Data from FDA (Food and Drug Administration, USA) - Curated by EPG Health - Last updated 22 November 2019

Indication(s)

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE TOPROL-XL, metoprolol succinate, is a beta 1-selective adrenoceptor blocking agent. TOPROL-XL is indicated for the treatment of: Hypertension, to lower blood pressure. Lowering blood pressure reduces the risk of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events, primarily strokes and myocardial infarctions. (1.1) Angina Pectoris. (1.2) Heart Failure - for the treatment of stable, symptomatic (NYHA Class II or III) heart failure of ischemic, hypertensive, or cardiomyopathic origin. (1.3) 1.1 Hypertension TOPROL-XL is indicated for the treatment of hypertension, to lower blood pressure. Lowering blood pressure lowers the risk of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events, primarily strokes and myocardial infarctions. These benefits have been seen in controlled trials of antihypertensive drugs from a wide variety of pharmacologic classes including metoprolol. Control of high blood pressure should be part of comprehensive cardiovascular risk management, including, as appropriate, lipid control, diabetes management, antithrombotic therapy, smoking cessation, exercise, and limited sodium intake. Many patients will require more than 1 drug to achieve blood pressure goals. For specific advice on goals and management, see published guidelines, such as those of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program’s Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC). Numerous antihypertensive drugs, from a variety of pharmacologic classes and with different mechanisms of action, have been shown in randomized controlled trials to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and it can be concluded that it is blood pressure reduction, and not some other pharmacologic property of the drugs, that is largely responsible for those benefits. The largest and most consistent cardiovascular outcome benefit has been a reduction in the risk of stroke, but reductions in myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality also have been seen regularly. Elevated systolic or diastolic pressure causes increased cardiovascular risk, and the absolute risk increase per mmHg is greater at higher blood pressures, so that even modest reductions of severe hypertension can provide substantial benefit. Relative risk reduction from blood pressure reduction is similar across populations with varying absolute risk, so the absolute benefit is greater in patients who are at higher risk independent of their hypertension (for example, patients with diabetes or hyperlipidemia), and such patients would be expected to benefit from more aggressive treatment to a lower blood pressure goal. Some antihypertensive drugs have smaller blood pressure effects (as monotherapy) in black patients, and many antihypertensive drugs have additional approved indications and effects (e.g., on angina, heart failure, or diabetic kidney disease). These considerations may guide selection of therapy. TOPROL-XL may be administered with other antihypertensive agents. 1.2 Angina Pectoris TOPROL-XL is indicated in the long-term treatment of angina pectoris, to reduce angina attacks and to improve exercise tolerance. 1.3 Heart Failure TOPROL-XL is indicated for the treatment of stable, symptomatic (NYHA Class II or III) heart failure of ischemic, hypertensive, or cardiomyopathic origin. It was studied in patients already receiving ACE inhibitors, diuretics, and, in the majority of cases, digitalis. In this population, TOPROL-XL decreased the rate of mortality plus hospitalization, largely through a reduction in cardiovascular mortality and hospitalizations for heart failure.

Learning Zones

An epgonline.org Learning Zone (LZ) is an area of the site dedicated to providing detailed self-directed medical education about a disease, condition or procedure.

Cardiovascular Metabolism Knowledge Centre

Cardiovascular Metabolism Knowledge Centre

The Cardiovascular Metabolism Knowledge Centre is an information hub providing expert insight into the management of hypertension and type 2 diabetes. This Knowledge Centre contains a wealth of scientific video content offering insights and opinion from some of the leading experts in the field.

ESICM LIVES Highlights

ESICM LIVES Highlights

ESICM LIVES Congress 2018: Bringing you the latest news and insights from the 31st ESICM LIVES Congress, 20–24 October 2018 Paris, France.

Anticoagulation Therapy for Stroke Prevention

Anticoagulation Therapy for Stroke Prevention

Anticoagulation therapy for Stroke Prevention Learning Zone offers a deep-dive into atrial fibrillation causes, consequences, diagnosis and management to help you deliver optimal care and prevent strokes in patients living with this common arrhythmia.

Load more

Related Content

Advisory information

contraindications
4 CONTRAINDICATIONS TOPROL-XL is contraindicated in severe bradycardia, second or third degree heart block, cardiogenic shock, decompensated cardiac failure, sick sinus syndrome (unless a permanent pacemaker is in place), and in patients who are hypersensitive to any component of this product. Known hypersensitivity to product components. (4) Severe bradycardia. (4) Heart block greater than first degree. (4) Cardiogenic shock. (4) Decompensated cardiac failure. (4) Sick sinus syndrome without a pacemaker. (4)
Adverse reactions
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS The following adverse reactions are described elsewhere in labeling: Worsening angina or myocardial infarction [see Warnings and Precautions (5)]. Worsening heart failure [see Warnings and Precautions (5)]. Worsening AV block [see Contraindications (4)]. Most common adverse reactions: tiredness, dizziness, depression, shortness of breath, bradycardia, hypotension, diarrhea, pruritus, rash. (6.1) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Aralez Pharmaceuticals US Inc. at 1-866-207-6592 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. The adverse reaction information from clinical trials does, however, provide a basis for identifying the adverse events that appear to be related to drug use and for approximating rates. Hypertension and Angina: Most adverse reactions have been mild and transient. The most common (>2%) adverse reactions are tiredness, dizziness, depression, diarrhea, shortness of breath, bradycardia, and rash. Heart Failure: In the MERIT-HF study comparing TOPROL-XL in daily doses up to 200 mg (mean dose 159 mg once-daily; n=1990) to placebo (n=2001), 10.3% of TOPROL-XL patients discontinued for adverse reactions vs. 12.2% of placebo patients. The table below lists adverse reactions in the MERIT-HF study that occurred at an incidence of ≥ 1% in the TOPROL-XL group and greater than placebo by more than 0.5%, regardless of the assessment of causality. Adverse Reactions Occurring in the MERIT-HF Study at an Incidence ≥1% in the TOPROL-XL Group and Greater Than Placebo by More Than 0.5% TOPROL-XL n=1990 % of patients Placebo n=2001 % of patients Dizziness/vertigo 1.8 1.0 Bradycardia 1.5 0.4 Accident and/or injury 1.4 0.8 Post-operative Adverse Events: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 8351 patients with or at risk for atherosclerotic disease undergoing non-vascular surgery and who were not taking beta–blocker therapy, TOPROL-XL 100 mg was started 2 to 4 hours prior to surgery then continued for 30 days at 200 mg per day. TOPROL-XL use was associated with a higher incidence of bradycardia (6.6% vs. 2.4%; HR, 2.74; 95% CI 2.19, 3.43), hypotension (15% vs. 9.7%; HR 1.55; 95% CI 1.37, 1.74), stroke (1.0% vs. 0.5%; HR 2.17; 95% CI 1.26, 3.74) and death (3.1% vs. 2.3%; HR 1.33; 95% CI 1.03, 1.74) compared to placebo. 6.2 Post-Marketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of TOPROL-XL or immediate-release metoprolol. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Cardiovascular: Cold extremities, arterial insufficiency (usually of the Raynaud type), palpitations, peripheral edema, syncope, chest pain and hypotension. Respiratory: Wheezing (bronchospasm), dyspnea. Central Nervous System: Confusion, short-term memory loss, headache, somnolence, nightmares, insomnia, anxiety/nervousness, hallucinations, paresthesia. Gastrointestinal: Nausea, dry mouth, constipation, flatulence, heartburn, hepatitis, vomiting. Hypersensitive Reactions: Pruritus. Miscellaneous: Musculoskeletal pain, arthralgia, blurred vision, decreased libido, male impotence, tinnitus, reversible alopecia, agranulocytosis, dry eyes, worsening of psoriasis, Peyronie’s disease, sweating, photosensitivity, taste disturbance. Potential Adverse Reactions: In addition, there are adverse reactions not listed above that have been reported with other beta-adrenergic blocking agents and should be considered potential adverse reactions to TOPROL-XL. Central Nervous System: Reversible mental depression progressing to catatonia; an acute reversible syndrome characterized by disorientation for time and place, short-term memory loss, emotional lability, clouded sensorium, and decreased performance on neuropsychometrics. Hematologic: Agranulocytosis, nonthrombocytopenic purpura, thrombocytopenic purpura. Hypersensitive Reactions: Laryngospasm, respiratory distress. 6.3 Laboratory Test Findings Clinical laboratory findings may include elevated levels of serum transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase.

Usage information

Dosing and administration
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION TOPROL-XL is an extended-release tablet intended for once daily administration. For treatment of hypertension and angina, when switching from immediate-release metoprolol to TOPROL-XL, use the same total daily dose of TOPROL-XL. Individualize the dosage of TOPROL-XL. Titration may be needed in some patients. TOPROL-XL tablets are scored and can be divided; however, do not crush or chew the whole or half tablet. Administer once daily. Dosing of TOPROL-XL should be individualized. (2) Heart Failure: Recommended starting dose is 12.5 mg or 25 mg doubled every two weeks to the highest dose tolerated or up to 200 mg. (2.3) Hypertension: Usual initial dosage is 25 to 100 mg once daily. The dosage may be increased at weekly (or longer) intervals until optimum blood pressure reduction is achieved. Dosages above 400 mg per day have not been studied. (2.1) Angina Pectoris: Usual initial dosage is 100 mg once daily. Gradually increase the dosage at weekly intervals until optimum clinical response has been obtained or there is an unacceptable bradycardia. Dosages above 400 mg per day have not been studied. (2.2) Switching from immediate-release metoprolol to TOPROL-XL: use the same total daily dose of TOPROL-XL. (2) 2.1 Hypertension Adults: The usual initial dosage is 25 to 100 mg daily in a single dose. The dosage may be increased at weekly (or longer) intervals until optimum blood pressure reduction is achieved. In general, the maximum effect of any given dosage level will be apparent after 1 week of therapy. Dosages above 400 mg per day have not been studied. Pediatric Hypertensive Patients ≥ 6 Years of age: A pediatric clinical hypertension study in patients 6 to 16 years of age did not meet its primary endpoint (dose response for reduction in SBP); however, some other endpoints demonstrated effectiveness [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)] . If selected for treatment, the recommended starting dose of TOPROL-XL is 1 mg/kg once daily, but the maximum initial dose should not exceed 50 mg once daily. Dosage should be adjusted according to blood pressure response. Doses above 2 mg/kg (or in excess of 200 mg) once daily have not been studied in pediatric patients [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. TOPROL-XL is not recommended in pediatric patients < 6 years of age [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)] . 2.2 Angina Pectoris Individualize the dosage of TOPROL-XL. The usual initial dosage is 100 mg daily, given in a single dose. Gradually increase the dosage at weekly intervals until optimum clinical response has been obtained or there is a pronounced slowing of the heart rate. Dosages above 400 mg per day have not been studied. If treatment is to be discontinued, reduce the dosage gradually over a period of 1 - 2 weeks [see Warnings and Precautions (5)]. 2.3 Heart Failure Dosage must be individualized and closely monitored during up-titration. Prior to initiation of TOPROL-XL, stabilize the dose of other heart failure drug therapy. The recommended starting dose of TOPROL-XL is 25 mg once daily for two weeks in patients with NYHA Class II heart failure and 12.5 mg once daily in patients with more severe heart failure. Double the dose every two weeks to the highest dosage level tolerated by the patient or up to 200 mg of TOPROL-XL. Initial difficulty with titration should not preclude later attempts to introduce TOPROL-XL. If patients experience symptomatic bradycardia, reduce the dose of TOPROL-XL. If transient worsening of heart failure occurs, consider treating with increased doses of diuretics, lowering the dose of TOPROL-XL or temporarily discontinuing it. The dose of TOPROL-XL should not be increased until symptoms of worsening heart failure have been stabilized.
Use in special populations
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS Pregnancy: There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Use this drug during pregnancy only if clearly needed. (8.1) Nursing Mothers: Consider possible infant exposure. (8.3) Pediatrics: Safety and effectiveness have not been established in patients < 6 years of age. (8.4) Geriatrics: No notable difference in efficacy or safety vs. younger patients. (8.5) Hepatic Impairment: Consider initiating TOPROL-XL therapy at low doses and gradually increase dosage to optimize therapy, while monitoring closely for adverse events. (8.6) 8.1 Pregnancy Pregnancy Category C Metoprolol tartrate has been shown to increase post-implantation loss and decrease neonatal survival in rats at doses up to 22 times, on a mg/m 2 basis, the daily dose of 200 mg in a 60-kg patient. Distribution studies in mice confirm exposure of the fetus when metoprolol tartrate is administered to the pregnant animal. These studies have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or teratogenicity. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, use this drug during pregnancy only if clearly needed. 8.3 Nursing Mothers Metoprolol is excreted in breast milk in very small quantities. An infant consuming 1 liter of breast milk daily would receive a dose of less than 1 mg of the drug. Consider possible infant exposure when TOPROL-XL is administered to a nursing woman. 8.4 Pediatric Use One hundred forty-four hypertensive pediatric patients aged 6 to 16 years were randomized to placebo or to one of three dose levels of TOPROL-XL (0.2, 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg once daily) and followed for 4 weeks. The study did not meet its primary endpoint (dose response for reduction in SBP). Some pre-specified secondary endpoints demonstrated effectiveness including: Dose-response for reduction in DBP, 1 mg/kg vs. placebo for change in SBP, and 2 mg/kg vs. placebo for change in SBP and DBP. The mean placebo corrected reductions in SBP ranged from 3 to 6 mmHg, and DBP from 1 to 5 mmHg. Mean reduction in heart rate ranged from 5 to 7 bpm but considerably greater reductions were seen in some individuals [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)] . No clinically relevant differences in the adverse event profile were observed for pediatric patients aged 6 to 16 years as compared with adult patients. Safety and effectiveness of TOPROL-XL have not been established in patients < 6 years of age. 8.5 Geriatric Use Clinical studies of TOPROL-XL in hypertension did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience in hypertensive patients has not identified differences in responses between elderly and younger patients. Of the 1,990 patients with heart failure randomized to TOPROL-XL in the MERIT-HF trial, 50% (990) were 65 years of age and older and 12% (238) were 75 years of age and older. There were no notable differences in efficacy or the rate of adverse reactions between older and younger patients. In general, use a low initial starting dose in elderly patients given their greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. 8.6 Hepatic Impairment No studies have been performed with TOPROL-XL in patients with hepatic impairment. Because TOPROL-XL is metabolized by the liver, metoprolol blood levels are likely to increase substantially with poor hepatic function. Therefore, initiate therapy at doses lower than those recommended for a given indication; and increase doses gradually in patients with impaired hepatic function. 8.7 Renal Impairment The systemic availability and half-life of metoprolol in patients with renal failure do not differ to a clinically significant degree from those in normal subjects. No reduction in dosage is needed in patients with chronic renal failure [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] .
Pregnancy and lactation
8.3 Nursing Mothers Metoprolol is excreted in breast milk in very small quantities. An infant consuming 1 liter of breast milk daily would receive a dose of less than 1 mg of the drug. Consider possible infant exposure when TOPROL-XL is administered to a nursing woman.

Interactions

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS Catecholamine-depleting drugs may have an additive effect when given with beta-blocking agents. (7.1) CYP2D6 Inhibitors are likely to increase metoprolol concentration. (7.2) Concomitant use of glycosides, clonidine, and diltiazem and verapamil with beta-blockers can increase the risk of bradycardia. (7.3) Beta-blockers including metoprolol, may exacerbate the rebound hypertension that can follow the withdrawal of clonidine. (7.3) 7.1 Catecholamine Depleting Drugs Catecholamine depleting drugs (e.g., reserpine, monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors) may have an additive effect when given with beta-blocking agents. Observe patients treated with TOPROL-XL plus a catecholamine depletor for evidence of hypotension or marked bradycardia, which may produce vertigo, syncope, or postural hypotension. 7.2 CYP2D6 Inhibitors Drugs that inhibit CYP2D6 such as quinidine, fluoxetine, paroxetine, and propafenone are likely to increase metoprolol concentration. In healthy subjects with CYP2D6 extensive metabolizer phenotype, coadministration of quinidine 100 mg and immediate-release metoprolol 200 mg tripled the concentration of S-metoprolol and doubled the metoprolol elimination half-life. In four patients with cardiovascular disease, coadministration of propafenone 150 mg t.i.d. with immediate-release metoprolol 50 mg t.i.d. resulted in two- to five-fold increases in the steady-state concentration of metoprolol. These increases in plasma concentration would decrease the cardioselectivity of metoprolol. 7.3 Digitalis, Clonidine, and Calcium Channel Blockers Digitalis glycosides, clonidine, diltiazem and verapamil slow atrioventricular conduction and decrease heart rate. Concomitant use with beta blockers can increase the risk of bradycardia. If clonidine and a beta blocker, such as metoprolol are coadministered, withdraw the beta-blocker several days before the gradual withdrawal of clonidine because beta-blockers may exacerbate the rebound hypertension that can follow the withdrawal of clonidine. If replacing clonidine by beta-blocker therapy, delay the introduction of beta-blockers for several days after clonidine administration has stopped [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11)].

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number NDA019962
Agency product number TH25PD4CCB
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 70518-1258
Date Last Revised 27-08-2019
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
RXCUI 866436
Marketing authorisation holder REMEDYREPACK INC.
Warnings WARNING: ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE Following abrupt cessation of therapy with certain beta-blocking agents, exacerbations of angina pectoris and, in some cases, myocardial infarction have occurred. When discontinuing chronically administered TOPROL-XL, particularly in patients with ischemic heart disease, the dosage should be gradually reduced over a period of 1 - 2 weeks and the patient should be carefully monitored. If angina markedly worsens or acute coronary insufficiency develops, TOPROL-XL administration should be reinstated promptly, at least temporarily, and other measures appropriate for the management of unstable angina should be taken. Warn patients against interruption or discontinuation of therapy without the physician’s advice. Because coronary artery disease is common and may be unrecognized, it may be prudent not to discontinue TOPROL-XL therapy abruptly even in patients treated only for hypertension (5.1). WARNING: ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE See full prescribing information for complete boxed warning. Following abrupt cessation of therapy with beta-blocking agents, exacerbations of angina pectoris and myocardial infarction have occurred. Warn patients against interruption or discontinuation of therapy without the physician’s advice. (5.1)