Data from FDA - Curated by EPG Health - Last updated 22 November 2019

Indication(s)

INDICATIONS & USAGE Thiothixene capsules are effective in the management of schizophrenia. Thiothixene capsules have not been evaluated in the management of behavioral complications in patients with mental retardation.

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Advisory information

contraindications
CONTRAINDICATIONS Thiothixene capsules are contraindicated in patients with circulatory collapse, comatose states, central nervous system depression due to any cause, and blood dyscrasias. Thiothixene is contraindicated in individuals who have shown hypersensitivity to the drug. It is not known whether there is a cross sensitivity between the thioxanthenes and the phenothiazine derivatives, but this possibility should be considered.
Special warnings and precautions
PRECAUTIONS GENERAL PRECAUTIONS An antiemetic effect was observed in animal studies with thiothixene; since this effect may also occur in man, it is possible that thiothixene may mask signs of over-dosage of toxic drugs and may obscure conditions such as intestinal obstruction and brain tumor. In consideration of the known capability of thiothixene and certain other psychotropic drugs to precipitate convulsions, extreme caution should be used in patients with a history of convulsive disorders or those in a state of alcohol withdrawal, since it may lower the convulsive threshold. Although thiothixene potentiates the actions of the barbiturates, the dosage of the anticonvulsant therapy should not be reduced when thiothixene is administered concurrently. Though exhibiting rather weak anticholinergic properties, thiothixene should be used with caution in patients who might be exposed to extreme heat or who are receiving atropine or related drugs. Use with caution in patients with cardiovascular disease. Caution as well as careful adjustment of the dosages is indicated when thiothixene is used in conjunction with other CNS depressants. Also, careful observation should be made for pigmentary retinopathy and lenticular pigmentation (fine lenticular pigmentation has been noted in a small number of patients treated with thiothixene for prolonged periods). Blood dyscrasias (agranulocytosis, pancytopenia, thrombocytopenic purpura), and liver damage (jaundice, biliary stasis), have been reported with related drugs. Antipsychotic drugs, including thiothixene 3, elevate prolactin levels; the elevation persists during chronic administration. Tissue culture experiments indicate that approximately one-third of human breast cancers are prolactin dependent in vitro, a factor of potential importance if the prescription of these drugs is contemplated in a patient with a previously detected breast cancer. Although disturbances such as galactorrhea, amenorrhea, gynecomastia, and impotence have been reported, the clinical significance of elevated serum prolactin levels is unknown for most patients. An increase in mammary neoplasms has been found in rodents after chronic administration of antipsychotic drugs. Neither clinical studies nor epidemiologic studies conducted to date, however, have shown an association between chronic administration of these drugs and mammary tumorigenesis; the available evidence is considered too limited to be conclusive at this time. Leukopenia, Neutropenia and Agranulocytosis Class Effect In clinical trial and/or post-marketing experience, events of leukopenia/neutropenia and agranulocytosis have been reported temporally related to antipsychotic agents . Possible risk factors for leukopenia/neutropenia include preexisting low white blood cell count (WBC) and history of drug induced leukopenia/neutropenia. Patients with a history of a clinically significant low WBC or drug induced leukopenia/neutropenia should have their complete blood count (CBC) monitored frequently during the first few months of therapy and discontinuation of thiothixene should be considered at the first sign of a clinically significant decline in WBC in the absence of other causative factors. Patients with clinically significant neutropenia should be carefully monitored for fever or other symptoms or signs of infection and treated promptly if such symptoms or signs occur. Patients with severe neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count < 1000/mm 3) should discontinue thiothixene and have their WBC followed until recovery. INFORMATION FOR PATIENTS Given the likelihood that some patients exposed chronically to antipsychotics will develop tardive dyskinesia, it is advised that all patients in whom chronic use is contemplated be given, if possible, full information about this risk. The decision to inform patients and/or their guardians must obviously take into account the clinical circumstances and the competency of the patient to understand the information provided. DRUG INTERACTIONS Hepatic microsomal enzyme inducing agents, such as carbamazepine, were found to significantly increase the clearance of thiothixene. Patients receiving these drugs should be observed for signs of reduced thiothixene effectiveness 4,5. Due to a possible additive effect with hypotensive agents, patients receiving these drugs should be observed closely for signs of excessive hypotension when thiothixene is added to their drug regimen 6.
Adverse reactions
ADVERSE REACTIONS ADVERSE REACTIONS NOTE: Not all of the following adverse reactions have been reported with thiothixene. However, since thiothixene has certain chemical and pharmacologic similarities to the phenothiazines, all of the known side effects and toxicity associated with phenothiazine therapy should be borne in mind when thiothixene is used. Cardiovascular Effects Tachycardia, hypotension, light-headedness, and syncope. In the event hypotension occurs, epinephrine should not be used as a pressor agent since a paradoxical further lowering of blood pressure may result. Nonspecific EKG changes have been observed in some patients receiving thiothixene. These changes are usually reversible and frequently disappear on continued thiothixene therapy. The incidence of these changes is lower than that observed with some phenothiazines. The clinical significance of these changes is not known. CNS Effects Drowsiness, usually mild, may occur although it usually subsides with continuation of thiothixene therapy. The incidence of sedation appears similar to that of the piperazine group of phenothiazines but less than that of certain aliphatic phenothiazines. Restlessness, agitation and insomnia have been noted with thiothixene. Seizures and paradoxical exacerbation of psychotic symptoms have occurred with thiothixene infrequently. Hyperreflexia has been reported in infants delivered from mothers having received structurally related drugs. In addition, phenothiazine derivatives have been associated with cerebral edema and cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities. Extrapyramidal Symptoms Extrapyramidal symptoms, such as pseudoparkinsonism, akathisia and dystonia have been reported (see Adverse Reactions: Dystonia: Class Effect). Management of these extrapyramidal symptoms depends upon the type and severity. Rapid relief of acute symptoms may require the use of an injectable antiparkinson agent. More slowly emerging symptoms may be managed by reducing the dosage of thiothixene and/or administering an oral antiparkinson agent. Dystonia Class Effect Symptoms of dystonia, prolonged abnormal contractions of muscle groups, may occur in susceptible individuals during the first few days of treatment. Dystonic symptoms include: spasm of the neck muscles, sometimes progressing to tightness of the throat, swallowing difficulty, difficulty breathing, and/or protrusion of the tongue. While these symptoms can occur at low doses, they occur more frequently and with greater severity with high potency and at higher doses of first generation antipsychotic drugs. An elevated risk of acute dystonia is observed in males and younger age groups. Persistent Tardive Dyskinesia As with all antipsychotic agents, tardive dyskinesia may appear in some patients on long-term therapy with thiothixene, or may occur after drug therapy has been discontinued. The syndrome is characterized by rhythmical involuntary movements of the tongue, face, mouth or jaw (e.g., protrusion of tongue, puffing of cheeks, puckering of mouth, chewing movements). Sometimes these may be accompanied by involuntary movements of extremities. Since early detection of tardive dyskinesia is important, patients should be monitored on an ongoing basis. It has been reported that fine vermicular movement of the tongue may be an early sign of the syndrome. If this or any other presentation of the syndrome is observed, the clinician should consider possible discontinuation of antipsychotic medication. (See WARNINGS.) Hepatic Effects Elevations of serum transaminase and alkaline phosphatase, usually transient, have been infrequently observed in some patients. No clinically confirmed cases of jaundice attributable to thiothixene have been reported. Hematologic Effects As is true with certain other psychotropic drugs, leukopenia and leucocytosis, which are usually transient, can occur occasionally with thiothixene. Other antipsychotic drugs have been associated with agranulocytosis, eosinophilia, hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and pancytopenia. Allergic Reactions Rash, pruritus, urticaria, photosensitivity and rare cases of anaphylaxis have been reported with thiothixene. Undue exposure to sunlight should be avoided. Although not experienced with thiothixene, exfoliative dermatitis and contact dermatitis (in nursing personnel) have been reported with certain phenothiazines. Endocrine/Reproductive Hyperprolactinemia 3, lactation, menstrual irregularities, moderate breast enlargement and amenorrhea have occurred in a small percentage of females receiving thiothixene. If persistent, this may necessitate a reduction in dosage or the discontinuation of therapy. Phenothiazines have been associated with false positive pregnancy tests, gynecomastia, hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia and glycosuria. Autonomic Effects Dry mouth, blurred vision, nasal congestion, constipation, increased sweating, increased salivation and impotence have occurred infrequently with thiothixene therapy. Phenothiazines have been associated with miosis, mydriasis, and adynamic ileus. Other Adverse Reactions Hyperpyrexia, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, increase in appetite and weight, weakness or fatigue, polydipsia, and peripheral edema. Although not reported with thiothixene, evidence indicates there is a relationship between phenothiazine therapy and the occurrence of a systemic lupus erythematosus-like syndrome. Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS) Please refer to the text regarding NMS in the WARNINGS section. NOTE: Sudden deaths have occasionally been reported in patients who have received certain phenothiazine derivatives. In some cases, the cause of death was apparently cardiac arrest or asphyxia due to failure of the cough reflex. In others, the cause could not be determined nor could it be established that death was due to phenothiazine administration.

Usage information

Dosing and administration
DOSAGE & ADMINISTRATION Dosage of thiothixene capsules should be individually adjusted depending on the chronicity and severity of the symptoms of schizophrenia. In general, small doses should be used initially and gradually increased to the optimal effective level, based on patient response. Some patients have been successfully maintained on once a day thiothixene capsule therapy. The use of thiothixene capsules in children under 12 years of age is not recommended because safe conditions for its use have not been established. In milder conditions, an initial dose of 2 mg three times daily is recommended. If indicated, a subsequent increase to 15 mg/day total daily dose is often effective. In more severe conditions, an initial dose of 5 mg twice daily is recommended. The usual optimal dose is 20 mg to 30 mg daily. If indicated, an increase to 60 mg/day total daily dose is often effective. Exceeding a total daily dose of 60 mg rarely increases the beneficial response.

Interactions

DRUG INTERACTIONS Hepatic microsomal enzyme inducing agents, such as carbamazepine, were found to significantly increase the clearance of thiothixene. Patients receiving these drugs should be observed for signs of reduced thiothixene effectiveness 4,5. Due to a possible additive effect with hypotensive agents, patients receiving these drugs should be observed closely for signs of excessive hypotension when thiothixene is added to their drug regimen 6.

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number ANDA211642
Agency product number 7318FJ13YJ
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 51407-275,51407-276,51407-277,51407-278
Date Last Revised 14-10-2019
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
RXCUI 313366
Marketing authorisation holder Golden State Medical Supply, Inc.
Warnings BOXED WARNING WARNING Increased Mortality in Elderly Patients with Dementia-Related Psychosis: Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic drugs are at an increased risk of death. Analyses of seventeen placebo-controlled trials (modal duration of 10 weeks), largely in patients taking atypical antipsychotic drugs, revealed a risk of death in drug-treated patients of between 1.6 to 1.7 times the risk of death in placebo-treated patients. Over the course of a typical 10-week controlled trial, the rate of death in drug-treated patients was about 4.5%, compared to a rate of about 2.6% in the placebo group. Although the causes of death were varied, most of the deaths appeared to be either cardiovascular (e.g., heart failure, sudden death) or infectious (e.g., pneumonia) in nature. Observational studies suggest that, similar to atypical antipsychotic drugs, treatment with conventional antipsychotic drugs may increase mortality. The extent to which the findings of increased mortality in observational studies may be attributed to the antipsychotic drug as opposed to some characteristic(s) of the patients is not clear. Thiothixene is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis (see WARNINGS).