6. ADVERSE REACTIONS Most common adverse reactions during titration phase (frequency?5 %): nausea, dizziness, somnolence, vomiting, asthenia, and headache.
(6.1) Most common adverse reactions during treatment (frequency?5 %): dyspnea, constipation, anxiety, confusion, depression, rash, and insomnia.
(6.1) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Cephalon, Inc., at 1-800-896-5855 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.
6.1 Clinical Studies Experience The safety of OTFC (oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate) has been evaluated in 257 opioid-tolerant chronic cancer pain patients.
The duration of OTFC use varied during the open-label study.
Some patients were followed for over 21 months.
The average duration of therapy in the open-label study was 129 days.
The adverse reactions seen with OTFC are typical opioid side effects.
Frequently, these adverse reactions will cease or decrease in intensity with continued use of OTFC, as the patient is titrated to the proper dose.
Expect opioid side effects and manage them accordingly.
The most serious adverse reactions associated with all opioids including OTFC are respiratory depression (potentially leading to apnea or respiratory arrest), circulatory depression, hypotension, and shock.
Follow all patients for symptoms of respiratory depression.
Because the clinical trials of OTFC were designed to evaluate safety and efficacy in treating breakthrough cancer pain, all patients were also taking concomitant opioids, such as sustained-release morphine or transdermal fentanyl, for their persistent cancer pain.
The adverse event data presented here reflect the actual percentage of patients experiencing each adverse effect among patients who received OTFC for breakthrough cancer pain along with a concomitant opioid for persistent cancer pain.
There has been no attempt to correct for concomitant use of other opioids, duration of OTFC therapy, or cancer-related symptoms.
Adverse reactions are included regardless of causality or severity.
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug can not be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
Three short-term clinical trials with similar titration schemes were conducted in 257 patients with malignancy and breakthrough cancer pain.
Data are available for 254 of these patients.
The goal of titration in these trials was to find the dose of OTFC that provided adequate analgesia with acceptable side effects (successful dose).
Patients were titrated from a low dose to a successful dose in a manner similar to current titration dosing guidelines.
Table 1 lists, by dose groups, adverse reactions with an overall frequency of 1 % or greater that occurred during titration and are commonly associated with opioid administration or are of particular clinical interest.
The ability to assign a dose-response relationship to these adverse reactions is limited by the titration schemes used in these studies.
Adverse reactions are listed in descending order of frequency within each body system.
Percent of Patients with Specific Adverse Events Commonly Associated with Opioid Administration or of Particular Clinical Interest Which Occurred During Titration (Events in 1 % or More of Patients) Dose Group Percentage of Patients Reporting Event 200-600 mcg 800-1400 mcg 1600 mcg >1600 mcg Any Dose * (n=230) (n=138) (n=54) (n=41) (n=254) * Any Dose = A patient who experienced the same adverse event at multiple doses was only counted once Body As A Whole Asthenia 6 4 0 7 9 Headache 3 4 6 5 6 Accidental Injury 1 1 4 0 2 Digestive Nausea 14 15 11 22 23 Vomiting 7 6 6 15 12 Constipation 1 4 2 0 4 Nervous Dizziness 10 16 6 15 17 Somnolence 9 9 11 20 17 Confusion 1 6 2 0 4 Anxiety 3 0 2 0 3 Abnormal Gait 0 1 4 0 2 Dry Mouth 1 1 2 0 2 Nervousness 1 1 0 0 2 Vasodilatation 2 0 2 0 2
Hallucinations 0 1 2 2 1 Insomnia 0 1 2 0 1 Thinking Abnormal 0 1 2 0 1 Vertigo 1 0 0 0 1 Respiratory Dyspnea 2 3 6 5 4 Skin Pruritus 1 0 0 5 2 Rash 1 1 0 2 2 Sweating 1 1 2 2 2 Special Senses Abnormal Vision 1 0 2 0 2 The following adverse reactions not reflected in Table 1 occurred during titration with an overall frequency of 1 % or greater and are listed in descending order of frequency within each body system.
Body as a Whole: Pain, fever, abdominal pain, chills, back pain, chest pain, infection Cardiovascular: Migraine Digestive: Diarrhea, dyspepsia, flatulence Metabolic and Nutritional: Peripheral edema, dehydration Nervous: Hypesthesia Respiratory: Pharyngitis, cough increased The following reactions occurred during titration with an overall frequency of less than 1 % and are listed in descending order of frequency within each body system.
Body as a Whole: Flu syndrome, abscess, bone pain Cardiovascular: Deep thrombophlebitis, hypertension, hypotension Digestive: Anorexia, eructation, esophageal stenosis, fecal impaction, gum hemorrhage, mouth ulceration, oral moniliasis Hemic and Lymphatic: Anemia, leukopenia Metabolic and Nutritional: Edema, hypercalcemia, weight loss Musculoskeletal: Myalgia, pathological fracture, myasthenia Nervous: Abnormal dreams, urinary retention, agitation, amnesia, emotional lability, euphoria, incoordination, libido decreased, neuropathy, paresthesia, speech disorder Respiratory: Hemoptysis, pleural effusion, rhinitis, asthma, hiccup, pneumonia, respiratory insufficiency, sputum increased Skin and Appendages: Alopecia
exfoliative dermatitis Special Senses: Taste perversion Urogenital: Vaginal hemorrhage, dysuria, hematuria, urinary incontinence, urinary tract infection A long-term extension study was conducted in 156 patients with malignancy and breakthrough cancer pain who were treated for an average of 129 days.
Data are available for 152 of these patients.
Table 2 lists by dose groups, adverse reactions with an overall frequency of 1 % or greater that occurred during the long-term extension study and are commonly associated with opioid administration or are of particular clinical interest.
Adverse reactions are listed in descending order of frequency within each body system.
Percent of Patients with Adverse Events Commonly Associated with Opioid Administration or of Particular Clinical Interest Which Occurred During Long Term Treatment (Events in 1 % or More of Patients) Dose Group Percentage of Patients Reporting Event 200-600 mcg 800-1400 mcg 1600 mcg >1600 mcg Any Dose * (n=98) (n=83) (n=53) (n=27) (n=152) Body As A Whole Asthenia 25 30 17 15 38 Headache 12 17 13 4 20 Accidental Injury 4 6 4 7 9 Hypertonia 2 2 2 0 3 Digestive Nausea 31 36 25 26 45 Vomiting 21 28 15 7 31 Constipation 14 11 13 4 20 Intestinal Obstruction 0 2 4 0 3 Cardiovascular Hypertension 1 1 0 0 1 Nervous Dizziness 12 10 9 0 16 Anxiety 9 8 8 7 15 Somnolence 8 13 8 7 15 Confusion 2 5 13 7 10 Depression 9 4 2 7 9 Insomnia 5 1 8 4 7 Abnormal
Gait 5 1 0 0 4 Dry Mouth 3 1 2 4 4 Nervousness 2 2 0 4 3 Stupor 4 1 0 0 3 Vasodilatation 1 1 4 0 3 Thinking Abnormal 2 1 0 0 2 Abnormal Dreams 1 1 0 0 1 Convulsion 0 1 2 0 1 Myoclonus 0 0 4 0 1 Tremor 0 1 2 0 1 Vertigo 0 0 4 0 1 Respiratory Dyspnea 15 16 8 7 22 Skin Rash 3 5 8 4 8 Sweating 3 2 2 0 4 Pruritus 2 0 2 0 2 Special Senses Abnormal Vision 2 2 0 0 3 Urogenital Urinary Retention 1 2 0 0 2 The following reactions not reflected in Table 2 occurred with an overall frequency of 1 % or greater in the long-term extension study and are listed in descending order of frequency within each body system.
Body as a Whole: Pain, fever, back pain, abdominal pain, chest pain, flu syndrome, chills, infection, abdomen enlarged, bone pain, ascites, sepsis, neck pain, viral infection, fungal infection, cachexia, cellulitis, malaise, pelvic pain Cardiovascular: Deep thrombophlebitis, migraine, palpitation, vascular disorder Digestive: Diarrhea, anorexia, dyspepsia, dysphagia, oral moniliasis, mouth ulceration, rectal disorder, stomatitis, flatulence, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, gingivitis, jaundice, periodontal abscess, eructation, glossitis, rectal hemorrhage Hemic and Lymphatic: Anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, ecchymosis, lymphadenopathy, lymphedema, pancytopenia Metabolic and Nutritional: Peripheral edema, edema, dehydration, weight loss, hyperglycemia, hypokalemia
hypercalcemia, hypomagnesemia Musculoskeletal: Myalgia, pathological fracture, joint disorder, leg cramps, arthralgia, bone disorder Nervous: Hypesthesia, paresthesia, hypokinesia, neuropathy, speech disorder Respiratory: Cough increased, pharyngitis, pneumonia, rhinitis, sinusitis, bronchitis, epistaxis, asthma, hemoptysis, sputum increased Skin and Appendages: Skin ulcer, alopecia Special Senses: Tinnitus, conjunctivitis, ear disorder, taste perversion Urogenital: Urinary tract infection, urinary incontinence, breast pain, dysuria, hematuria, scrotal edema, hydronephrosis, kidney failure, urinary urgency, urination impaired, breast neoplasm, vaginal hemorrhage
vaginitis The following reactions occurred with a frequency of less than 1 % in the long-term extension study and are listed in descending order of frequency within each body system.
Body as a Whole: Allergic reaction, cyst, face edema, flank pain, granuloma, bacterial infection, injection site pain, mucous membrane disorder, neck rigidity Cardiovascular: Angina pectoris, hemorrhage, hypotension, peripheral vascular disorder, postural hypotension, tachycardia Digestive: Cheilitis, esophagitis, fecal incontinence, gastroenteritis, gastrointestinal disorder, gum hemorrhage, hemorrhage of colon, hepatorenal syndrome, liver tenderness, tooth caries, tooth disorder Hemic and Lymphatic: Bleeding time increased Metabolic and Nutritional: Acidosis, generalized edema, hypocalcemia, hypoglycemia, hyponatremia, hypoproteinemia, thirst Musculoskeletal: Arthritis, muscle atrophy, myopathy, synovitis, tendon disorder Nervous: Acute brain syndrome, agitation
cerebral ischemia, facial paralysis, foot drop, hallucinations, hemiplegia, miosis, subdural hematoma Respiratory: Hiccup, hyperventilation, lung disorder, pneumothorax, respiratory failure, voice alteration Skin and Appendages: Herpes zoster, maculopapular rash, skin discoloration, urticaria, vesiculobullous rash Special Senses: Ear pain, eye hemorrhage, lacrimation disorder, partial permanent deafness, partial transitory deafness Urogenital: Kidney pain, nocturia, oliguria, polyuria, pyelonephritis 6.2 Post-Marketing Experience Adverse reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, and, therefore, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Decisions to include these reactions in labeling are typically based on one or more of the following factors: (1) seriousness of the reaction, (2) frequency of the reporting, or (3) strength of causal connection to OTFC. The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of OTFC (which contains approximately 2 grams of sugar per unit): Digestive: Dental decay of varying severity including dental caries, tooth loss, and gum line erosion.
General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions: Application site reactions including irritation, pain, and ulcer.