERB is 1,500 mg given orally once daily continuously in combination with letrozole. When coadministered with TYKERB, the recommended dose of letrozole is 2.5 mg once daily. TYKERB should be taken at least one hour before or one hour after a meal. The dose of TYKERB should be once daily (6 tablets administered all at once); dividing the daily dose is not recommended [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. 2.2 Dose Modification Guidelines Cardiac Events: TYKERB should be discontinued in patients with a decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) that is Grade 2 or greater by National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (NCI CTCAE v3), and in patients with an LVEF that drops below the institution’s lower limit of normal (LLN) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. TYKERB in combination with capecitabine may be restarted at a reduced dose (1,000 mg/day) and in combination with letrozole may be restarted at a reduced dose of 1,250 mg/day after a minimum of 2 weeks if the LVEF recovers to normal and the patient is asymptomatic. Hepatic Impairment: Patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class C) should have their dose of TYKERB reduced. A dose reduction from 1,250 mg/day to 750 mg/day (HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer indication) or from 1,500 mg/day to 1,000 mg/day (hormone receptor-positive, HER2-positive breast cancer indication) in patients with severe hepatic impairment is predicted to adjust the area under the curve (AUC) to the normal range and should be considered. However, there are no clinical data with this dose adjustment in patients with severe hepatic impairment. Diarrhea: TYKERB should be interrupted in patients with diarrhea which is NCI CTCAE Grade 3 or Grade 1 or 2 with complicating features (moderate to severe abdominal cramping, nausea or vomiting greater than or equal to NCI CTCAE Grade 2, decreased performance status, fever, sepsis, neutropenia, frank bleeding, or dehydration). TYKERB may be reintroduced at a lower dose (reduced from 1,250 mg/day to 1,000 mg/day or from 1,500 mg/day to 1,250 mg/day) when diarrhea resolves to Grade 1 or less. TYKERB should be permanently discontinued in patients with diarrhea which is NCI CTCAE Grade 4 [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) and Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. Concomitant Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors: The concomitant use of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors should be avoided (e.g., ketoconazole, itraconazole, clarithromycin, atazanavir, indinavir, nefazodone, nelfinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir, telithromycin, voriconazole). Grapefruit may also increase plasma concentrations of lapatinib and should be avoided. If patients must be coadministered, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, based on pharmacokinetic studies, a dose reduction to 500 mg/day of lapatinib is predicted to adjust the lapatinib AUC to the range observed without inhibitors and should be considered. However, there are no clinical data with this dose adjustment in patients receiving strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. If the strong inhibitor is discontinued, a washout period of approximately 1 week should be allowed before the lapatinib dose is adjusted upward to the indicated dose [see Drug Interactions (7.2)]. Concomitant Strong CYP3A4 Inducers: The concomitant use of strong CYP3A4 inducers should be avoided (e.g., dexamethasone, phenytoin, carbamazepine, rifampin, rifabutin, rifapentin, phenobarbital, St. John’s wort). If patients must be coadministered a strong CYP3A4 inducer, based on pharmacokinetic studies, the dose of lapatinib should be titrated gradually from 1,250 mg/day up to 4,500 mg/day (HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer indication) or from 1,500 mg/day up to 5,500 mg/day (hormone receptor-positive, HER2-positive breast cancer indication) based on tolerability. This dose of lapatinib is predicted to adjust the lapatinib AUC to the range observed without inducers and should be considered. However, there are no clinical data with this dose adjustment in patients receiving strong CYP3A4 inducers. If the strong inducer is discontinued the lapatinib dose should be reduced to the indicated dose [see Drug Interactions (7.2)]. Other Toxicities: Discontinuation or interruption of dosing with TYKERB may be considered when patients develop greater than or equal to Grade 2 NCI CTCAE toxicity and can be restarted at the standard dose of 1,250 or 1,500 mg/day when the toxicity improves to Grade 1 or less. If the toxicity recurs, then TYKERB in combination with capecitabine should be restarted at a lower dose (1,000 mg/day) and in combination with letrozole should be restarted at a lower dose of 1,250 mg/day. See manufacturer’s prescribing information for the coadministered product dosage adjustment guidelines in the event of toxicity and other relevant safety information or contraindications.
Use in special populations
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS 8.1 Pregnancy Pregnancy Category D [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)] Based on findings in animals, TYKERB can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Lapatinib administered to rats during organogenesis and through lactation led to death of offspring within the first 4 days after birth. When administered to pregnant animals during the period of organogenesis, lapatinib caused fetal anomalies (rats) or abortions (rabbits) at maternally toxic doses. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies with TYKERB in pregnant women. Women should be advised not to become pregnant when taking TYKERB. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus. In a study where pregnant rats were dosed with lapatinib during organogenesis and through lactation, at a dose of 120 mg/kg/day (approximately 6.4 times the human clinical exposure based on AUC following 1,250-mg dose of lapatinib plus capecitabine), 91% of the pups had died by the fourth day after birth, while 34% of the 60 mg/kg/day pups were dead. The highest no-effect dose for this study was 20 mg/kg/day (approximately equal to the human clinical exposure based on AUC). Lapatinib was studied for effects on embryo-fetal development in pregnant rats and rabbits given oral doses of 30, 60, and 120 mg/kg/day. There were no teratogenic effects; however, minor anomalies (left-sided umbilical artery, cervical rib, and precocious ossification) occurred in rats at the maternally toxic dose of 120 mg/kg/day (approximately 6.4 times the human clinical exposure based on AUC following 1,250-mg dose of lapatinib plus capecitabine). In rabbits, lapatinib was associated with maternal toxicity at 60 and 120 mg/kg/day (approximately 0.07 and 0.2 times the human clinical exposure, respectively, based on AUC following 1,250-mg dose of lapatinib plus capecitabine) and abortions at 120 mg/kg/day. Maternal toxicity was associated with decreased fetal body weights and minor skeletal variations. 8.3 Nursing Mothers It is not known whether lapatinib is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from TYKERB, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. 8.4 Pediatric Use The safety and effectiveness of TYKERB in pediatric patients have not been established. 8.5 Geriatric Use Of the total number of metastatic breast cancer patients in clinical studies of TYKERB in combination with capecitabine (N = 198), 17% were 65 years of age and older, and 1% were 75 years of age and older. Of the total number of hormone receptor-positive, HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer patients in clinical studies of TYKERB in combination with letrozole (N = 642), 44% were 65 years of age and older, and 12% were 75 years of age and older. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between elderly subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. 8.6 Renal Impairment Lapatinib pharmacokinetics have not been specifically studied in patients with renal impairment or in patients undergoing hemodialysis. There is no experience with TYKERB in patients with severe renal impairment. However, renal impairment is unlikely to affect the pharmacokinetics of lapatinib given that less than 2% (lapatinib and metabolites) of an administered dose is eliminated by the kidneys. 8.7 Hepatic Impairment The pharmacokinetics of lapatinib were examined in subjects with preexisting moderate (n = 8) or severe (n = 4) hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class B/C, respectively) and in 8 healthy control subjects. Systemic exposure (AUC) to lapatinib after a single oral 100-mg dose increased approximately 14% and 63% in subjects with moderate and severe preexisting hepatic impairment, respectively. Administration of TYKERB in patients with severe hepatic impairment should be undertaken with caution due to increased exposure to the drug. A dose reduction should be considered for patients with severe preexisting hepatic impairment [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)]. In patients who develop severe hepatotoxicity while on therapy, TYKERB should be discontinued and patients should not be retreated with TYKERB [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
Pregnancy and lactation
8.3 Nursing Mothers It is not known whether lapatinib is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from TYKERB, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Interactions

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS •TYKERB is likely to increase exposure to concomitantly administered drugs which are substrates of CYP3A4, CYP2C8, or P-glycoprotein (ABCB1). (7.1) •Avoid strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. If unavoidable, consider dose reduction of TYKERB in patients coadministered a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. (2.2, 7.2) •Avoid strong CYP3A4 inducers. If unavoidable, consider gradual dose increase of TYKERB in patients coadministered a strong CYP3A4 inducer. (2.2, 7.2) 7.1 Effects of Lapatinib on Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes and Drug Transport Systems Lapatinib inhibits CYP3A4, CYP2C8, and P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1) in vitro at clinically relevant concentrations and is a weak inhibitor of CYP3A4 in vivo. Caution should be exercised and dose reduction of the concomitant substrate drug should be considered when dosing TYKERB concurrently with medications with narrow therapeutic windows that are substrates of CYP3A4, CYP2C8, or P-gp. Lapatinib did not significantly inhibit the following enzymes in human liver microsomes: CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6 or UGT enzymes in vitro, however, the clinical significance is unknown. Midazolam: Following coadministration of TYKERB and midazolam (CYP3A4 substrate), 24-hour systemic exposure (AUC) of orally administered midazolam increased 45%, while 24-hour AUC of intravenously administered midazolam increased 22%. Paclitaxel: In cancer patients receiving TYKERB and paclitaxel (CYP2C8 and P-gp substrate), 24-hour systemic exposure (AUC) of paclitaxel was increased 23%. This increase in paclitaxel exposure may have been underestimated from the in vivo evaluation due to study design limitations. Digoxin: Following coadministration of TYKERB and digoxin (P-gp substrate), systemic AUC of an oral digoxin dose increased approximately 2.8-fold. Serum digoxin concentrations should be monitored prior to initiation of TYKERB and throughout coadministration. If digoxin serum concentration is greater than 1.2 ng/mL, the digoxin dose should be reduced by half. 7.2 Drugs That Inhibit or Induce Cytochrome P450 3A4 Enzymes Lapatinib undergoes extensive metabolism by CYP3A4, and concomitant administration of strong inhibitors or inducers of CYP3A4 alter lapatinib concentrations significantly (see Ketoconazole and Carbamazepine sections, below). Dose adjustment of lapatinib should be considered for patients who must receive concomitant strong inhibitors or concomitant strong inducers of CYP3A4 enzymes [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)]. Ketoconazole: In healthy subjects receiving ketoconazole, a CYP3A4 inhibitor, at 200 mg twice daily for 7 days, systemic exposure (AUC) to lapatinib was increased to approximately 3.6-fold of control and half-life increased to 1.7-fold of control. Carbamazepine: In healthy subjects receiving the CYP3A4 inducer, carbamazepine, at 100 mg twice daily for 3 days and 200 mg twice daily for 17 days, systemic exposure (AUC) to lapatinib was decreased approximately 72%. 7.3 Drugs That Inhibit Drug Transport Systems Lapatinib is a substrate of the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1). If TYKERB is administered with drugs that inhibit P-gp, increased concentrations of lapatinib are likely, and caution should be exercised. 7.4 Acid-Reducing Agents The aqueous solubility of lapatinib is pH dependent, with higher pH resulting in lower solubility. However, esomeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, administered at a dose of 40 mg once daily for 7 days, did not result in a clinically meaningful reduction in lapatinib steady-state exposure.

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number NDA022059
Agency product number G873GX646R
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 0078-0671
Date Last Revised 06-04-2017
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
Marketing authorisation holder Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation
Warnings WARNING: HEPATOTOXICITY Hepatotoxicity has been observed in clinical trials and postmarketing experience. The hepatotoxicity may be severe and deaths have been reported. Causality of the deaths is uncertain [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. WARNING: HEPATOTOXICITY See full prescribing information for complete boxed warning. Hepatotoxicity has been observed in clinical trials and postmarketing experience. The hepatotoxicity may be severe and deaths have been reported. Causality of the deaths is uncertain [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].