Data from FDA - Curated by EPG Health - Last updated 25 January 2018

Indication(s)

INDICATIONS AND USAGE Hypertension TENORMIN is indicated for the treatment of hypertension, to lower blood pressure. Lowering blood pressure lowers the risk of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events, primarily strokes and myocardial infarctions. These benefits have been seen in controlled trials of antihypertensive drugs from a wide variety of pharmacologic classes including atenolol. Control of high blood pressure should be part of comprehensive cardiovascular risk management, including, as appropriate, lipid control, diabetes management, antithrombotic therapy, smoking cessation, exercise, and limited sodium intake. Many patients will require more than 1 drug to achieve blood pressure goals. For specific advice on goals and management, see published guidelines, such as those of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program’s Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC). Numerous antihypertensive drugs, from a variety of pharmacologic classes and with different mechanisms of action, have been shown in randomized controlled trials to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and it can be concluded that it is blood pressure reduction, and not some other pharmacologic property of the drugs, that is largely responsible for those benefits. The largest and most consistent cardiovascular outcome benefit has been a reduction in the risk of stroke, but reductions in myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality also have been seen regularly. Elevated systolic or diastolic pressure causes increased cardiovascular risk, and the absolute risk increase per mmHg is greater at higher blood pressures, so that even modest reductions of severe hypertension can provide substantial benefit. Relative risk reduction from blood pressure reduction is similar across populations with varying absolute risk, so the absolute benefit is greater in patients who are at higher risk independent of their hypertension (for example, patients with diabetes or hyperlipidemia), and such patients would be expected to benefit from more aggressive treatment to a lower blood pressure goal. Some antihypertensive drugs have smaller blood pressure effects (as monotherapy) in black patients, and many antihypertensive drugs have additional approved indications and effects (eg, on angina, heart failure, or diabetic kidney disease). These considerations may guide selection of therapy. TENORMIN may be administered with other antihypertensive agents. Angina Pectoris Due to Coronary Atherosclerosis TENORMIN is indicated for the long-term management of patients with angina pectoris. Acute Myocardial Infarction TENORMIN is indicated in the management of hemodynamically stable patients with definite or suspected acute myocardial infarction to reduce cardiovascular mortality. Treatment can be initiated as soon as the patient’s clinical condition allows. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, CONTRAINDICATIONS, and WARNINGS.) In general, there is no basis for treating patients like those who were excluded from the ISIS-1 trial (blood pressure less than 100 mm Hg systolic, heart rate less than 50 bpm) or have other reasons to avoid beta blockade. As noted above, some subgroups (eg, elderly patients with systolic blood pressure below 120 mm Hg) seemed less likely to benefit.

Learning Zones

An epgonline.org Learning Zone (LZ) is an area of the site dedicated to providing detailed self-directed medical education about a disease, condition or procedure.

Acute and Advanced Heart Failure

Acute and Advanced Heart Failure

What are the most effective treatments for acute heart failure? Can you define advanced heart failure? Discover here...

+ 3 more

Allergic Rhinitis

Allergic Rhinitis

Allergic rhinitis causes great strain on the workforce. Help to reduce sick days and improve productivity with appropriate treatment options.

+ 4 more

Anti-integrins in IBD

Anti-integrins in IBD

See presentations from a satellite symposium presented at UEG Week 2018, with a particular focus on rapid and sustained efficacy in IBD through biologics along with a need to utilise patient-empowered treatment models.

Load more

Related Content

Advisory information

contraindications
CONTRAINDICATIONS TENORMIN is contraindicated in sinus bradycardia, heart block greater than first degree, cardiogenic shock, and overt cardiac failure. (See WARNINGS.) TENORMIN is contraindicated in those patients with a history of hypersensitivity to the atenolol or any of the drug product’s components.
Special warnings and precautions
PRECAUTIONS General Patients already on a beta blocker must be evaluated carefully before TENORMIN is administered. Initial and subsequent TENORMIN dosages can be adjusted downward depending on clinical observations including pulse and blood pressure. TENORMIN may aggravate peripheral arterial circulatory disorders. Impaired Renal Function The drug should be used with caution in patients with impaired renal function. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.) Drug Interactions Catecholamine-depleting drugs (eg, reserpine) may have an additive effect when given with beta-blocking agents. Patients treated with TENORMIN plus a catecholamine depletor should therefore be closely observed for evidence of hypotension and/or marked bradycardia which may produce vertigo, syncope, or postural hypotension. Calcium channel blockers may also have an additive effect when given with TENORMIN (See WARNINGS). Disopyramide is a Type I antiarrhythmic drug with potent negative inotropic and chronotropic effects. Disopyramide has been associated with severe bradycardia, asystole and heart failure when administered with beta blockers. Amiodarone is an antiarrhythmic agent with negative chronotropic properties that may be additive to those seen with beta blockers. Beta blockers may exacerbate the rebound hypertension which can follow the withdrawal of clonidine. If the two drugs are coadministered, the beta blocker should be withdrawn several days before the gradual withdrawal of clonidine. If replacing clonidine by beta-blocker therapy, the introduction of beta blockers should be delayed for several days after clonidine administration has stopped. Concomitant use of prostaglandin synthase inhibiting drugs, eg, indomethacin, may decrease the hypotensive effects of beta blockers. Information on concurrent usage of atenolol and aspirin is limited. Data from several studies, ie, TIMI-II, ISIS-2, currently do not suggest any clinical interaction between aspirin and beta blockers in the acute myocardial infarction setting. While taking beta blockers, patients with a history of anaphylactic reaction to a variety of allergens may have a more severe reaction on repeated challenge, either accidental, diagnostic or therapeutic. Such patients may be unresponsive to the usual doses of epinephrine used to treat the allergic reaction. Both digitalis glycosides and beta-blockers slow atrioventricular conduction and decrease heart rate. Concomitant use can increase the risk of bradycardia. Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility Two long-term (maximum dosing duration of 18 or 24 months) rat studies and one long-term (maximum dosing duration of 18 months) mouse study, each employing dose levels as high as 300 mg/kg/day or 150 times the maximum recommended human antihypertensive dose, did not indicate a carcinogenic potential of atenolol. A third (24 month) rat study, employing doses of 500 and 1,500 mg/kg/day (250 and 750 times the maximum recommended human antihypertensive dose) resulted in increased incidences of benign adrenal medullary tumors in males and females, mammary fibroadenomas in females, and anterior pituitary adenomas and thyroid parafollicular cell carcinomas in males. No evidence of a mutagenic potential of atenolol was uncovered in the dominant lethal test (mouse), in vivo cytogenetics test (Chinese hamster) or Ames test (S typhimurium). Fertility of male or female rats (evaluated at dose levels as high as 200 mg/kg/day or 100 times the maximum recommended human dose) was unaffected by atenolol administration. Animal Toxicology Chronic studies employing oral atenolol performed in animals have revealed the occurrence of vacuolation of epithelial cells of Brunner's glands in the duodenum of both male and female dogs at all tested dose levels of atenolol (starting at 15 mg/kg/day or 7.5 times the maximum recommended human antihypertensive doseBased on the maximum dose of 100 mg/day in a 50 kg patient.) and increased incidence of atrial degeneration of hearts of male rats at 300 but not 150 mg atenolol/kg/day (150 and 75 times the maximum recommended human antihypertensive dose, respectively). Usage in Pregnancy Pregnancy Category D See WARNINGS - Pregnancy and Fetal Injury. Nursing Mothers Atenolol is excreted in human breast milk at a ratio of 1.5 to 6.8 when compared to the concentration in plasma. Caution should be exercised when TENORMIN is administered to a nursing woman. Clinically significant bradycardia has been reported in breast-fed infants. Premature infants, or infants with impaired renal function, may be more likely to develop adverse effects. Neonates born to mothers who are receiving TENORMIN at parturition or breast-feeding may be at risk for hypoglycemia and bradycardia. Caution should be exercised when TENORMIN is administered during pregnancy or to a woman who is breast-feeding (See WARNINGS, Pregnancy and Fetal Injury). Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established. Geriatric Use Hypertension and Angina Pectoris Due to Coronary Atherosclerosis: Clinical studies of TENORMIN did not include sufficient number of patients aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. Acute Myocardial Infarction: Of the 8,037 patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction randomized to TENORMIN in the ISIS-1 trial (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY), 33% (2,644) were 65 years of age and older. It was not possible to identify significant differences in efficacy and safety between older and younger patients; however, elderly patients with systolic blood pressure < 120 mmHg seemed less likely to benefit (See INDICATIONS AND USAGE). In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. Evaluation of patients with hypertension or myocardial infarction should always include assessment of renal function.
Adverse reactions
ADVERSE REACTIONS Most adverse effects have been mild and transient. The frequency estimates in the following table were derived from controlled studies in hypertensive patients in which adverse reactions were either volunteered by the patient (US studies) or elicited, eg, by checklist (foreign studies). The reported frequency of elicited adverse effects was higher for both TENORMIN and placebo-treated patients than when these reactions were volunteered. Where frequency of adverse effects of TENORMIN and placebo is similar, causal relationship to TENORMIN is uncertain. Volunteered (US Studies) Total − Volunteered and Elicited (Foreign + US Studies) Atenolol (n=164) % Placebo (n=206) % Atenolol (n=399) % Placebo (n=407) % CARDIOVASCULAR Bradycardia 3 0 3 0 Cold Extremities 0 0.5 12 5 Postural Hypotension 2 1 4 5 Leg Pain 0 0.5 3 1 CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM/ NEUROMUSCULAR Dizziness 4 1 13 6 Vertigo 2 0.5 2 0.2 Light-headedness 1 0 3 0.7 Tiredness 0.6 0.5 26 13 Fatigue 3 1 6 5 Lethargy 1 0 3 0.7 Drowsiness 0.6 0 2 0.5 Depression 0.6 0.5 12 9 Dreaming 0 0 3 1 GASTROINTESTINAL Diarrhea 2 0 3 2 Nausea 4 1 3 1 RESPIRATORY (see WARNINGS) Wheeziness 0 0 3 3 Dyspnea 0.6 1 6 4 Acute Myocardial Infarction In a series of investigations in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction, bradycardia and hypotension occurred more commonly, as expected for any beta blocker, in atenolol-treated patients than in control patients. However, these usually responded to atropine and/or to withholding further dosage of atenolol. The incidence of heart failure was not increased by atenolol. Inotropic agents were infrequently used. The reported frequency of these and other events occurring during these investigations is given in the following table. In a study of 477 patients, the following adverse events were reported during either intravenous and/or oral atenolol administration: Conventional Therapy Plus Atenolol (n=244) Conventional Therapy Alone (n=233) Bradycardia 43 (18%) 24 (10%) Hypotension 60 (25%) 34 (15%) Bronchospasm 3 (1.2%) 2 (0.9%) Heart Failure 46 (19%) 56 (24%) Heart Block 11 (4.5%) 10 (4.3%) BBB + Major Axis Deviation 16 (6.6%) 28 (12%) Supraventricular Tachycardia 28 (11.5%) 45 (19%) Atrial Fibrillation 12 (5%) 29 (11%) Atrial Flutter 4 (1.6%) 7 (3%) Ventricular Tachycardia 39 (16%) 52 (22%) Cardiac Reinfarction 0 (0%) 6 (2.6%) Total Cardiac Arrests 4 (1.6%) 16 (6.9%) Nonfatal Cardiac Arrests 4 (1.6%) 12 (5.1%) Deaths 7 (2.9%) 16 (6.9%) Cardiogenic Shock 1 (0.4%) 4 (1.7%) Development of Ventricular Septal Defect 0 (0%) 2 (0.9%) Development of Mitral Regurgitation 0 (0%) 2 (0.9%) Renal Failure 1 (0.4%) 0 (0%) Pulmonary Emboli 3 (1.2%) 0 (0%) In the subsequent International Study of Infarct Survival (ISIS-1) including over 16,000 patients of whom 8,037 were randomized to receive TENORMIN treatment, the dosage of intravenous and subsequent oral TENORMIN was either discontinued or reduced for the following reasons: Reasons for Reduced Dosage IV Atenolol Reduced Dose (<5 mg)Full dosage was 10 mg and some patients received less than 10 mg but more than 5 mg. Oral Partial Dose Hypotension/Bradycardia 105 (1.3%) 1168 (14.5%) Cardiogenic Shock 4 (.04%) 35 (.44%) Reinfarction 0 (0%) 5 (.06%) Cardiac Arrest 5 (.06%) 28 (.34%) Heart Block (> first degree) 5 (.06%) 143 (1.7%) Cardiac Failure 1 (.01%) 233 (2.9%) Arrhythmias 3 (.04%) 22 (.27%) Bronchospasm 1 (.01%) 50 (.62%) During postmarketing experience with TENORMIN, the following have been reported in temporal relationship to the use of the drug: elevated liver enzymes and/or bilirubin, hallucinations, headache, impotence, Peyronie's disease, postural hypotension which may be associated with syncope, psoriasiform rash or exacerbation of psoriasis, psychoses, purpura, reversible alopecia, thrombocytopenia, visual disturbance, sick sinus syndrome, and dry mouth. TENORMIN, like other beta blockers, has been associated with the development of antinuclear antibodies (ANA), lupus syndrome, and Raynaud’s phenomenon.

Usage information

Dosing and administration
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Hypertension The initial dose of TENORMIN is 50 mg given as one tablet a day either alone or added to diuretic therapy. The full effect of this dose will usually be seen within one to two weeks. If an optimal response is not achieved, the dosage should be increased to TENORMIN 100 mg given as one tablet a day. Increasing the dosage beyond 100 mg a day is unlikely to produce any further benefit. TENORMIN may be used alone or concomitantly with other antihypertensive agents including thiazide-type diuretics, hydralazine, prazosin, and alpha-methyldopa. Angina Pectoris The initial dose of TENORMIN is 50 mg given as one tablet a day. If an optimal response is not achieved within one week, the dosage should be increased to TENORMIN 100 mg given as one tablet a day. Some patients may require a dosage of 200 mg once a day for optimal effect. Twenty-four hour control with once daily dosing is achieved by giving doses larger than necessary to achieve an immediate maximum effect. The maximum early effect on exercise tolerance occurs with doses of 50 to 100 mg, but at these doses the effect at 24 hours is attenuated, averaging about 50% to 75% of that observed with once a day oral doses of 200 mg. Acute Myocardial Infarction In patients with definite or suspected acute myocardial infarction, treatment with TENORMIN I.V. Injection should be initiated as soon as possible after the patient's arrival in the hospital and after eligibility is established. Such treatment should be initiated in a coronary care or similar unit immediately after the patient's hemodynamic condition has stabilized. Treatment should begin with the intravenous administration of 5 mg TENORMIN over 5 minutes followed by another 5 mg intravenous injection 10 minutes later. TENORMIN I.V. Injection should be administered under carefully controlled conditions including monitoring of blood pressure, heart rate, and electrocardiogram. Dilutions of TENORMIN I.V. Injection in Dextrose Injection USP, Sodium Chloride Injection USP, or Sodium Chloride and Dextrose Injection may be used. These admixtures are stable for 48 hours if they are not used immediately. In patients who tolerate the full intravenous dose (10 mg), TENORMIN Tablets 50 mg should be initiated 10 minutes after the last intravenous dose followed by another 50 mg oral dose 12 hours later. Thereafter, TENORMIN can be given orally either 100 mg once daily or 50 mg twice a day for a further 6-9 days or until discharge from the hospital. If bradycardia or hypotension requiring treatment or any other untoward effects occur, TENORMIN should be discontinued. (See full prescribing information prior to initiating therapy with TENORMIN Tablets.) Data from other beta blocker trials suggest that if there is any question concerning the use of IV beta blocker or clinical estimate that there is a contraindication, the IV beta blocker may be eliminated and patients fulfilling the safety criteria may be given TENORMIN Tablets 50 mg twice daily or 100 mg once a day for at least seven days (if the IV dosing is excluded). Although the demonstration of efficacy of TENORMIN is based entirely on data from the first seven postinfarction days, data from other beta blocker trials suggest that treatment with beta blockers that are effective in the postinfarction setting may be continued for one to three years if there are no contraindications. TENORMIN is an additional treatment to standard coronary care unit therapy. Elderly Patients or Patients with Renal Impairment TENORMIN is excreted by the kidneys; consequently dosage should be adjusted in cases of severe impairment of renal function. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. Evaluation of patients with hypertension or myocardial infarction should always include assessment of renal function. Atenolol excretion would be expected to decrease with advancing age. No significant accumulation of TENORMIN occurs until creatinine clearance falls below 35 mL/min/1.73m2. Accumulation of atenolol and prolongation of its half-life were studied in subjects with creatinine clearance between 5 and 105 mL/min. Peak plasma levels were significantly increased in subjects with creatinine clearances below 30 mL/min. The following maximum oral dosages are recommended for elderly, renally-impaired patients and for patients with renal impairment due to other causes: Creatinine Clearance (mL/min/1.73m2) Atenolol Elimination Half-Life (h) Maximum Dosage 15-35 16-27 50 mg daily <15 >27 25 mg daily Some renally-impaired or elderly patients being treated for hypertension may require a lower starting dose of TENORMIN: 25 mg given as one tablet a day. If this 25 mg dose is used, assessment of efficacy must be made carefully. This should include measurement of blood pressure just prior to the next dose ("trough" blood pressure) to ensure that the treatment effect is present for a full 24 hours. Although a similar dosage reduction may be considered for elderly and/or renally-impaired patients being treated for indications other than hypertension, data are not available for these patient populations. Patients on hemodialysis should be given 25 mg or 50 mg after each dialysis; this should be done under hospital supervision as marked falls in blood pressure can occur. Cessation of Therapy in Patients with Angina Pectoris If withdrawal of TENORMIN therapy is planned, it should be achieved gradually and patients should be carefully observed and advised to limit physical activity to a minimum.
Pregnancy and lactation
Nursing Mothers Atenolol is excreted in human breast milk at a ratio of 1.5 to 6.8 when compared to the concentration in plasma. Caution should be exercised when TENORMIN is administered to a nursing woman. Clinically significant bradycardia has been reported in breast-fed infants. Premature infants, or infants with impaired renal function, may be more likely to develop adverse effects. Neonates born to mothers who are receiving TENORMIN at parturition or breast-feeding may be at risk for hypoglycemia and bradycardia. Caution should be exercised when TENORMIN is administered during pregnancy or to a woman who is breast-feeding (See WARNINGS, Pregnancy and Fetal Injury).

Interactions

Drug Interactions Catecholamine-depleting drugs (eg, reserpine) may have an additive effect when given with beta-blocking agents. Patients treated with TENORMIN plus a catecholamine depletor should therefore be closely observed for evidence of hypotension and/or marked bradycardia which may produce vertigo, syncope, or postural hypotension. Calcium channel blockers may also have an additive effect when given with TENORMIN (See WARNINGS). Disopyramide is a Type I antiarrhythmic drug with potent negative inotropic and chronotropic effects. Disopyramide has been associated with severe bradycardia, asystole and heart failure when administered with beta blockers. Amiodarone is an antiarrhythmic agent with negative chronotropic properties that may be additive to those seen with beta blockers. Beta blockers may exacerbate the rebound hypertension which can follow the withdrawal of clonidine. If the two drugs are coadministered, the beta blocker should be withdrawn several days before the gradual withdrawal of clonidine. If replacing clonidine by beta-blocker therapy, the introduction of beta blockers should be delayed for several days after clonidine administration has stopped. Concomitant use of prostaglandin synthase inhibiting drugs, eg, indomethacin, may decrease the hypotensive effects of beta blockers. Information on concurrent usage of atenolol and aspirin is limited. Data from several studies, ie, TIMI-II, ISIS-2, currently do not suggest any clinical interaction between aspirin and beta blockers in the acute myocardial infarction setting. While taking beta blockers, patients with a history of anaphylactic reaction to a variety of allergens may have a more severe reaction on repeated challenge, either accidental, diagnostic or therapeutic. Such patients may be unresponsive to the usual doses of epinephrine used to treat the allergic reaction. Both digitalis glycosides and beta-blockers slow atrioventricular conduction and decrease heart rate. Concomitant use can increase the risk of bradycardia.

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number NDA018240
Agency product number 50VV3VW0TI
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 52427-431,52427-430,52427-429
Date Last Revised 01-11-2017
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
RXCUI 201322
Marketing authorisation holder Almatica Pharma Inc.