Data from FDA - Curated by EPG Health - Last updated 05 December 2017

Indication(s)

INDICATIONS AND USAGE Epilepsy Tegretol is indicated for use as an anticonvulsant drug. Evidence supporting efficacy of Tegretol as an anticonvulsant was derived from active drug-controlled studies that enrolled patients with the following seizure types: Partial seizures with complex symptomatology (psychomotor, temporal lobe). Patients with these seizures appear to show greater improvement than those with other types. Generalized tonic-clonic seizures (grand mal). Mixed seizure patterns which include the above, or other partial or generalized seizures. Absence seizures (petit mal) do not appear to be controlled by Tegretol (see PRECAUTIONS, General). Trigeminal Neuralgia Tegretol is indicated in the treatment of the pain associated with true trigeminal neuralgia. Beneficial results have also been reported in glossopharyngeal neuralgia. This drug is not a simple analgesic and should not be used for the relief of trivial aches or pains.

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Advisory information

contraindications
CONTRAINDICATIONS Tegretol should not be used in patients with a history of previous bone marrow depression, hypersensitivity to the drug, or known sensitivity to any of the tricyclic compounds, such as amitriptyline, desipramine, imipramine, protriptyline, nortriptyline, etc. Likewise, on theoretical grounds its use with monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors is not recommended. Before administration of Tegretol, MAO inhibitors should be discontinued for a minimum of 14 days, or longer if the clinical situation permits. Coadministration of carbamazepine and nefazodone may result in insufficient plasma concentrations of nefazodone and its active metabolite to achieve a therapeutic effect. Coadministration of carbamazepine with nefazodone is contraindicated.
Special warnings and precautions
PRECAUTIONS General Before initiating therapy, a detailed history and physical examination should be made. Tegretol should be used with caution in patients with a mixed seizure disorder that includes atypical absence seizures, since in these patients Tegretol has been associated with increased frequency of generalized convulsions (see INDICATIONS AND USAGE). Therapy should be prescribed only after critical benefit-to-risk appraisal in patients with a history of cardiac conduction disturbance, including second- and third-degree AV heart block; cardiac, hepatic, or renal damage; adverse hematologic or hypersensitivity reaction to other drugs, including reactions to other anticonvulsants; or interrupted courses of therapy with Tegretol. AV heart block, including second- and third-degree block, have been reported following Tegretol treatment. This occurred generally, but not solely, in patients with underlying EKG abnormalities or risk factors for conduction disturbances. Hepatic effects, ranging from slight elevations in liver enzymes to rare cases of hepatic failure have been reported (see ADVERSE REACTIONS and PRECAUTIONS, Laboratory Tests). In some cases, hepatic effects may progress despite discontinuation of the drug. In addition rare instances of vanishing bile duct syndrome have been reported. This syndrome consists of a cholestatic process with a variable clinical course ranging from fulminant to indolent, involving the destruction and disappearance of the intrahepatic bile ducts. Some, but not all, cases are associated with features that overlap with other immunoallergenic syndromes such as multiorgan hypersensitivity (DRESS syndrome) and serious dermatologic reactions. As an example there has been a report of vanishing bile duct syndrome associated with Stevens-Johnson syndrome and in another case an association with fever and eosinophilia. Since a given dose of Tegretol suspension will produce higher peak levels than the same dose given as the tablet, it is recommended that patients given the suspension be started on lower doses and increased slowly to avoid unwanted side effects (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). Tegretol suspension contains sorbitol and, therefore, should not be administered to patients with rare hereditary problems of fructose intolerance.
Adverse reactions
ADVERSE REACTIONS If adverse reactions are of such severity that the drug must be discontinued, the physician must be aware that abrupt discontinuation of any anticonvulsant drug in a responsive epileptic patient may lead to seizures or even status epilepticus with its life-threatening hazards. The most severe adverse reactions have been observed in the hemopoietic system and skin (see BOXED WARNING), the liver, and the cardiovascular system. The most frequently observed adverse reactions, particularly during the initial phases of therapy, are dizziness, drowsiness, unsteadiness, nausea, and vomiting. To minimize the possibility of such reactions, therapy should be initiated at the lowest dosage recommended. The following additional adverse reactions have been reported: Hemopoietic System: Aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis, pancytopenia, bone marrow depression, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, leukocytosis, eosinophilia, acute intermittent porphyria, variegate porphyria, porphyria cutanea tarda. Skin: Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) (see BOXED WARNING), Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis (AGEP), pruritic and erythematous rashes, urticaria, photosensitivity reactions, alterations in skin pigmentation, exfoliative dermatitis, erythema multiforme and nodosum, purpura, aggravation of disseminated lupus erythematosus, alopecia, diaphoresis, onychomadesis and hirsutism. In certain cases, discontinuation of therapy may be necessary. Cardiovascular System: Congestive heart failure, edema, aggravation of hypertension, hypotension, syncope and collapse, aggravation of coronary artery disease, arrhythmias and AV block, thrombophlebitis, thromboembolism (e.g., pulmonary embolism), and adenopathy or lymphadenopathy. Some of these cardiovascular complications have resulted in fatalities. Myocardial infarction has been associated with other tricyclic compounds. Liver: Abnormalities in liver function tests, cholestatic and hepatocellular jaundice, hepatitis, very rare cases of hepatic failure. Pancreatic: Pancreatitis. Respiratory System: Pulmonary hypersensitivity characterized by fever, dyspnea, pneumonitis, or pneumonia. Genitourinary System: Urinary frequency, acute urinary retention, oliguria with elevated blood pressure, azotemia, renal failure, and impotence. Albuminuria, glycosuria, elevated BUN, and microscopic deposits in the urine have also been reported. There have been rare reports of impaired male fertility and/or abnormal spermatogenesis. Testicular atrophy occurred in rats receiving Tegretol orally from 4 to 52 weeks at dosage levels of 50 to 400 mg/kg/day. Additionally, rats receiving Tegretol in the diet for 2 years at dosage levels of 25, 75, and 250 mg/kg/day had a dose-related incidence of testicular atrophy and aspermatogenesis. In dogs, it produced a brownish discoloration, presumably a metabolite, in the urinary bladder at dosage levels of 50 mg/kg and higher. Relevance of these findings to humans is unknown. Nervous System: Dizziness, drowsiness, disturbances of coordination, confusion, headache, fatigue, blurred vision, visual hallucinations, transient diplopia, oculomotor disturbances, nystagmus, speech disturbances, abnormal involuntary movements, peripheral neuritis and paresthesias, depression with agitation, talkativeness, tinnitus, hyperacusis, neuroleptic malignant syndrome. There have been reports of associated paralysis and other symptoms of cerebral arterial insufficiency, but the exact relationship of these reactions to the drug has not been established. Isolated cases of neuroleptic malignant syndrome have been reported both with and without concomitant use of psychotropic drugs. Digestive System: Nausea, vomiting, gastric distress and abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation, anorexia, and dryness of the mouth and pharynx, including glossitis and stomatitis. Eyes: Scattered punctate cortical lens opacities, increased intraocular pressure (see WARNINGS, General) as well as conjunctivitis, have been reported. Although a direct causal relationship has not been established, many phenothiazines and related drugs have been shown to cause eye changes. Musculoskeletal System: Aching joints and muscles, and leg cramps. Metabolism: Fever and chills. Hyponatremia (see WARNINGS, General). Decreased levels of plasma calcium have been reported. Osteoporosis has been reported. Isolated cases of a lupus erythematosus-like syndrome have been reported. There have been occasional reports of elevated levels of cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides in patients taking anticonvulsants. A case of aseptic meningitis, accompanied by myoclonus and peripheral eosinophilia, has been reported in a patient taking carbamazepine in combination with other medications. The patient was successfully dechallenged, and the meningitis reappeared upon rechallenge with carbamazepine.

Usage information

Dosing and administration
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION (SEE TABLE BELOW) Tegretol suspension in combination with liquid chlorpromazine or thioridazine results in precipitate formation, and, in the case of chlorpromazine, there has been a report of a patient passing an orange rubbery precipitate in the stool following coadministration of the two drugs (see PRECAUTIONS, Drug Interactions). Because the extent to which this occurs with other liquid medications is not known, Tegretol suspension should not be administered simultaneously with other liquid medications or diluents. Monitoring of blood levels has increased the efficacy and safety of anticonvulsants (see PRECAUTIONS, Laboratory Tests). Dosage should be adjusted to the needs of the individual patient. A low initial daily dosage with a gradual increase is advised. As soon as adequate control is achieved, the dosage may be reduced very gradually to the minimum effective level. Medication should be taken with meals. Since a given dose of Tegretol suspension will produce higher peak levels than the same dose given as the tablet, it is recommended to start with low doses (children 6 to 12 years: ½ teaspoon four times a day and to increase slowly to avoid unwanted side effects. Conversion of patients from oral Tegretol tablets to Tegretol suspension: Patients should be converted by administering the same number of mg per day in smaller, more frequent doses (i.e., twice a day tablets to three times a day suspension). Tegretol-XR is an extended-release formulation for twice a day administration. When converting patients from Tegretol conventional tablets to Tegretol-XR, the same total daily mg dose of Tegretol-XR should be administered. Tegretol -XR tablets must be swallowed whole and never crushed or chewed. Tegretol-XR tablets should be inspected for chips or cracks. Damaged tablets, or tablets without a release portal, should not be consumed. Tegretol-XR tablet coating is not absorbed and is excreted in the feces; these coatings may be noticeable in the stool. Epilepsy (SEE INDICATIONS AND USAGE) Adults and children over 12 years of age-Initial: Either 200 mg twice a day for tablets and XR tablets, or 1 teaspoon four times a day for suspension (400 mg/day). Increase at weekly intervals by adding up to 200 mg/day using a twice a day regimen of Tegretol-XR or a three times a day or four times a day regimen of the other formulations until the optimal response is obtained. Dosage generally should not exceed 1000 mg daily in children 12 to 15 years of age, and 1200 mg daily in patients above 15 years of age. Doses up to 1600 mg daily have been used in adults in rare instances. Maintenance: Adjust dosage to the minimum effective level, usually 800 to 1200 mg daily. Children 6 to 12 years of age-Initial: Either 100 mg twice a day for tablets or XR tablets, or ½ teaspoon four times a day for suspension (200 mg/day). Increase at weekly intervals by adding up to 100 mg/day using a twice a day regimen of Tegretol-XR or a three times a day or four times a day regimen of the other formulations until the optimal response is obtained. Dosage generally should not exceed 1000 mg daily. Maintenance: Adjust dosage to the minimum effective level, usually 400 to 800 mg daily. Children under 6 years of age-Initial: 10 to 20 mg/kg/day twice a day or three times a day as tablets, or four times a day as suspension. Increase weekly to achieve optimal clinical response administered three times a day or four times a day. Maintenance: Ordinarily, optimal clinical response is achieved at daily doses below 35 mg/kg. If satisfactory clinical response has not been achieved, plasma levels should be measured to determine whether or not they are in the therapeutic range. No recommendation regarding the safety of carbamazepine for use at doses above 35 mg/kg/24 hours can be made. Combination Therapy: Tegretol may be used alone or with other anticonvulsants. When added to existing anticonvulsant therapy, the drug should be added gradually while the other anticonvulsants are maintained or gradually decreased, except phenytoin, which may have to be increased (see PRECAUTIONS, Drug Interactions, and Pregnancy Category D). Trigeminal Neuralgia (SEE INDICATIONS AND USAGE) Initial: On the first day, either 100 mg twice a day for tablets or XR tablets, or ½ teaspoon four times a day for suspension, for a total daily dose of 200 mg. This daily dose may be increased by up to 200 mg/day using increments of 100 mg every 12 hours for tablets or XR tablets, or 50 mg (½ teaspoon) four times a day for suspension, only as needed to achieve freedom from pain. Do not exceed 1200 mg daily. Maintenance: Control of pain can be maintained in most patients with 400 to 800 mg daily. However, some patients may be maintained on as little as 200 mg daily, while others may require as much as 1200 mg daily. At least once every 3 months throughout the treatment period, attempts should be made to reduce the dose to the minimum effective level or even to discontinue the drug. Dosage Information Initial Dose Subsequent Dose Maximum Daily Dose Indication Tablet* XR † Suspension Tablet* XR † Suspension Tablet* XR † Suspension Epilepsy Under 6 yr 10-20 mg/kg/day twice a day or 3 times a day 10-20 mg/kg/day 4 times a day Increase weekly to achieve optimal clinical response, 3 times a day or 4 times a day Increase weekly to achieve optimal clinical response, 3 times a day or 4 times a day 35 mg/kg/24 hr (see Dosage and Administration section above) 35 mg/kg/24 hr (see Dosage and Administration section above) 6-12 yr 100 mg twice a day (200 mg/day) 100 mg twice a day (200 mg/day) ½ tsp 4 times a day (200 mg/day) Add up to 100 mg/day at weekly intervals, 3 times a day or 4 times a day Add 100 mg/day at weekly intervals, twice a day Add up to 1 tsp (100 mg)/day at weekly intervals, 3 times a day or 4 times a day 1000 mg/24 hr Over 12 yr 200 mg twice a day (400 mg/day) 200 mg twice a day (400 mg/day) 1 tsp 4 times a day (400 mg/day) Add up to 200 mg/day at weekly intervals, 3 times a day or 4 times a day Add up to 200 mg/day at weekly intervals, twice a day Add up to 2 tsp (200 mg)/day at weekly intervals, 3 times a day or 4 times a day 1000 mg/24 hr (12-15 yr) 1200 mg/24 hr (>15 yr) 1600 mg/24 hr (adults, in rare instances) Trigeminal Neuralgia 100 mg twice a day (200 mg/day) 100 mg twice a day (200 mg/day) ½ tsp 4 times a day (200 mg/day) Add up to 200 mg/day in increments of 100 mg every 12 hr Add up to 200 mg/day in increments of 100 mg every 12 hr Add up to 2 tsp (200 mg)/day in increments of 50 mg (½ tsp) 4 times a day 1200 mg/24 hr *Tablet = Chewable or conventional tablets †XR = Tegretol-XR extended-release tablets
Pregnancy and lactation
Nursing Mothers Tegretol and its epoxide metabolite are transferred to breast milk. The ratio of the concentration in breast milk to that in maternal plasma is about 0.4 for Tegretol and about 0.5 for the epoxide. The estimated doses given to the newborn during breastfeeding are in the range of 2 to 5 mg daily for Tegretol and 1 to 2 mg daily for the epoxide. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from carbamazepine, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Interactions

Drug Interactions There has been a report of a patient who passed an orange rubbery precipitate in his stool the day after ingesting Tegretol suspension immediately followed by Thorazine ®* solution. Subsequent testing has shown that mixing Tegretol suspension and chlorpromazine solution (both generic and brand name) as well as Tegretol suspension and liquid Mellaril ®, resulted in the occurrence of this precipitate. Because the extent to which this occurs with other liquid medications is not known, Tegretol suspension should not be administered simultaneously with other liquid medicinal agents or diluents (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). Clinically meaningful drug interactions have occurred with concomitant medications and include (but are not limited to) the following: Agents That May Affect Tegretol Plasma Levels When carbamazepine is given with drugs that can increase or decrease carbamazepine levels, close monitoring of carbamazepine levels is indicated and dosage adjustment may be required. Agents That Increase Carbamazepine Levels CYP3A4 inhibitors inhibit Tegretol metabolism and can thus increase plasma carbamazepine levels. Drugs that have been shown, or would be expected, to increase plasma carbamazepine levels include aprepitant, cimetidine, ciprofloxacin, danazol, diltiazem, macrolides, erythromycin, troleandomycin, clarithromycin, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, trazodone, olanzapine, loratadine, terfenadine, omeprazole, oxybutynin, dantrolene, isoniazid, niacinamide, nicotinamide, ibuprofen, propoxyphene, azoles (e.g., ketaconazole, itraconazole, fluconazole, voriconazole), acetazolamide, verapamil, ticlopidine, grapefruit juice, and protease inhibitors. Human microsomal epoxide hydrolase has been identified as the enzyme responsible for the formation of the 10,11-transdiol derivative from carbamazepine-10,11 epoxide. Coadministration of inhibitors of human microsomal epoxide hydrolase may result in increased carbamazepine-10,11 epoxide plasma concentrations. Accordingly, the dosage of Tegretol should be adjusted and/or the plasma levels monitored when used concomitantly with loxapine, quetiapine, or valproic acid. Agents That Decrease Carbamazepine Levels CYP3A4 inducers can increase the rate of Tegretol metabolism. Drugs that have been shown, or that would be expected, to decrease plasma carbamazepine levels include cisplatin, doxorubicin HCl, felbamate, fosphenytoin, rifampin, phenobarbital, phenytoin, primidone, methsuximide, theophylline, aminophylline. Effect of Tegretol on Plasma Levels of Concomitant Agents Decreased Levels of Concomitant Medications Tegretol is a potent inducer of hepatic 3A4 and is also known to be an inducer of CYP1A2, 2B6, 2C9/19 and may therefore reduce plasma concentrations of co-medications mainly metabolized by CYP 1A2, 2B6, 2C9/19 and 3A4, through induction of their metabolism. When used concomitantly with Tegretol, monitoring of concentrations or dosage adjustment of these agents may be necessary: When carbamazepine is added to aripiprazole, the aripiprazole dose should be doubled. Additional dose increases should be based on clinical evaluation. If carbamazepine is later withdrawn, the aripiprazole dose should be reduced. When carbamazepine is used with tacrolimus, monitoring of tacrolimus blood concentrations and appropriate dosage adjustments are recommended. The use of concomitant strong CYP3A4 inducers such as carbamazepine should be avoided with temsirolimus. If patients must be coadministered carbamazepine with temsirolimus, an adjustment of temsirolimus dosage should be considered. The use of carbamazepine with lapatinib should generally be avoided. If carbamazepine is started in a patient already taking lapatinib, the dose of lapatinib should be gradually titrated up. If carbamazepine is discontinued, the lapatinib dose should be reduced. Concomitant use of carbamazepine with nefazodone results in plasma concentrations of nefazodone and its active metabolite insufficient to achieve a therapeutic effect. Coadministration of carbamazepine with nefazodone is contraindicated (see CONTRAINDICATIONS). Monitor concentrations of valproate when Tegretol is introduced or withdrawn in patients using valproic acid. In addition, Tegretol causes, or would be expected to cause, decreased levels of the following drugs, for which monitoring of concentrations or dosage adjustment may be necessary: acetaminophen, albendazole, alprazolam, aprepitant, buprenorphone, bupropion, citalopram, clonazepam, clozapine, corticosteroids (e.g., prednisolone, dexamethasone), cyclosporine, dicumarol, dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (e.g., felodipine), doxycycline, ethosuximide, everolimus, haloperidol, imatinib, itraconazole, lamotrigine, levothyroxine, methadone, methsuximide, mianserin, midazolam, olanzapine, oral and other hormonal contraceptives, oxcarbazepine, paliperidone, phensuximide, phenytoin, praziquantel, protease inhibitors, risperidone, sertraline, sirolimus, tadalafil, theophylline, tiagabine, topiramate, tramadol, trazodone, tricyclic antidepressants (e.g., imipramine, amitriptyline, nortriptyline), valproate, warfarin, ziprasidone, zonisamide. Other Drug Interactions Cyclophosphamide is an inactive prodrug and is converted to its active metabolite in part by CYP3A. The rate of metabolism and the leukopenic activity of cyclophosphamide are reportedly increased by chronic coadministration of CYP3A4 inducers. There is a potential for increased cyclophosphamide toxicity when coadministered with carbamazepine. Concomitant administration of carbamazepine and lithium may increase the risk of neurotoxic side effects. Concomitant use of carbamazepine and isoniazid has been reported to increase isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity. Alterations of thyroid function have been reported in combination therapy with other anticonvulsant medications. Concomitant use of Tegretol with hormonal contraceptive products (e.g., oral, and levonorgestrel subdermal implant contraceptives) may render the contraceptives less effective because the plasma concentrations of the hormones may be decreased. Breakthrough bleeding and unintended pregnancies have been reported. Alternative or back-up methods of contraception should be considered. Resistance to the neuromuscular blocking action of the nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents pancuronium, vecuronium, rocuronium and cisatracurium has occurred in patients chronically administered carbamazepine. Whether or not carbamazepine has the same effect on other non-depolarizing agents is unknown. Patients should be monitored closely for more rapid recovery from neuromuscular blockade than expected, and infusion rate requirements may be higher.

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number NDA020234
Agency product number 33CM23913M
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 70518-0337
Date Last Revised 16-11-2017
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
RXCUI 199378
Marketing authorisation holder REMEDYREPACK INC.
Warnings Warnings Serious Dermatologic Reactions And Hla-B*1502 Allele Serious And Sometimes Fatal Dermatologic Reactions, Including Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (Ten) And Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (Sjs), Have Been Reported During Treatment With Tegretol. These Reactions Are Estimated To Occur In 1 To 6 Per 10,000 New Users In Countries With Mainly Caucasian Populations, But The Risk In Some Asian Countries Is Estimated To Be About 10 Times Higher. Studies In Patients Of Chinese Ancestry Have Found A Strong Association Between The Risk Of Developing Sjs/Ten And The Presence Of Hla-B*1502, An Inherited Allelic Variant Of The Hla-B Gene. Hla-B*1502 Is Found Almost Exclusively In Patients With Ancestry Across Broad Areas Of Asia. Patients With Ancestry In Genetically At-Risk Populations Should Be Screened For The Presence Of Hla-B*1502 Prior To Initiating Treatment With Tegretol. Patients Testing Positive For The Allele Should Not Be Treated With Tegretol Unless The Benefit Clearly Outweighs The Risk (See Warnings And Precautions, Laboratory Tests). Aplastic Anemia And Agranulocytosis Aplastic Anemia And Agranulocytosis Have Been Reported In Association With The Use Of Tegretol. Data From A Population-Based Case Control Study Demonstrate That The Risk Of Developing These Reactions Is 5 To 8 Times Greater Than In The General Population. However, The Overall Risk Of These Reactions In The Untreated General Population Is Low, Approximately Six Patients Per One Million Population Per Year For Agranulocytosis And Two Patients Per One Million Population Per Year For Aplastic Anemia. Although Reports Of Transient Or Persistent Decreased Platelet Or White Blood Cell Counts Are Not Uncommon In Association With The Use Of Tegretol, Data Are Not Available To Estimate Accurately Their Incidence Or Outcome. However, The Vast Majority Of The Cases Of Leukopenia Have Not Progressed To The More Serious Conditions Of Aplastic Anemia Or Agranulocytosis. Because Of The Very Low Incidence Of Agranulocytosis And Aplastic Anemia, The Vast Majority Of Minor Hematologic Changes Observed In Monitoring Of Patients On Tegretol Are Unlikely To Signal The Occurrence Of Either Abnormality. Nonetheless, Complete Pretreatment Hematological Testing Should Be Obtained As A Baseline. If A Patient In The Course Of Treatment Exhibits Low Or Decreased White Blood Cell Or Platelet Counts, The Patient Should Be Monitored Closely. Discontinuation Of The Drug Should Be Considered If Any Evidence Of Significant Bone Marrow Depression Develops.