Data from FDA - Curated by EPG Health - Last updated 19 February 2018

Indication(s)

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE Tribenzor (olmesartan medoxomil, amlodipine, hydrochlorothiazide) is indicated for the treatment of hypertension, alone or with other antihypertensive agents, to lower blood pressure. Lowering blood pressure reduces the risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events, primarily strokes and myocardial infarctions. These benefits have been seen in controlled trials of antihypertensive drugs from a wide variety of pharmacologic classes including the class to which this drug principally belongs. There are no controlled trials demonstrating risk reduction with Tribenzor. Control of high blood pressure should be part of comprehensive cardiovascular risk management, including, as appropriate, lipid control, diabetes management, antithrombotic therapy, smoking cessation, exercise, and limited sodium intake. Many patients will require more than one drug to achieve blood pressure goals. For specific advice on goals and management, see published guidelines, such as those of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program’s Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC). Numerous antihypertensive drugs, from a variety of pharmacologic classes and with different mechanisms of action, have been shown in randomized controlled trials to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and it can be concluded that it is blood pressure reduction, and not some other pharmacologic property of the drugs, that is largely responsible for those benefits. The largest and most consistent cardiovascular outcome benefit has been a reduction in the risk of stroke, but reductions in myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality also have been seen regularly. Elevated systolic or diastolic pressure causes increased cardiovascular risk, and the absolute risk increase per mmHg is greater at higher blood pressures, so that even modest reductions of severe hypertension can provide substantial benefit. Relative risk reduction from blood pressure reduction is similar across populations with varying absolute risk, so the absolute benefit is greater in patients who are at higher risk independent of their hypertension (for example, patients with diabetes or hyperlipidemia), and such patients would be expected to benefit from more aggressive treatment to a lower blood pressure goal. Some antihypertensive drugs have smaller blood pressure effects (as monotherapy) in black patients, and many antihypertensive drugs have additional approved indications and effects (e.g., on angina, heart failure, or diabetic kidney disease). These considerations may guide selection of therapy. Limitations of Use This fixed combination drug is not indicated for the initial therapy of hypertension. Tribenzor is a combination of an angiotensin II receptor blocker, a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker, and a thiazide diuretic indicated for the treatment of hypertension, to lower blood pressure. Lowering blood pressure reduces the risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events, primarily strokes and myocardial infarctions (1). Limitations of Use Tribenzor is not indicated for initial therapy.

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Advisory information

contraindications
4 CONTRAINDICATIONS Because of the hydrochlorothiazide component, Tribenzor is contraindicated in patients with anuria, hypersensitivity to any component, or hypersensitivity to other sulfonamide-derived drugs. Do not co-administer aliskiren with Tribenzor in patients with diabetes [ s ee Drug Interactions ( 7.2 )]. Anuria: Hypersensitivity to sulfonamide-derived drugs (4). Do not co-administer aliskiren with Tribenzor in patients with diabetes (4).
Adverse reactions
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS Most common adverse reactions (incidence ≥2%) are dizziness, peripheral edema, headache, fatigue, nasopharyngitis, muscle spasms, nausea, upper respiratory tract infection, diarrhea, urinary tract infection, and joint swelling (6.1). To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Daiichi Sankyo, Inc. at 1-877-437-7763 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical studies are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical studies of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical studies of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. Tribenzor In the controlled trial of Tribenzor, patients were randomized to Tribenzor (olmesartan medoxomil/amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide 40/10/25 mg), olmesartan medoxomil/amlodipine 40/10 mg, olmesartan medoxomil/hydrochlorothiazide 40/25 mg, or amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide 10/25 mg. Subjects who received triple combination therapy were treated between two and four weeks with one of the three dual combination therapies. Safety data from this study were obtained in 574 patients with hypertension who received Tribenzor for 8 weeks. The frequency of adverse reactions was similar between men and women, patients <65 years of age and patients ≥65 years of age, patients with and without diabetes, and Black and non-Black patients. Discontinuations because of adverse events occurred in 4% of patients treated with Tribenzor 40/10/25 mg compared to 1% of patients treated with olmesartan medoxomil/amlodipine 40/10 mg, 2% of patients treated with olmesartan medoxomil/hydrochlorothiazide 40/25 mg, and 2% of patients treated with amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide 10/25 mg. The most common reason for discontinuation with Tribenzor was dizziness (1%). Dizziness was one of the most frequently reported adverse reactions with incidence of 1.4% to 3.6% in subjects continuing on dual combination therapy compared to 5.8% to 8.9% in subjects who switched to Tribenzor. The other most frequent adverse reactions that occurred in at least 2% of subjects are presented in the table below: Table 1 Adverse Reaction OM40/ AML10/ HCTZ25 mg (N = 574) n (%) OM40/ AML10 mg (N = 596) n (%) OM40/ HCTZ25mg (N = 580) n (%) AML10/ HCTZ25 mg (N = 552) n (%) Edema peripheral 44 (7.7) 42 (7.0) 6 (1.0) 46 (8.3) Headache 37 (6.4) 42 (7.0) 38 (6.6) 33 (6.0) Fatigue 24 (4.2) 34 (5.7) 31 (5.3) 36 (6.5) Nasopharyngitis 20 (3.5) 11 (1.8) 20 (3.4) 16 (2.9) Muscle spasms 18 (3.1) 12 (2.0) 14 (2.4) 13 (2.4) Nausea 17 (3.0) 12 (2.0) 22 (3.8) 12 (2.2) Upper respiratory tract infection 16 (2.8) 26 (4.4) 18 (3.1) 14 (2.5) Diarrhea 15 (2.6) 14 (2.3) 12 (2.1) 9 (1.6) Urinary tract infection 14 (2.4) 8 (1.3) 6 (1.0) 7 (1.3) Joint swelling 12 (2.1) 17 (2.9) 2 (0.3) 16 (2.9) Syncope was reported by 1% of Tribenzor subjects compared to 0.5% or less for the other treatment groups. Olmesartan medoxomil Olmesartan medoxomil has been evaluated for safety in more than 3825 patients/subjects, including more than 3275 patients treated for hypertension in controlled trials. This experience included about 900 patients treated for at least 6 months and more than 525 treated for at least 1 year. Treatment with olmesartan medoxomil was well tolerated, with an incidence of adverse reactions similar to that seen with placebo. Adverse reactions were generally mild, transient, and without relationship to the dose of olmesartan medoxomil. Amlodipine Amlodipine has been evaluated for safety in more than 11,000 patients in U.S. and foreign clinical trials. The following adverse reactions occurred in <1% but >0.1% of patients in controlled clinical trials under conditions of open trials or marketing experience where a causal relationship is uncertain; they are listed to alert physicians to a possible relationship: Cardiovascular: arrhythmia (including ventricular tachycardia and atrial fibrillation), bradycardia, chest pain, hypotension, peripheral ischemia, syncope, tachycardia, postural dizziness, postural hypotension, vasculitis Central and Peripheral Nervous System : hypoesthesia, neuropathy peripheral, paresthesia, tremor, vertigo Gastrointestinal : anorexia, constipation, dyspepsia*, dysphagia, diarrhea, flatulence, pancreatitis, vomiting, gingival hyperplasia General : allergic reaction, asthenia*, back pain, hot flushes, malaise, pain, rigors, weight gain, weight decrease Musculoskeletal System : arthralgia, arthrosis, muscle cramps*, myalgia Psychiatric : sexual dysfunction (male* and female), insomnia, nervousness, depression, abnormal dreams, anxiety, depersonalization Respiratory : dyspnea*, epistaxis Skin and Appendages : angioedema, erythema multiforme, pruritus*, rash*, rash erythematous, rash maculopapular Special Senses : abnormal vision, conjunctivitis, diplopia, eye pain, tinnitus Urinary System : micturition frequency, micturition disorder, nocturia Autonomic Nervous System: dry mouth, sweating increased Metabolic and Nutritional: hyperglycemia, thirst Hemopoietic: leukopenia, purpura, thrombocytopenia * = events that occurred in less than 1% in placebo-controlled trials, but the incidence of these side effects was between 1% and 2% in all multiple dose studies. The following adverse reactions occurred in <0.1% of patients: cardiac failure, pulse irregularity, extrasystoles, skin discoloration, urticaria, skin dryness, alopecia, dermatitis, muscle weakness, twitching, ataxia, hypertonia, migraine, cold and clammy skin, apathy, agitation, amnesia, gastritis, increased appetite, loose stools, coughing, rhinitis, dysuria, polyuria, parosmia, taste perversion, abnormal visual accommodation, and xerophthalmia. Hydrochlorothiazide Other adverse reactions that have been reported with hydrochlorothiazide, without regard to causality, are listed below: Body as a Whole: weakness Digestive: pancreatitis, jaundice (intrahepatic cholestatic jaundice), sialadenitis, cramping, gastric irritation Hematologic: aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis, leukopenia, hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia Hypersensitivity: purpura, photosensitivity, urticaria, necrotizing angiitis (vasculitis and cutaneous vasculitis), fever, respiratory distress including pneumonitis and pulmonary edema, anaphylactic reactions Metabolic: hyperglycemia, glycosuria, hyperuricemia Musculoskeletal: muscle spasm Nervous System/Psychiatric: restlessness Renal: renal failure, renal dysfunction, interstitial nephritis Skin: erythema multiforme including Stevens-Johnson syndrome, exfoliative dermatitis including toxic epidermal necrolysis Special Senses: transient blurred vision, xanthopsia 6.2 Post-Marketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of the individual components of Tribenzor. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Olmesartan medoxomil. The following adverse reactions have been reported in post-marketing experience: Body as a Whole: asthenia, angioedema, anaphylactic reactions, peripheral edema Gastrointestinal: vomiting, diarrhea, sprue-like enteropathy [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.10 ) ] Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders: hyperkalemia Musculoskeletal: rhabdomyolysis Urogenital System: acute renal failure, increased blood creatinine Skin and Appendages: alopecia, pruritus, urticaria Data from one controlled trial and an epidemiologic study have suggested that high-dose olmesartan may increase cardiovascular (CV) risk in diabetic patients, but the overall data are not conclusive. The randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind ROADMAP trial (Randomized Olmesartan And Diabetes MicroAlbuminuria Prevention trial, n=4447) examined the use of olmesartan, 40 mg daily, vs. placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, normoalbuminuria, and at least one additional risk factor for CV disease. The trial met its primary endpoint, delayed onset of microalbuminuria, but olmesartan had no beneficial effect on decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). There was a finding of increased CV mortality (adjudicated sudden cardiac death, fatal myocardial infarction, fatal stroke, revascularization death) in the olmesartan group compared to the placebo group (15 olmesartan vs. 3 placebo, HR 4.9, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4, 17), but the risk of non-fatal myocardial infarction was lower with olmesartan (HR 0.64, 95% CI 0.35, 1.18). The epidemiologic study included patients 65 years and older with overall exposure of > 300,000 patient-years. In the sub-group of diabetic patients receiving high-dose olmesartan (40 mg/d) for > 6 months, there appeared to be an increased risk of death (HR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1, 3.8) compared to similar patients taking other angiotensin receptor blockers. In contrast, high-dose olmesartan use in non-diabetic patients appeared to be associated with a decreased risk of death (HR 0.46, 95% CI 0.24, 0.86) compared to similar patients taking other angiotensin receptor blockers. No differences were observed between the groups receiving lower doses of olmesartan compared to other angiotensin blockers or those receiving therapy for < 6 months. Overall, these data raise a concern of a possible increased CV risk associated with the use of high-dose olmesartan in diabetic patients. There are, however, concerns with the credibility of the finding of increased CV risk, notably the observation in the large epidemiologic study for a survival benefit in non-diabetics of a magnitude similar to the adverse finding in diabetics. Amlodipine. The following post-marketing event has been reported infrequently where a causal relationship is uncertain: gynecomastia. In post-marketing experience, jaundice and hepatic enzyme elevations (mostly consistent with cholestasis or hepatitis), in some cases severe enough to require hospitalization, have been reported in association with use of amlodipine. Postmarketing reporting has also revealed a possible association between extrapyramidal disorder and amlodipine.

Usage information

Dosing and administration
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Dose once daily. Dosage may be increased in 2 week intervals, as needed. The maximum recommended dose of Tribenzor is 40/10/25 mg. Dose selection should be individualized based on previous therapy. Dose once daily. Dosage may be increased after 2 weeks to a maximum dose of 40 /10 /25 mg once daily (2). Dose selection should be individualized based on previous therapy (2).
Use in special populations
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS Nursing mothers: Avoid use (8.3). Renal Impairment: Avoid use in patients with creatinine clearance ≤30 mL/min (8.7) 8.1 Pregnancy Pregnancy Category D Use of drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy reduces fetal renal function and increases fetal and neonatal morbidity and death. Resulting oligohydramnios can be associated with fetal lung hypoplasia and skeletal deformations. Potential neonatal adverse effects include skull hypoplasia, anuria, hypotension, renal failure, and death. When pregnancy is detected, discontinue Tribenzor as soon as possible. These adverse outcomes are usually associated with use of these drugs in the second and third trimester of pregnancy. Most epidemiologic studies examining fetal abnormalities after exposure to antihypertensive use in the first trimester have not distinguished drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system from other antihypertensive agents. Appropriate management of maternal hypertension during pregnancy is important to optimize outcomes for both mother and fetus. In the unusual case that there is no appropriate alternative to therapy with drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system for a particular patient, apprise the mother of the potential risk to the fetus. Perform serial ultrasound examinations to assess the intra-amniotic environment. If oligohydramnios is observed, discontinue Tribenzor, unless it is considered lifesaving for the mother. Fetal testing may be appropriate, based on the week of pregnancy. Patients and physicians should be aware, however, that oligohydramnios may not appear until after the fetus has sustained irreversible injury. Closely observe infants with histories of in utero exposure to Tribenzor for hypotension, oliguria, and hyperkalemia [ see Use in Specific Populations ( 8.4 )] . 8.3 Nursing Mothers It is not known whether amlodipine or olmesartan are excreted in human milk, but thiazides appear in human milk and olmesartan is secreted at low concentration in the milk of lactating rats. Because of the potential for adverse effects on the nursing infant, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. 8.4 Pediatric Use Neonates with a history of in utero exposure to Tribenzor: If oliguria or hypotension occurs, direct attention toward support of blood pressure and renal perfusion. Exchange transfusions or dialysis may be required as a means of reversing hypotension and/or substituting for disordered renal function. The safety and effectiveness of Tribenzor in pediatric patients have not been established. 8.5 Geriatric Use Tribenzor . In a controlled clinical trial, 123 hypertensive patients treated with Tribenzor were ≥65 years of age and 18 patients were ≥75 years of age. No overall differences in the efficacy or safety of Tribenzor were observed in these patient populations; however, greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. The recommended initial dose of amlodipine in patients ≥ 75 years of age is 2.5 mg, a dose not available with Tribenzor. 8. 6 Hepatic Impairment There are no studies of Tribenzor in patients with hepatic insufficiency, but both amlodipine and olmesartan medoxomil show moderate increases in exposure in patients with severe hepatic impairment. The recommended initial dose of amlodipine in patients with severe hepatic impairment is 2.5 mg, a dose not available with Tribenzor [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.5 )] . Amlodipine. Amlodipine is extensively metabolized by the liver and the plasma elimination half-life (t½) is 56 hours in patients with severely impaired hepatic function. Olmesartan medoxomil. Increases in AUC0- ∞ and peak plasma concentration (Cmax) for olmesartan were observed with moderate hepatic impairment compared to those in matched controls with an increase in AUC of about 60%. Hydrochlorothiazide. In patients with impaired hepatic function or progressive liver disease, minor alterations of fluid and electrolyte balance may precipitate hepatic coma. 8. 7 Renal Impairment There are no studies of Tribenzor in patients with renal impairment. Avoid use in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance <30 mL/min). Olmesartan medoxomil. Patients with renal insufficiency have elevated serum concentrations of olmesartan compared with patients with normal renal function. After repeated dosing, AUC was approximately tripled in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance <20 mL/min). No initial dosage adjustment is recommended for patients with moderate to marked renal impairment (creatinine clearance <40 mL/min). The pharmacokinetics of olmesartan in patients undergoing hemodialysis has not been studied. Amlodipine. The pharmacokinetics of amlodipine are not significantly influenced by renal impairment. Hydrochlorothiazide. Thiazide should be used with caution in patients with severe renal disease. In patients with renal disease, thiazides may precipitate azotemia. Cumulative effects of the drug may develop in patients with impaired renal function. 8.8 Black Patients Of the total number of patients who received Tribenzor in a randomized trial, 29% (184/627) were black. Tribenzor was effective in lowering both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in black patients (usually a low-renin population) to the same extent as in non-black patients.
Pregnancy and lactation
8.3 Nursing Mothers It is not known whether amlodipine or olmesartan are excreted in human milk, but thiazides appear in human milk and olmesartan is secreted at low concentration in the milk of lactating rats. Because of the potential for adverse effects on the nursing infant, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Interactions

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS Olmesartan medoxomil (7.1): Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS): May lead to increased risk of renal impairment and loss of antihypertensive effect. Dual inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system: Increased risk of renal impairment, hypotension, and hyperkalemia. Colesevelam hydrochloride: Consider administering olmesartan at least 4 hours before colesevelam hydrochloride dose. Lithium: Increases in serum lithium concentrations and lithium toxicity. Amlodipine (7.2): Limit simvastatin to 20 mg daily when coadministered. Increased exposure to cyclosporine and tacrolimus Increased amlodipine exposure when coadministered with CYP3A inhibitors Hydrochlorothiazide (7.3): Antidiabetic drugs: Dosage adjustment of antidiabetic may be required. Cholestyramine and colestipol: Reduced absorption of thiazides. NSAIDs: Can reduce the diuretic, natriuretic, and antihypertensive effects of diuretics. 7. 1 Drug Interactions with Olmesartan Medoxomil Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents including Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors (COX-2 Inhibitors) In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function, co-administration of NSAIDs, including selective COX-2 inhibitors, with angiotensin II receptor antagonists, including olmesartan medoxomil, may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Monitor renal function periodically in patients receiving olmesartan medoxomil and NSAID therapy. The antihypertensive effect of angiotensin II receptor antagonists, including olmesartan medoxomil may be attenuated by NSAIDs including selective COX-2 inhibitors. Dual Blockade of the Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) Dual blockade of the RAS with angiotensin receptor blockers, ACE inhibitors, or aliskiren is associated with increased risks of hypotension, hyperkalemia, and changes in renal function (including acute renal failure) compared to monotherapy. Most patients receiving the combination of two RAS inhibitors do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. In general, avoid combined use of RAS inhibitors. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function and electrolytes in patients on Tribenzor and other agents that affect the RAS. Do not co-administer aliskiren with Tribenzor in patients with diabetes [See Contraindications ( 4 )]. Avoid use of aliskiren with Tribenzor in patients with renal impairment (GFR <60 ml/min). Use with Colesevelam Hydrochloride Concurrent administration of bile acid sequestering agent colesevelam hydrochloride reduces the systemic exposure and peak plasma concentration of olmesartan. Administration of olmesartan at least 4 hours prior to colesevelam hydrochloride decreased the drug interaction effect. Consider administering olmesartan at least 4 hours before the colesevelam hydrochloride dose [see Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3 )]. Lithium Increases in serum lithium concentrations and lithium toxicity have been reported with concomitant use of olmesartan or thiazide diuretics. Monitor lithium levels in patients receiving Tribenzor and lithium. 7. 2 Drug Interactions with Amlodipine Simvastatin Co-administration of simvastatin with amlodipine increases the systemic exposure of simvastatin. Limit the dose of simvastatin in patients on amlodipine to 20 mg daily [see Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3 )]. Immunosuppressants Amlodipine may increase the systemic exposure of cyclosporine or tacrolimus when co-administered. Frequent monitoring of trough blood levels of cyclosporine and tacrolimus is recommended and adjust the dose when appropriate [see Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3 )]. CYP3A Inhibitors Co-administration of amlodipine with CYP3A inhibitors (moderate and strong) results in increased systemic exposure to amlodipine and may require dose reduction. Monitor for symptoms of hypotension and edema when amlodipine is co-administered with CYP3A inhibitors to determine the need for dose adjustment. CYP3A Inducers No information is available on the quantitative effects of CYP3A inducers on amlodipine. Blood pressure should be closely monitored when amlodipine is co-administered with CYP3A inducers. 7. 3 Drug Interactions with Hydrochlorothiazide When administered concurrently the following drugs may interact with thiazide diuretics: Antidiabetic Drugs (oral agents and insulin) : Dosage adjustment of the antidiabetic drug may be required. Cholestyramine and Colestipol Resins : Absorption of hydrochlorothiazide is impaired in the presence of anionic exchange resins. Single dose of either cholestyramine or colestipol resins bind the hydrochlorothiazide and reduce its absorption from the gastrointestinal tract by up to 85% and 43%, respectively. Corticosteroids, ACTH : Intensified electrolyte depletion, particularly hypokalemia. Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs : In some patients the administration of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent can reduce the diuretic, natriuretic, and antihypertensive effects of loop, potassium-sparing and thiazide diuretics. Therefore, when hydrochlorothiazide tablets and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents are used concomitantly, the patients should be observed closely to determine if the desired effect of the diuretic is obtained.

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number NDA200175
Agency product number 6M97XTV3HD
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 65597-114,65597-115,65597-116,65597-117,65597-118
Date Last Revised 02-07-2017
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
RXCUI 999995
Marketing authorisation holder Daiichi Sankyo Inc.
Warnings WARNING: FETAL TOXICITY When pregnancy is detected, discontinue Tribenzor as soon as possible. ( 5.1 ) Drugs that act directly on the renin-angiotensin system can cause injury and death to the developing fetus. ( 5.1 ) WARNING: FETAL TOXICITY See full prescribing information for complete boxed warning. When pregnancy is detected, discontinue Tribenzor as soon as possible ( 5.1 ). Drugs that act directly on the renin-angiotensin system can cause injury and death to the developing fetus ( 5.1 ).