Data from FDA - Curated by EPG Health - Last updated 14 June 2018

Indication(s)

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE TWYNSTA (telmisartan/amlodipine) tablets are indicated for the treatment of hypertension, alone or with other antihypertensive agents to lower blood pressure. Lowering blood pressure reduces the risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events, primarily strokes and myocardial infarctions. These benefits have been seen in controlled trials of antihypertensive drugs from a wide variety of pharmacologic classes including angiotensin II receptor blockers and dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers. There are no controlled trials demonstrating risk reduction with TWYNSTA. Control of high blood pressure should be part of comprehensive cardiovascular risk management, including, as appropriate, lipid control, diabetes management, antithrombotic therapy, smoking cessation, exercise, and limited sodium intake. Many patients will require more than one drug to achieve blood pressure goals. For specific advice on goals and management, see published guidelines, such as those of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program’s Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC). Numerous antihypertensive drugs, from a variety of pharmacologic classes and with different mechanisms of action, have been shown in randomized controlled trials to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and it can be concluded that it is blood pressure reduction, and not some other pharmacologic property of the drugs, that is largely responsible for those benefits. The largest and most consistent cardiovascular outcome benefit has been a reduction in the risk of stroke, but reductions in myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality also have been seen regularly. Elevated systolic or diastolic pressure causes increased cardiovascular risk, and the absolute risk increase per mmHg is greater at higher blood pressures, so that even modest reductions of severe hypertension can provide substantial benefit. Relative risk reduction from blood pressure reduction is similar across populations with varying absolute risk, so the absolute benefit is greater in patients who are at higher risk independent of their hypertension (for example, patients with diabetes or hyperlipidemia), and such patients would be expected to benefit from more aggressive treatment to a lower blood pressure goal. Some antihypertensive drugs have smaller blood pressure effects (as monotherapy) in black patients, and many antihypertensive drugs have additional approved indications and effects (e.g., on angina, heart failure, or diabetic kidney disease). These considerations may guide selection of therapy. TWYNSTA tablets may also be used as initial therapy in patients who are likely to need multiple drugs to achieve their blood pressure goals. Base the choice of TWYNSTA tablets as initial therapy for hypertension on an assessment of potential benefits and risks including whether the patient is likely to tolerate the starting dose of TWYNSTA tablets. Patients with moderate or severe hypertension are at relatively high risk for cardiovascular events (such as strokes, heart attacks, and heart failure), kidney failure, and vision problems, so prompt treatment is clinically relevant. Consider the patient's baseline blood pressure, the target goal, and the incremental likelihood of achieving goal with a combination compared with monotherapy when deciding whether to use TWYNSTA tablets as initial therapy. Individual blood pressure goals may vary based upon the patient’s risk. Data from an 8-week, placebo-controlled, multidose, factorial trial provide estimates of the probability of reaching a blood pressure goal with TWYNSTA compared to telmisartan or amlodipine monotherapy and placebo [see Clinical Studies (14.1)] . The figures below provide estimates of the likelihood of achieving systolic and diastolic blood pressure control with TWYNSTA 80/10 mg tablets, based upon baseline systolic or diastolic blood pressure. The curve of each treatment group was estimated by logistic regression modeling. The estimated likelihood at the right tail of each curve is less reliable due to small numbers of subjects with high baseline blood pressures. Figure 1a: Probability of Achieving Systolic Blood Pressure <140 mmHg at Week 8 Figure 1b: Probability of Achieving Systolic Blood Pressure <130 mmHg at Week 8 Figure 2a: Probability of Achieving Diastolic Blood Pressure <90 mmHg at Week 8 Figure 2b: Probability of Achieving Diastolic Blood Pressure <80 mmHg at Week 8 The figures above provide an approximation of the likelihood of reaching a targeted blood pressure goal at 8 weeks. For example, a patient with a baseline blood pressure of 160/110 mmHg has about a 16% likelihood of achieving a goal of <140 mmHg (systolic) and 16% likelihood of achieving <90 mmHg (diastolic) on placebo. The likelihood of achieving these same goals on telmisartan is about 46% (systolic) and 26% (diastolic). The likelihood of achieving these same goals on amlodipine is about 69% (systolic) and 22% (diastolic). These likelihoods rise to 79% for systolic and 55% for diastolic with TWYNSTA. TWYNSTA is an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) and a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker (DHP-CCB) combination product indicated for the treatment of hypertension alone or with other antihypertensive agents to lower blood pressure. Lowering blood pressure reduces the risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events, primarily strokes and myocardial infarctions. (1) TWYNSTA tablets are indicated as initial therapy in patients likely to need multiple antihypertensive agents to achieve their blood pressure goals (1) Figure 1a Figure 1b Figure 2a Figure 2b

Learning Zones

An epgonline.org Learning Zone (LZ) is an area of the site dedicated to providing detailed self-directed medical education about a disease, condition or procedure.

Cardiovascular Metabolism Knowledge Centre

Cardiovascular Metabolism Knowledge Centre

The Cardiovascular Metabolism Knowledge Centre is an information hub providing expert insight into the management of hypertension and type 2 diabetes. This Knowledge Centre contains a wealth of scientific video content offering insights and opinion from some of the leading experts in the field.

Hereditary ATTR amyloidosis

Hereditary ATTR amyloidosis

Explore the pathophysiology, epidemiology and multi-system symptoms associated with hereditary ATTR amyloidosis, as well as how to achieve an early and accurate diagnosis.

Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic and progressive fibrotic interstitial lung disease that occurs mostly in older adults, is limited to the lungs and often displays a characteristic imaging and histological appearance. Find out how to diagnose IPF and the latest interventions available for patients living with this burden.

Load more

Related Content

Advisory information

contraindications
4 CONTRAINDICATIONS TWYNSTA tablets are contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity (e.g., anaphylaxis or angioedema) to telmisartan, amlodipine, or any other component of this product [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)] . Do not co-administer aliskiren with TWYNSTA in patients with diabetes [see Drug Interactions (7.2)]. Known hypersensitivity (e.g., anaphylaxis or angioedema) to telmisartan, amlodipine or any other component of this product (4) Do not co-administer aliskiren with TWYNSTA in patients with diabetes (4)
Adverse reactions
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS In the placebo-controlled factorial design study, the most common reasons for discontinuation of therapy with TWYNSTA tablets were peripheral edema, dizziness, and hypotension, each leading to discontinuation of ≤0.5% of TWYNSTA-treated patients. Adverse reactions that occurred at a ≥2% higher incidence on TWYNSTA tablets than placebo were peripheral edema (4.8% vs 0%), dizziness (3.0% vs 2.2%), and back pain (2.2% vs 0%). (6.1) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc. at (800) 542-6257 or (800) 459-9906 TTY, or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch . 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical studies are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reactions rates observed in the clinical studies of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical studies of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. TWYNSTA Tablets The concomitant use of telmisartan and amlodipine has been evaluated for safety in more than 3700 patients with hypertension; approximately 1900 of these patients were exposed for at least 6 months and over 160 of these patients were exposed for at least one year. Adverse reactions have generally been mild and transient in nature and have only infrequently required discontinuation of therapy. In the placebo-controlled factorial design study, the population treated with a telmisartan and amlodipine combination had a mean age of 53 years and included approximately 50% males, 79% were Caucasian, 17% Blacks, and 4% Asians. Patients received doses ranging from 20/2.5 mg to 80/10 mg orally, once daily. The frequency of adverse reactions was not related to gender, age, or race. The adverse reactions that occurred in the placebo-controlled factorial design trial in ≥2% of patients treated with TWYNSTA and at a higher incidence in TWYNSTA-treated patients (n=789) than placebo-treated patients (n=46) were peripheral edema (4.8% vs 0%), dizziness (3.0% vs 2.2%), and back pain (2.2% vs 0%). Edema (other than peripheral edema), hypotension, and syncope were reported in <2% of patients treated with TWYNSTA tablets. In the placebo-controlled factorial design trial, discontinuation due to adverse events occurred in 2.2% of all treatment cells of patients in the telmisartan/amlodipine-treated patients and in 4.3% in the placebo-treated group. The most common reasons for discontinuation of therapy with TWYNSTA tablets were peripheral edema, dizziness, and hypotension (each ≤0.5%). Peripheral edema is a known, dose-dependent adverse reaction of amlodipine, but not of telmisartan. In the factorial design study, the incidence of peripheral edema during the 8 week, randomized, double-blind treatment period was highest with amlodipine 10 mg monotherapy. The incidence was notably lower when telmisartan was used in combination with amlodipine 10 mg. Table 1: Incidence of Peripheral Edema During the 8 Week Treatment Period Telmisartan Placebo 40 mg 80 mg Amlodipine Placebo 0% 0.8% 0.7% 5 mg 0.7% 1.4% 2.1% 10 mg 17.8% 6.2% 11.3% Telmisartan Telmisartan has been evaluated for safety in more than 3700 patients, including 1900 treated for over 6 months and more than 1300 for over one year. Adverse experiences have generally been mild and transient in nature and have only infrequently required discontinuation of therapy. In placebo-controlled trials involving 1041 patients treated with various doses of telmisartan (20 to 160 mg) monotherapy for up to 12 weeks, an overall incidence of adverse events was similar to the patients treated with placebo. Adverse events occurring at an incidence of ≥1% in patients treated with telmisartan and at a greater rate than in patients treated with placebo, irrespective of their causal association, are presented in Table 2. Table 2: Adverse Events Occurring at an Incidence of ≥1% in Patients Treated with Telmisartan and at a Greater Rate than Patients Treated with Placebo Telmisartan n=1455 % Placebo n=380 % Upper respiratory tract infection 7 6 Back pain 3 1 Sinusitis 3 2 Diarrhea 3 2 Pharyngitis 1 0 In addition to the adverse events in the table, the following events occurred at a rate of ≥1% but were at least as frequent in the placebo group: influenza-like symptoms, dyspepsia, myalgia, urinary tract infection, abdominal pain, headache, dizziness, pain, fatigue, coughing, hypertension, chest pain, nausea, and peripheral edema. Discontinuation of therapy because of adverse events was required in 2.8% of 1455 patients treated with telmisartan tablets and 6.1% of 380 placebo patients in placebo-controlled clinical trials. The incidence of adverse events was not dose-related and did not correlate with gender, age, or race of patients. The incidence of cough occurring with telmisartan in 6 placebo-controlled trials was identical to that noted for placebo-treated patients (1.6%). In addition to those listed above, adverse events that occurred in >0.3% of 3500 patients treated with telmisartan monotherapy in controlled or open trials are listed below. It cannot be determined whether these events were causally related to telmisartan tablets: Autonomic Nervous System: impotence, increased sweating, flushing; Body as a Whole: allergy, fever, leg pain, malaise; Cardiovascular: palpitation, dependent edema, angina pectoris, tachycardia, leg edema, abnormal ECG; CNS: insomnia, somnolence, migraine, vertigo, paresthesia, involuntary muscle contractions, hypoesthesia; Gastrointestinal: flatulence, constipation, gastritis, vomiting, dry mouth, hemorrhoids, gastroenteritis, enteritis, gastroesophageal reflux, toothache, non-specific gastrointestinal disorders; Metabolic: gout, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus; Musculoskeletal: arthritis, arthralgia, leg cramps; Psychiatric: anxiety, depression, nervousness; Resistance Mechanism: infection, fungal infection, abscess, otitis media; Respiratory: asthma, bronchitis, rhinitis, dyspnea, epistaxis; Skin: dermatitis, rash, eczema, pruritus; Urinary: micturition frequency, cystitis; Vascular: cerebrovascular disorder; and Special Senses: abnormal vision, conjunctivitis, tinnitus, earache. During initial clinical studies, a single case of angioedema was reported (among a total of 3781 patients treated). Clinical Laboratory Findings In placebo-controlled clinical trials, clinically relevant changes in standard laboratory test parameters were rarely associated with administration of telmisartan tablets. Hemoglobin: A greater than 2 g/dL decrease in hemoglobin was observed in 0.8% telmisartan patients compared with 0.3% placebo patients. No patients discontinued therapy due to anemia. Creatinine: A 0.5 mg/dL rise or greater in creatinine was observed in 0.4% telmisartan patients compared with 0.3% placebo patients. One telmisartan-treated patient discontinued therapy due to increases in creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. Liver Enzymes: Occasional elevations of liver chemistries occurred in patients treated with telmisartan; all marked elevations occurred at a higher frequency with placebo. No telmisartan-treated patients discontinued therapy due to abnormal hepatic function. Amlodipine Amlodipine has been evaluated for safety in more than 11,000 patients in U.S. and foreign clinical trials. Most adverse reactions reported during therapy with amlodipine were of mild or moderate severity. In controlled clinical trials directly comparing amlodipine (n=1730) in doses up to 10 mg to placebo (n=1250), discontinuation of amlodipine due to adverse reactions was required in only about 1.5% of amlodipine-treated patients and was not significantly different from that seen in placebo-treated patients (about 1%). The most common side effects were headache and edema. The incidence (%) of side effects which occurred in a dose-related manner are presented in Table 3. Table 3: Incidence (%) of Dose-Related Adverse Effects with Amlodipine at Doses of 2.5 mg, 5.0 mg, and 10.0 mg or Placebo Adverse Event Amlodipine 2.5 mg n=275 % Amlodipine 5.0 mg n=296 % Amlodipine 10.0 mg n=268 % Placebo n=520 % Edema 1.8 3.0 10.8 0.6 Dizziness 1.1 3.4 3.4 1.5 Flushing 0.7 1.4 2.6 0.0 Palpitations 0.7 1.4 4.5 0.6 Other adverse experiences which were not clearly dose related but which were reported with an incidence greater than 1% in placebo-controlled clinical trials are presented in Table 4. Table 4: Incidence (%) of Adverse Effects Not Clearly Dose Related but Reported at an Incidence of >1% in Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials Adverse Event Amlodipine n=1730 % Placebo n=1250 % Headache 7.3 7.8 Fatigue 4.5 2.8 Nausea 2.9 1.9 Abdominal pain 1.6 0.3 Somnolence 1.4 0.6 The following events occurred in <1% but >0.1% of patients in controlled clinical trials or under conditions of open trials or marketing experience where a causal relationship is uncertain; they are listed to alert the physician to a possible relationship: Cardiovascular: arrhythmia (including ventricular tachycardia and atrial fibrillation), bradycardia, chest pain, hypotension, peripheral ischemia, syncope, tachycardia, postural dizziness, postural hypotension, vasculitis; Central and Peripheral Nervous System: hypoesthesia, neuropathy peripheral, paresthesia, tremor, vertigo; Gastrointestinal: anorexia, constipation, dyspepsia,** dysphagia, diarrhea, flatulence, pancreatitis, vomiting, gingival hyperplasia, change of bowel habit; General: allergic reaction, asthenia,** back pain, hot flushes, malaise, pain, rigors, weight gain, weight decrease; Musculoskeletal System: arthralgia, arthrosis, muscle cramps,** myalgia; Psychiatric: sexual dysfunction (male** and female), insomnia, nervousness, depression, abnormal dreams, anxiety, depersonalization, mood change; Respiratory System: dyspnea,** epistaxis; Skin and Appendages: angioedema, erythema multiforme, pruritus,** rash,** rash erythematous, rash maculopapular; Special Senses: abnormal vision, conjunctivitis, diplopia, eye pain, tinnitus; Urinary System: micturition frequency, micturition disorder, nocturia; Autonomic Nervous System: dry mouth, sweating increased; Metabolic and Nutritional: hyperglycemia, thirst; Hemopoietic: leukopenia, purpura, thrombocytopenia. **These events occurred in less than 1% in placebo-controlled trials, but the incidence of these side effects was between 1% and 2% in all multiple dose studies. The following events occurred in <0.1% of patients: cardiac failure, pulse irregularity, extrasystoles, skin discoloration, urticaria, skin dryness, alopecia, dermatitis, muscle weakness, twitching, ataxia, hypertonia, migraine, cold and clammy skin, apathy, agitation, amnesia, gastritis, increased appetite, loose stools, coughing, rhinitis, dysuria, polyuria, parosmia, taste perversion, abnormal visual accommodation, and xerophthalmia. Other reactions occurred sporadically and cannot be distinguished from medications or concurrent disease states such as myocardial infarction and angina. Amlodipine has not been associated with clinically significant changes in routine laboratory tests. No clinically relevant changes were noted in serum potassium, serum glucose, total triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, uric acid, blood urea nitrogen, or creatinine. Amlodipine has been used safely in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, well-compensated congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and abnormal lipid profiles. Adverse reactions reported for amlodipine for indications other than hypertension may be found in the prescribing information for Norvasc®. 6.2 Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of telmisartan or amlodipine. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to estimate reliably their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Decisions to include these reactions in labeling are typically based on one or more of the following factors: (1) seriousness of the reaction, (2) frequency of reporting, or (3) strength of causal connection to telmisartan or amlodipine. Telmisartan The most frequently spontaneously reported events include: headache, dizziness, asthenia, coughing, nausea, fatigue, weakness, edema, face edema, lower limb edema, angioneurotic edema, urticaria, hypersensitivity, sweating increased, erythema, chest pain, atrial fibrillation, congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, blood pressure increased, hypertension aggravated, hypotension (including postural hypotension), hyperkalemia, syncope, dyspepsia, diarrhea, pain, urinary tract infection, erectile dysfunction, back pain, abdominal pain, muscle cramps (including leg cramps), myalgia, bradycardia, eosinophilia, thrombocytopenia, uric acid increased, abnormal hepatic function/liver disorder, renal impairment including acute renal failure, anemia, and increased CPK, anaphylactic reaction, tendon pain (including tendonitis, tenosynovitis), drug eruption (e.g., toxic skin eruption mostly reported as toxicoderma, rash, and urticaria), hypoglycemia (in diabetic patients), and angioedema (with fatal outcome). Rare cases of rhabdomyolysis have been reported in patients receiving angiotensin II receptor blockers, including telmisartan. Amlodipine Gynecomastia has been reported infrequently and a causal relationship is uncertain. Jaundice and hepatic enzyme elevations (mostly consistent with cholestasis or hepatitis), in some cases severe enough to require hospitalization, have been reported in association with use of amlodipine. Postmarketing reporting has also revealed a possible association between extrapyramidal disorder and amlodipine.

Usage information

Dosing and administration
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Substitute TWYNSTA for its individually titrated components for patients on amlodipine and telmisartan. TWYNSTA may also be given with increased amounts of amlodipine, telmisartan, or both, as needed. (2.2, 2.3) Use TWYNSTA tablets to provide additional blood pressure lowering for patients not adequately controlled with amlodipine (or another dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker) alone or with telmisartan (or another angiotensin receptor blocker) alone (2.3) Dosage may be increased after at least 2 weeks to a maximum dose of 80/10 mg once daily, usually by increasing one component at a time but both components can be raised to achieve more rapid control (2.1, 2.2) Majority of antihypertensive effect is attained within 2 weeks (2.1) Initiate with 40/5 mg or 80/5 mg once daily (2.4) Switch patients who experience dose-limiting adverse reactions on amlodipine to TWYNSTA tablets containing a lower dose of that component (2.3) 2.1 General Considerations Telmisartan is an effective treatment of hypertension in once daily doses of 20 to 80 mg while amlodipine is effective in doses of 2.5 to 10 mg. Dosage must be individualized and may be increased after at least 2 weeks. Most of the antihypertensive effect is apparent within 2 weeks and maximal reduction is generally attained after 4 weeks. The maximum recommended dose of TWYNSTA tablets is 80/10 mg once daily. The adverse reactions of telmisartan are uncommon and independent of dose; those of amlodipine are a mixture of dose-dependent phenomena (primarily peripheral edema) and dose-independent phenomena, the former much more common than the latter [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)] . TWYNSTA may be taken with or without food. 2.2 Replacement Therapy Patients receiving amlodipine and telmisartan from separate tablets may instead receive TWYNSTA tablets containing the same component doses once daily. When substituting for individual components, increase the dose of TWYNSTA if blood pressure control has not been satisfactory. 2.3 Add-on Therapy for Patients with Hypertension Not Adequately Controlled on Antihypertensive Monotherapy TWYNSTA tablets may be used to provide additional blood pressure lowering for patients not adequately controlled with amlodipine (or another dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker) alone or with telmisartan (or another angiotensin receptor blocker) alone. Patients treated with 10 mg amlodipine who experience any dose-limiting adverse reactions such as edema, may be switched to TWYNSTA 40/5 mg tablets once daily, reducing the dose of amlodipine without reducing the overall expected antihypertensive response [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)] . 2.4 Initial Therapy A patient may be initiated on TWYNSTA tablets if it is unlikely that control of blood pressure would be achieved with a single agent. The usual starting dose of TWYNSTA is 40/5 mg once daily. Patients requiring larger blood pressure reductions may be started on TWYNSTA 80/5 mg once daily. Initial therapy with TWYNSTA is not recommended in patients ≥75 years old or with hepatic impairment [see Dosage and Administration (2.5), Warnings and Precautions (5.4), and Use in Specific Populations (8.5, 8.6)] . Correct imbalances of intravascular volume- or salt-depletion, before initiating therapy with TWYNSTA tablets [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)] . 2.5 Dosing in Specific Populations Renal Impairment No initial dosage adjustment is required for patients with mild or moderate renal impairment. Titrate slowly in patients with severe renal impairment. Hepatic Impairment In most patients, initiate amlodipine therapy at 2.5 mg. Titrate slowly in patients with hepatic impairment. Patients 75 Years of Age and Older In most patients, initiate amlodipine therapy at 2.5 mg. Titrate slowly in patients 75 years of age and older.
Use in special populations
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS Patients ≥75 years of age or hepatically impaired patients: Start with amlodipine or add amlodipine 2.5 mg to telmisartan (2.5, 8.5, 8.6) Lactation: Do not breastfeed during treatment with TWYNSTA (8.2) 8.1 Pregnancy Risk Summary TWYNSTA can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Use of drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy reduces fetal renal function and increases fetal and neonatal morbidity and death (see Clinical Considerations). Most epidemiologic studies examining fetal abnormalities after exposure to antihypertensive use in the first trimester have not distinguished drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system from other antihypertensive agents. Studies in rats and rabbits with telmisartan showed fetotoxicity only at maternally toxic doses (see Data). In animal reproduction studies, there was no evidence of adverse developmental effects when pregnant rats and rabbits were treated orally with amlodipine maleate during organogenesis at doses approximately 10 and 20-times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD), respectively. However for rats, litter size was significantly decreased (by about 50%) and the number of intrauterine deaths was significantly increased (about 5-fold). Amlodipine has been shown to prolong both the gestation period and the duration of labor in rats at this dose (see Data). When pregnancy is detected, discontinue TWYNSTA as soon as possible. The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major malformations and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4%, and 15% to 20%, respectively. Clinical Considerations Disease-associated maternal and/or embryo/fetal risk Hypertension in pregnancy increases the maternal risk for pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, premature delivery, and delivery complications (e.g., need for cesarean section, and post-partum hemorrhage). Hypertension increases the fetal risk for intrauterine growth restriction and intrauterine death. Pregnant women with hypertension should be carefully monitored and managed accordingly. Fetal/Neonatal adverse reactions Use of drugs that act on the RAS in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy can result in the following: oligohydramnios, reduced fetal renal function leading to anuria and renal failure, fetal lung hypoplasia, skeletal deformations, including skull hypoplasia, hypotension, and death. In the unusual case that there is no appropriate alternative to therapy with drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system for a particular patient, apprise the mother of the potential risk to the fetus. In patients taking TWYNSTA during pregnancy, perform serial ultrasound examinations to assess the intra-amniotic environment. Fetal testing may be appropriate, based on the week of gestation. If oligohydramnios is observed, discontinue TWYNSTA, unless it is considered lifesaving for the mother. Patients and physicians should be aware, however, that oligohydramnios may not appear until after the fetus has sustained irreversible injury. Closely observe infants with histories of in utero exposure to TWYNSTA for hypotension, oliguria, and hyperkalemia. If oliguria or hypotension occurs, support blood pressure and renal perfusion. Exchange transfusions or dialysis may be required as a means of reversing hypotension and/or substituting for disordered renal function [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)]. Data Animal Data No reproductive toxicity studies have been conducted with the combination of telmisartan and amlodipine besylate. However, these studies have been conducted for telmisartan and amlodipine besylate alone. Telmisartan No teratogenic effects were observed when telmisartan was administered to pregnant rats at oral doses of up to 50 mg/kg/day and to pregnant rabbits at oral doses up to 45 mg/kg/day. In rabbits, embryolethality associated with maternal toxicity (reduced body weight gain and food consumption) was observed at 45 mg/kg/day [about 12 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 80 mg on a mg/m2 basis]. In rats, maternally toxic (reduction in body weight gain and food consumption) telmisartan doses of 15 mg/kg/day (about 1.9 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis), administered during late gestation and lactation, were observed to produce adverse effects in neonates, including reduced viability, low birth weight, delayed maturation, and decreased weight gain. The no observed effect doses for developmental toxicity in rats and rabbits, 5 and 15 mg/kg/day, respectively, are about 0.64 and 3.7 times, on a mg/m2 basis, the maximum recommended human dose of telmisartan (80 mg/day). Amlodipine No evidence of teratogenicity or embryo/fetal toxicity was found when pregnant rats and rabbits were treated orally with amlodipine maleate at doses up to 10 mg amlodipine/kg/day (approximately 10 and 20 times the MRHD based on body surface area, respectively) during their respective periods of major organogenesis. However, for rats, litter size was significantly decreased (by about 50%) and the number of intrauterine deaths was significantly increased (about 5-fold). Amlodipine has been shown to prolong both the gestation period and the duration of labor in rats at this dose. 8.2 Lactation Risk Summary There is no information regarding the presence of TWYNSTA or telmisartan in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Limited published studies report that amlodipine is present in human milk. However, there is insufficient information to determine the effects of amlodipine on the breastfed infant. There is no available information on the effects of amlodipine on milk production. Telmisartan is present in the milk of lactating rats (see Data). Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in the breastfed infant including hypotension, hyperkalemia and renal impairment, advise a nursing woman not to breastfeed during treatment with TWYNSTA. Data Telmisartan was present in the milk of lactating rats at concentrations 1.5 to 2 times those found in plasma from 4 to 8 hours after administration. 8.4 Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness of TWYNSTA in pediatric patients have not been established. Neonates with a history of in utero exposure to TWYNSTA If oliguria or hypotension occurs, support blood pressure and renal perfusion. Exchange transfusions or dialysis may be required as a means of reversing hypotension and/or substituting for disordered renal function. 8.5 Geriatric Use TWYNSTA Tablets Of the total number of 3282 hypertensive patients receiving a telmisartan/amlodipine combination in clinical studies, 605 (18%) patients were 65 years of age or older and of these, 88 (3%) patients were 75 years and older. No overall differences in efficacy or safety of TWYNSTA tablets were observed in this patient population. Telmisartan Of the total number of patients receiving telmisartan in clinical studies, 551 (18.6%) were 65 to 74 years of age and 130 (4.4%) were 75 years and older. No overall differences in effectiveness and safety were observed in these patients compared to younger patients and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. Amlodipine Clinical studies of amlodipine besylate tablets did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. Elderly patients have decreased clearance of amlodipine with a resulting increase of AUC of approximately 40% to 60%, and a lower initial dose may be required. Since patients age 75 and older have decreased clearance of amlodipine, start amlodipine or add amlodipine 2.5 mg to telmisartan. The lowest dose of TWYNSTA is 40/5 mg; therefore, initial therapy with TWYNSTA tablets is not recommended in patients 75 years of age and older [see Dosage and Administration (2.5)] . 8.6 Hepatic Insufficiency Monitor carefully and uptitrate slowly in patients with biliary obstructive disorders or hepatic insufficiency [see Dosage and Administration (2) and Warnings and Precautions (5.4)] . Since patients with hepatic impairment have decreased clearance of amlodipine, start amlodipine or add amlodipine 2.5 mg to telmisartan. The lowest dose of TWYNSTA is 40/5 mg; therefore, initial therapy with TWYNSTA tablets is not recommended in hepatically impaired patients [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)] . 8.7 Race The magnitude of blood pressure lowering in black patients approached that observed in non-black patients but the number of black patients was limited (237 of 1461 patients).

Interactions

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS NSAIDs: Increased risk of renal impairment and loss of anti-hypertensive effect (7) If simvastatin is co-administered with amlodipine, do not exceed doses greater than 20 mg daily of simvastatin (7) Do not co-administer aliskiren with TWYNSTA in patients with diabetes (7.2) 7.1 Drug Interactions with TWYNSTA Tablets The pharmacokinetics of amlodipine and telmisartan are not altered when the drugs are co-administered. No drug interaction studies have been conducted with TWYNSTA tablets and other drugs, although studies have been conducted with the individual amlodipine and telmisartan components of TWYNSTA tablets, as described below: 7.2 Drug Interactions with Telmisartan Aliskiren: Do not co-administer aliskiren with TWYNSTA in patients with diabetes. Avoid use of aliskiren with TWYNSTA in patients with renal impairment (GFR <60 mL/min). Digoxin: When telmisartan was co-administered with digoxin, median increases in digoxin peak plasma concentration (49%) and in trough concentration (20%) were observed. Therefore, monitor digoxin levels when initiating, adjusting, and discontinuing telmisartan for the purpose of keeping the digoxin level within the therapeutic range. Lithium: Reversible increases in serum lithium concentrations and toxicity have been reported during concomitant administration of lithium with angiotensin II receptor antagonists including telmisartan. Therefore, monitor serum lithium levels during concomitant use. Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents including Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors (COX-2 Inhibitors): In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function, co-administration of NSAIDs, including selective COX-2 inhibitors, with angiotensin II receptor antagonists, including telmisartan, may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Monitor renal function periodically in patients receiving telmisartan and NSAID therapy. The antihypertensive effect of angiotensin II receptor antagonists, including telmisartan may be attenuated by NSAIDs including selective COX-2 inhibitors. 7.3 Drug Interactions with Amlodipine In clinical trials, amlodipine has been safely administered with thiazide diuretics, beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, long-acting nitrates, sublingual nitroglycerin, digoxin, warfarin, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, and oral hypoglycemic drugs. Simvastatin: Co-administration of multiple doses of 10 mg of amlodipine with 80 mg simvastatin resulted in a 77% increase in exposure to simvastatin compared to simvastatin alone. Limit the dose of simvastatin in patients on amlodipine to 20 mg daily. Immunosuppressants: Amlodipine may increase the systemic exposure of cyclosporine or tacrolimus when co-administered. Frequent monitoring of trough blood levels of cyclosporine and tacrolimus and dose adjustment when appropriate is recommended. The following have no clinically relevant effects on the pharmacokinetics of amlodipine: cimetidine, grapefruit juice, magnesium and aluminum hydroxide antacid, sildenafil. Amlodipine has no clinically relevant effects on the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of the following: atorvastatin, digoxin, warfarin. CYP3A4 Inhibitors: Co-administration of a 180 mg daily dose of diltiazem with 5 mg amlodipine in elderly hypertensive patients resulted in a 60% increase in amlodipine systemic exposure. Erythromycin co-administration in healthy volunteers did not significantly change amlodipine systemic exposure. However, strong inhibitors of CYP3A4 (e.g., ketoconazole, itraconazole, ritonavir) may increase the plasma concentrations of amlodipine to a greater extent. Monitor for symptoms of hypotension and edema when amlodipine is co-administered with CYP3A4 inhibitors. CYP3A4 Inducers: No information is available on the quantitative effects of CYP3A4 inducers (e.g., carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, fosphenytoin, primidone, rifampicin, St. John’s Wort) on amlodipine. Patients should be monitored for adequate clinical effect when amlodipine is co-administered with CYP3A4 inducers.

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number NDA022401
Agency product number U5SYW473RQ
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 0597-0124,0597-0125,0597-0126,0597-0127
Date Last Revised 14-02-2018
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
RXCUI 876529
Marketing authorisation holder Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Warnings WARNING: FETAL TOXICITY When pregnancy is detected, discontinue TWYNSTA as soon as possible [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Use in Specific Populations (8.1)]. Drugs that act directly on the renin-angiotensin system can cause injury and death to the developing fetus [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Use in Specific Populations (8.1)]. WARNING: FETAL TOXICITY See full prescribing information for complete boxed warning. When pregnancy is detected, discontinue TWYNSTA as soon as possible (5.1, 8.1) Drugs that act directly on the renin-angiotensin system can cause injury and death to the developing fetus (5.1, 8.1)