Precautions General If a reaction suggesting sensitivity or chemical irritation occurs, use of the medication should be discontinued.
Exposure to sunlight, including sunlamps, should be minimized during the use of TRETIN•X, and patients with sunburn should be advised not to use the product until fully recovered because of heightened susceptibility to sunlight as a result of the use of tretinoin.
Patients who may be required to have considerable sun exposure due to occupation and those with inherent sensitivity to the sun should exercise particular caution.
Use of sunscreen products and protective clothing over treated areas is recommended when exposure can not be avoided.
Weather extremes, such as wind or cold, also may be irritating to patients under treatment with tretinoin.
TRETIN•X preparations for acne treatment should be kept away from the eyes, the mouth, angles of the nose, and mucous membranes.
Topical use may induce severe local erythema and peeling at the site of application.
If the degree of local irritation warrants, patients should be directed to use the medication less frequently, discontinue use temporarily, or discontinue use altogether.
Tretinoin has been reported to cause severe irritation on eczematous skin and should be used with utmost caution in patients with this condition.
Drug Interactions Concomitant topical medication, medicated or abrasive soaps and cleansers, soaps and cosmetics that have a strong drying effect, and products with high concentrations of alcohol, astringents, spices or lime should be used with caution because of possible interaction with tretinoin.
Particular caution should be exercised in using preparations containing sulfur, resorcinol, or salicylic acid with TRETIN•X.
It also is advisable to “rest” a patient 's skin until the effects of such preparations subside before use of TRETIN•X is begun.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment to Fertility In a 91-week dermal study in which CD-1 mice were administered 0.017 % and 0.035 % formulations of tretinoin, cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas and papillomas in the treatment area were observed in some female mice.A dose-related incidence of liver tumors in male mice was observed at those same doses.
The maximum systemic doses associated with the administered 0.017 % and 0.035 % formulations are 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg/day, respectively.
These doses are two and four times the maximum human systemic dose, when adjusted for total body surface area.
The biological significance of these findings is not clear because they occurred at doses that exceeded the dermal maximally tolerated dose (MTD) of tretinoin and because they were within the background natural occurrence rate for these tumors in this strain of mice.
There was no evidence of carcinogenic potential when 0.025 mg/kg/day of tretinoin was administered topically to mice (0.1 times the maximum human systemic dose, adjusted for total body surface area).
For purposes of comparisons of the animal exposure to systemic human exposure, the maximum human systemic dose is defined as 1 gram of 0.1 % TRETIN•X applied daily to a 50 kg person (0.02 mg tretinoin/ kg body weight).
Studies in hairless albino mice suggest that concurrent exposure to tretinoin may enhance the tumorigenic potential of carcinogenic doses of UVB and UVA light form a solar simulator.
This effect has been confirmed in a later study in pigmented mice, and dark pigmentation did not overcome the enhancement of photocarcinogenesis by 0.05 % tretinoin.
Although the significance of these studies to humans is not clear, patients should minimize exposure to sunlight or artificial ultraviolet irradiation sources.
The mutagenic potential of tretinoin was evaluated in the Ames assay and in the in_vivo mouse micronucleus assay, both of which were negative.
In dermal Segment I fertility studies of tretinoin in rats, slight (not statistically significant) decreases in sperm count and motility were seen at 0.5 mg/kg/day (4 times the maximum human systemic dose adjusted for total body surface area) and slight (not statistically significant) increases in the number and percent of nonviable embryos in females treated with 0.25 mg/kg/day (2 times the maximum human systemic dose adjusted for total body surface area) and above were observed.A dermal Segment III study with TRETIN•X has not been performed in any species.
In oral Segment I and Segment III studies in rats with tretinoin, decreased survival of neonates and growth retardation were observed at doses in excess of 2 mg/kg/day (16 times the human topical dose adjusted for total body surface area).
Pregnancy Teratogenic effects.
Pregnancy Category C. Oral tretinoin has been shown to be teratogenic in rats, mice, hamsters and subhuman primates.
It was teratogenic and fetotoxic in Wistar rats when given orally or topically in doses greater than 1 mg/kg/day (8 times the maximum human systemic dose adjusted for total body surface area).
However, variations in teratogenic doses among various strains of rats have been reported.
In the cynomolgus monkey, which metabolically is closer to humans for tretinoin than the other species examined, fetal malformations were reported at doses of 10 mg/kg/day or greater, but none were observed at 5 mg/kg/day (83 times the maximum human systemic dose adjusted for total body surface area), although increased skeletal variations were observed at all doses.A dose-related increase in embryolethality and abortion was reported.
Similar results have also been reported in pigtail macaques.
Topical tretinoin in animal teratogenicity tests has generated equivocal results.
There is evidence for teratogenicity (shortened or kinked tail) of topical tretinoin in Wistar rats at doses greater than 1 mg/kg/day (8 times the maximum human systemic dose adjusted for total body surface area).Anomalies (humerus: short 13 %, bent 6 %, os parietal incompletely ossified 14 %) have also been reported when 10 mg/kg/day was topically applied.
There are other reports in New Zealand White rabbits administered doses of greater than 0.2 mg/kg/day (3.3 times the maximum human systemic dose adjusted for total body surface area) of an increased incidence of domed head and hydrocephaly, typical of retinoid-induced fetal malformations in this species.
In contrast, several well-controlled animal studies have shown that dermally applied tretinoin may be fetotoxic, but not overly teratogenic in rats and rabbits at doses of 1.0 and 0.5 mg/kg/day, respectively (8 times the maximum human systemic dose adjusted for total body surface area in both species).
With widespread use of any drug, a small number of birth defect reports associated temporally with the administration of the drug would be expected by chance alone.
Thirty human cases of temporally associated congenital malformations have been reported during two decades of clinical use of tretinoin.
Although no definite pattern of teratogenicity and no causal association has been established from these cases, five of the reports describe the rare birth defect category holoprosencephaly (defects associated with incomplete midline development of the forebrain).The significance of these spontaneous reports in terms of risk to the fetus is not known.
Nonteratogenic Effects Topical tretinoin has been shown to be fetotoxic in rabbits when administered 0.5 mg/kg/day (8 times the maximum human systemic dose adjusted for total body surface area).Oral tretinoin has been shown to be fetotoxic, resulting in skeletal variations and increased intrauterine death in rats when administered 2.5 mg/kg/day (20 times the maximum human systemic dose adjusted for total body surface area).
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women.
Tretinoin should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Nursing Mothers It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk.
Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when TRETIN•X is used by a nursing woman.