Data from FDA (Food and Drug Administration, USA) - Curated by EPG Health - Last updated 05 July 2018

Indication(s)

INDICATIONS AND USAGE Triazolam is indicated for the short-term treatment of insomnia (generally 7–10 days). Use for more than 2–3 weeks requires complete reevaluation of the patient (see WARNINGS). Prescriptions for triazolam should be written for short-term use (7–10 days) and it should not be prescribed in quantities exceeding a 1-month supply.

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Advisory information

contraindications
CONTRAINDICATIONS Triazolam tablets are contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to this drug or other benzodiazepines. Benzodiazepines may cause fetal damage when administered during pregnancy. An increased risk of congenital malformations associated with the use of diazepam and chlordiazepoxide during the first trimester of pregnancy has been suggested in several studies. Transplacental distribution has resulted in neonatal CNS depression following the ingestion of therapeutic doses of a benzodiazepine hypnotic during the last weeks of pregnancy. Triazolam is contraindicated in pregnant women. If there is a likelihood of the patient becoming pregnant while receiving triazolam, she should be warned of the potential risk to the fetus. Patients should be instructed to discontinue the drug prior to becoming pregnant. The possibility that a woman of childbearing potential may be pregnant at the time of institution of therapy should be considered. Triazolam is contraindicated with medications that significantly impair the oxidative metabolism mediated by cytochrome P450 3A (CYP 3A) including ketoconazole, itraconazole, nefazodone, and several HIV protease inhibitors, (see WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS–Drug Interactions).
Special warnings and precautions
PRECAUTIONS General In elderly and/or debilitated patients it is recommended that treatment with triazolam tablets be initiated at 0.125 mg to decrease the possibility of development of oversedation, dizziness, or impaired coordination. Some side effects reported in association with the use of triazolam appear to be dose related. These include drowsiness, dizziness, light-headedness, and amnesia. The relationship between dose and what may be more serious behavioral phenomena is less certain. Specifically, some evidence, based on spontaneous marketing reports, suggests that confusion, bizarre or abnormal behavior, agitation, and hallucinations may also be dose related, but this evidence is inconclusive. In accordance with good medical practice it is recommended that therapy be initiated at the lowest effective dose (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). Cases of "traveler's amnesia" have been reported by individuals who have taken triazolam to induce sleep while traveling, such as during an airplane flight. In some of these cases, insufficient time was allowed for the sleep period prior to awakening and before beginning activity. Also, the concomitant use of alcohol may have been a factor in some cases. Caution should be exercised if triazolam is prescribed to patients with signs or symptoms of depression that could be intensified by hypnotic drugs. Suicidal tendencies may be present in such patients and protective measures may be required. Intentional over-dosage is more common in these patients, and the least amount of drug that is feasible should be available to the patient at any one time. The usual precautions should be observed in patients with impaired renal or hepatic function, chronic pulmonary insufficiency, and sleep apnea. In patients with compromised respiratory function, respiratory depression and apnea have been reported infrequently. Information for patients The text of a Medication Guide for patients is included at the end of this insert. To assure safe and effective use of triazolam, the information and instructions provided in this Medication Guide should be discussed with patients. Risks from Concomitant Use with Opioids Advise both patients and caregivers about the risks of potentially fatal respiratory depression and sedation when triazolam is used with opioids and not to use such drugs concomitantly unless supervised by a healthcare provider. Advise patients not to drive or operate heavy machinery until the effects of concomitant use with the opioid have been determined [see Drug Interactions]. "Sleep-driving" and other complex behaviors There have been reports of people getting out of bed after taking a sedative-hypnotic and driving their cars while not fully awake, often with no memory of the event. If a patient experiences such an episode, it should be reported to his or her doctor immediately, since "sleep-driving" can be dangerous. This behavior is more likely to occur when sedative-hypnotics are taken with alcohol or other central nervous system depressants (see WARNINGS). Other complex behaviors (e.g., preparing and eating food, making phone calls, or having sex) have been reported in patients who are not fully awake after taking a sedative hypnotic. As with sleep-driving, patients usually do not remember these events. Laboratory tests Laboratory tests are not ordinarily required in otherwise healthy patients. Drug interactions The concomitant use of benzodiazepines and opioids increases the risk of respiratory depression because of actions at different receptor sites in the CNS that control respiration. Benzodiazepines interact at GABAA sites and opioids interact primarily at mu receptors. When benzodiazepines and opioids are combined, the potential for benzodiazepines to significantly worsen opioid-related respiratory depression exists. Limit dosage and duration of concomitant use of benzodiazepines and opioids, and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. Both pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions have been reported with benzodiazepines. In particular, triazolam produces additive CNS depressant effects when coadministered with other psychotropic medications, anticonvulsants, antihistamines, ethanol, and other drugs which themselves produce CNS depression. Drugs that inhibit triazolam metabolism via cytochrome P450 3A The initial step in triazolam metabolism is hydroxylation catalyzed by cytochrome P450 3A (CYP 3A). Drugs which inhibit this metabolic pathway may have a profound effect on the clearance of triazolam (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS for additional drugs of this type). Triazolam is contraindicated with ketoconzaole, itraconazole, nefazodone, and several HIV protease inhibitors. Drugs and other substances demonstrated to be CYP 3A inhibitors of possible clinical significance on the basis of clinical studies involving triazolam (caution is recommended during coadministration with triazolam) Isoniazid Coadministration of isoniazid increased the maximum plasma concentration of triazolam by 20%, decreased clearance by 42%, and increased half-life by 31%. Oral contraceptives Coadministration of oral contraceptives increased maximum plasma concentration by 6%, decreased clearance by 32%, and increased half-life by 16%. Grapefruit juice Coadministration of grapefruit juice increased the maximum plasma concentration of triazolam by 25%, increased the area under the concentration curve by 48%, and increased half-life by 18%. Drugs demonstrated to be CYP 3A inhibitors on the basis of clinical studies involving benzodiazepines metabolized similarly to triazolam or on the basis of in vitro studies with triazolam or other benzodiazepines (caution is recommended during coadministration with triazolam) Available data from clinical studies of benzodiazepines other than triazolam suggest a possible drug interaction with triazolam for the following: fluvoxamine, diltiazem, and verapamil. Data from in vitro studies of triazolam suggest a possible drug interaction with triazolam for the following: sertraline and paroxetine. Data from in vitro studies of benzodiazepines other than triazolam suggest a possible drug interaction with triazolam for the following: ergotamine, cyclosporine, amiodarone, nicardipine, and nifedipine. Caution is recommended during coadministration of any of these drugs with triazolam (see WARNINGS). Drugs that affect triazolam pharmacokinetics by other mechanisms Ranitidine Coadministration of ranitidine increased the maximum plasma concentration of triazolam by 30%, increased the area under the concentration curve by 27%, and increased half-life by 3.3%. Caution is recommended during coadministration with triazolam. Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility No evidence of carcinogenic potential was observed in mice during a 24-month study with triazolam in doses up to 4,000 times the human dose. Pregnancy 1. Teratogenic effects Pregnancy category X (see CONTRAINDICATIONS). 2. Non-teratogenic effects It is to be considered that the child born of a mother who is on benzodiazepines may be at some risk for withdrawal symptoms from the drug, during the postnatal period. Also, neonatal flaccidity has been reported in an infant born of a mother who had been receiving benzodiazepines. Nursing mothers Human studies have not been performed; however, studies in rats have indicated that triazolam and its metabolites are secreted in milk. Therefore, administration of triazolam to nursing mothers is not recommended. Pediatric use Safety and effectiveness of triazolam in individuals below 18 years of age have not been established. Geriatric use The elderly are especially susceptible to the dose related adverse effects of triazolam. They exhibit higher plasma triazolam concentrations due to reduced clearance of the drug as compared with younger subjects at the same dose. To minimize the possibility of development of oversedation, the smallest effective dose should be used (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, WARNINGS, PRECAUTIONS, and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). Tolerance/Withdrawal Phenomena Some loss of effectiveness or adaptation to the sleep inducing effects of these medications may develop after nightly use for more than a few weeks and there may be a degree of dependence that develops. For the benzodiazepine sleeping pills that are eliminated quickly from the body, a relative deficiency of the drug may occur at some point in the interval between each night's use. This can lead to (1) increased wakefulness during the last third of the night, and (2) the appearance of increased signs of daytime anxiety or nervousness. These two events have been reported in particular for triazolam. There can be more severe 'withdrawal' effects when a benzodiazepine sleeping pill is stopped. Such effects can occur after discontinuing these drugs following use for only a week or two, but may be more common and more severe after longer periods of continuous use. One type of withdrawal phenomenon is the occurrence of what is known as 'rebound insomnia'. That is, on the first few nights after the drug is stopped, insomnia is actually worse than before the sleeping pill was given. Other withdrawal phenomena following abrupt stopping of benzodiazepine sleeping pills range from mild unpleasant feelings to a major withdrawal syndrome which may include abdominal and muscle cramps, vomiting, sweating, tremor, and rarely, convulsions.
Adverse reactions
ADVERSE REACTIONS During placebo-controlled clinical studies in which 1,003 patients received triazolam tablets, the most troublesome side effects were extensions of the pharmacologic activity of triazolam, eg, drowsiness, dizziness, or light-headedness. The figures cited below are estimates of untoward clinical event incidence among subjects who participated in the relatively short duration (i.e., 1 to 42 days) placebo-controlled clinical trials of triazolam. The figures cannot be used to predict precisely the incidence of untoward events in the course of usual medical practice where patient characteristics and other factors often differ from those in clinical trials. These figures cannot be compared with those obtained from other clinical studies involving related drug products and placebo, as each group of drug trials is conducted under a different set of conditions. Comparison of the cited figures, however, can provide the prescriber with some basis for estimating the relative contributions of drug and nondrug factors to the untoward event incidence rate in the population studied. Even this use must be approached cautiously, as a drug may relieve a symptom in one patient while inducing it in others. (For example, an anticholinergic, anxiolytic drug may relieve dry mouth [a sign of anxiety] in some subjects but induce it [an untoward event] in others.) Triazolam PLACEBO Number of Patients 1003 997 % Patients Reporting: Central Nervous System Drowsiness 14.0 6.4 Headache 9.7 8.4 Dizziness 7.8 3.1 Nervousness 5.2 4.5 Light-headedness 4.9 0.9 Coordination disorders/ataxia 4.6 0.8 Gastrointestinal Nausea/vomiting 4.6 3.7 In addition to the relatively common (i.e., 1% or greater) untoward events enumerated above, the following adverse events have been reported less frequently (i.e., 0.9% to0.5%): euphoria, tachycardia, tiredness, confusional states/memory impairment, cramps/pain, depression, visual disturbances. Rare (i.e., less than 0.5%) adverse reactions included constipation, taste alterations, diarrhea, dry mouth, dermatitis/allergy, dreaming/nightmares, insomnia, paresthesia, tinnitus, dysesthesia, weakness, congestion, death from hepatic failure in a patient also receiving diuretic drugs. In addition to these untoward events for which estimates of incidence are available, the following adverse events have been reported in association with the use of triazolam and other benzodiazepines: amnestic symptoms (anterograde amnesia with appropriate or inappropriate behavior), confusional states (disorientation, derealization, depersonalization, and/or clouding of consciousness), dystonia, anorexia, fatigue, sedation, slurred speech, jaundice, pruritus, dysarthria, changes in libido, menstrual irregularities, incontinence, and urinary retention. Other factors may contribute to some of these reactions, eg, concomitant intake of alcohol or other drugs, sleep deprivation, an abnormal premorbid state, etc. Other events reported include: paradoxical reactions such as stimulation, mania, an agitational state (restlessness, irritability, and excitation), increased muscle spasticity, sleep disturbances, hallucinations, delusions, aggressiveness, falling, somnambulism, syncope, inappropriate behavior and other adverse behavioral effects. Should these occur, use of the drug should be discontinued. The following events have also been reported: chest pain, burning tongue/glossitis/stomatitis. Laboratory analyses were performed on all patients participating in the clinical program for triazolam. The following incidences of abnormalities were observed in patients receiving triazolam and the corresponding placebo group. None of these changes were considered to be of physiological significance. Triazolam PLACEBO Number of Patients 380 361 % of Patients Reporting: Low High Low High Hematology Hematocrit Less than 1% Hemoglobin Total WBC count 1.7 2.1 1.3 Neutrophil count 1.5 1.5 3.3 1.0 Lymphocyte count 2.3 4.0 3.1 3.8 Monocyte count 3.6 4.4 1.5 Eosinophil count 10.2 3.2 9.8 3.4 Basophil count 1.7 2.1 1.8 Urinalysis Albumin — 1.1 — Sugar — — RBC/HPF — 2.9 — 2.9 WBC/HPF — 11.7 — 7.9 Blood chemistry Creatinine 2.4 1.9 3.6 1.5 Bilirubin 1.5 1.0 SGOT 5.3 4.5 Alkaline phosphatase 2.2 2.6 When treatment with triazolam is protracted, periodic blood counts, urinalysis, and blood chemistry analyses are advisable. Minor changes in EEG patterns, usually low-voltage fast activity, have been observed in patients during therapy with triazolam and are of no known significance.

Usage information

Dosing and administration
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION It is important to individualize the dosage of triazolam tablets for maximum beneficial effect and to help avoid significant adverse effects. The recommended dose for most adults is 0.25 mg before retiring. A dose of 0.125 mg may be found to be sufficient for some patients (e.g., low body weight). A dose of 0.5 mg should be used only for exceptional patients who do not respond adequately to a trial of a lower dose since the risk of several adverse reactions increases with the size of the dose administered. A dose of 0.5 mg should not be exceeded. In geriatric and/or debilitated patients the recommended dosage range is 0.125 mg to 0.25 mg. Therapy should be initiated at 0.125 mg in these groups and the 0.25 mg dose should be used only for exceptional patients who do not respond to a trial of the lower dose. A dose of 0.25 mg should not be exceeded in these patients. As with all medications, the lowest effective dose should be used.
Pregnancy and lactation
Nursing mothers Human studies have not been performed; however, studies in rats have indicated that triazolam and its metabolites are secreted in milk. Therefore, administration of triazolam to nursing mothers is not recommended.

Interactions

Drug interactions The concomitant use of benzodiazepines and opioids increases the risk of respiratory depression because of actions at different receptor sites in the CNS that control respiration. Benzodiazepines interact at GABAA sites and opioids interact primarily at mu receptors. When benzodiazepines and opioids are combined, the potential for benzodiazepines to significantly worsen opioid-related respiratory depression exists. Limit dosage and duration of concomitant use of benzodiazepines and opioids, and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. Both pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions have been reported with benzodiazepines. In particular, triazolam produces additive CNS depressant effects when coadministered with other psychotropic medications, anticonvulsants, antihistamines, ethanol, and other drugs which themselves produce CNS depression. Drugs that inhibit triazolam metabolism via cytochrome P450 3A The initial step in triazolam metabolism is hydroxylation catalyzed by cytochrome P450 3A (CYP 3A). Drugs which inhibit this metabolic pathway may have a profound effect on the clearance of triazolam (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS for additional drugs of this type). Triazolam is contraindicated with ketoconzaole, itraconazole, nefazodone, and several HIV protease inhibitors. Drugs and other substances demonstrated to be CYP 3A inhibitors of possible clinical significance on the basis of clinical studies involving triazolam (caution is recommended during coadministration with triazolam) Isoniazid Coadministration of isoniazid increased the maximum plasma concentration of triazolam by 20%, decreased clearance by 42%, and increased half-life by 31%. Oral contraceptives Coadministration of oral contraceptives increased maximum plasma concentration by 6%, decreased clearance by 32%, and increased half-life by 16%. Grapefruit juice Coadministration of grapefruit juice increased the maximum plasma concentration of triazolam by 25%, increased the area under the concentration curve by 48%, and increased half-life by 18%. Drugs demonstrated to be CYP 3A inhibitors on the basis of clinical studies involving benzodiazepines metabolized similarly to triazolam or on the basis of in vitro studies with triazolam or other benzodiazepines (caution is recommended during coadministration with triazolam) Available data from clinical studies of benzodiazepines other than triazolam suggest a possible drug interaction with triazolam for the following: fluvoxamine, diltiazem, and verapamil. Data from in vitro studies of triazolam suggest a possible drug interaction with triazolam for the following: sertraline and paroxetine. Data from in vitro studies of benzodiazepines other than triazolam suggest a possible drug interaction with triazolam for the following: ergotamine, cyclosporine, amiodarone, nicardipine, and nifedipine. Caution is recommended during coadministration of any of these drugs with triazolam (see WARNINGS). Drugs that affect triazolam pharmacokinetics by other mechanisms Ranitidine Coadministration of ranitidine increased the maximum plasma concentration of triazolam by 30%, increased the area under the concentration curve by 27%, and increased half-life by 3.3%. Caution is recommended during coadministration with triazolam.

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number NDA017892
Agency product number 1HM943223R
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 50090-0522
Date Last Revised 12-06-2018
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
RXCUI 198318
Marketing authorisation holder A-S Medication Solutions
Warnings WARNING: RISKS FROM CONCOMITANT USE WITH OPIOIDS Concomitant use of benzodiazepines and opioids may result in profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death [see Warnings, Drug Interactions]. Reserve concomitant prescribing of these drugs for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required. Follow patients for signs and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.