Data from FDA - Curated by EPG Health - Last updated 05 July 2018

Indication(s)

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE Sildenafil tablets are indicated for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (WHO Group I) in adults to improve exercise ability and delay clinical worsening. The delay in clinical worsening was demonstrated when sildenafil tablets were added to background epoprostenol therapy [see Clinical Studies (1 4) ]. Studies establishing effectiveness were short-term (12 to 16 weeks), and included predominately patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) Functional Class II-III symptoms and idiopathic etiology (71%) or associated with connective tissue disease (CTD) (25%). Limitation of Use Adding sildenafil to bosentan therapy does not result in any beneficial effect on exercise capacity [see Clinical Studies (14 ) ]. Sildenafil is a phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitor indicated for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) (WHO Group I) in adults to improve exercise ability and delay clinical worsening. Studies establishing effectiveness were short-term (12 to 16 weeks), and included predominately patients with NYHA Functional Class II-III symptoms. Etiologies were idiopathic (71%) or associated with connective tissue disease (25%). ( 1) Limitation of Use Adding sildenafil to bosentan therapy does not result in any beneficial effect on exercise capacity. ( 1, 14)

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Advisory information

contraindications
4 CONTRAINDICATIONS Sildenafil tablets are contraindicated in patients with:Sildenafil tablets are contraindicated in patients with: Concomitant use of organic nitrates in any form, either regularly or intermittently, because of the greater risk of hypotension . Concomitant use of organic nitrates in any form, either regularly or intermittently, because of the greater risk of hypotension [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)] . Concomitant use of riociguat, a guanylate cyclase stimulator. PDE5 inhibitors, including sildenafil, may potentiate the hypotensive effects of riociguat. Known hypersensitivity to sildenafil or any component of the tablet. Hypersensitivity, including anaphylactic reaction, anaphylactic shock and anaphylactoid reaction, has been reported in association with the use of sildenafil.Known hypersensitivity to sildenafil or any component of the tablet. Hypersensitivity, including anaphylactic reaction, anaphylactic shock and anaphylactoid reaction, has been reported in association with the use of sildenafil. Use with organic nitrates or riociguat ( 4) History of hypersensitivity reaction to sildenafil or any component of the tablet ( 4)
Adverse reactions
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS The following serious adverse events are discussed elsewhere in the labeling: Mortality with pediatric use [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Use in Specific Populations (8.4)] Hypotension [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)] Vision loss [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)] Hearing loss [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)] Priapism [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)] Vaso-occlusive crisis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)] Most common adverse reactions greater than or equal to 3% and more frequent than placebo were epistaxis, headache, dyspepsia, flushing, insomnia, erythema, dyspnea, and rhinitis. ( 6.1, 6.2) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact AvKARE, Inc. at 1-855-361-3993 or or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. Safety data of sildenafil in adults were obtained from the 12-week, placebo-controlled clinical study (Study 1) and an open-label extension study in 277 sildenafil-treated patients with PAH, WHO Group I [see Clinical Studies (14)] . The overall frequency of discontinuation in sildenafil-treated patients on 20 mg three times a day was 3% and was the same for the placebo group. In Study 1, the adverse reactions that were reported by at least 3% of sildenafil-treated patients (20 mg three times a day) and were more frequent in sildenafil-treated patients than in placebo-treated patients are shown in Table 1. Adverse reactions were generally transient and mild to moderate in nature. Table 1. Most Common Adverse Reactions in Patients with PAH in Study 1 (More Frequent in Sildenafil-Treated Patients than Placebo-Treated Patients and Incidence ≥3% in Sildenafil-Treated Patients) Placebo, % (n = 70) Sildenafil 20 mg three times a day, % (n = 69) Placebo- Subtracted, % Epistaxis 1 9 8 Headache 39 46 7 Dyspepsia 7 13 6 Flushing 4 10 6 Insomnia 1 7 6 Erythema 1 6 5 Dyspnea exacerbated 3 7 4 Rhinitis 0 4 4 Diarrhea 6 9 3 Myalgia 4 7 3 Pyrexia 3 6 3 Gastritis 0 3 3 Sinusitis 0 3 3 Paresthesia 0 3 3 At doses higher than the recommended 20 mg three times a day, there was a greater incidence of some adverse reactions including flushing, diarrhea, myalgia and visual disturbances. Visual disturbances were identified as mild and transient, and were predominately color-tinge to vision, but also increased sensitivity to light or blurred vision. The incidence of retinal hemorrhage with sildenafil 20 mg three times a day was 1.4% versus 0% placebo and for all sildenafil doses studied was 1.9% versus 0% placebo. The incidence of eye hemorrhage at both 20 mg three times a day and at all doses studied was 1.4% for sildenafil versus 1.4% for placebo. The patients experiencing these reactions had risk factors for hemorrhage including concurrent anticoagulant therapy. In a placebo-controlled fixed dose titration study (Study 2) of sildenafil (starting with recommended dose of 20 mg and increased to 40 mg and then 80 mg all three times a day) as an adjunct to intravenous epoprostenol in patients with PAH, the adverse reactions that were more frequent in the sildenafil + epoprostenol group than in the epoprostenol group (greater than 6% difference) are shown in Table 2 [see Clinical Studies (14)] . Table 2. Adverse Reactions (%) in patients with PAH in Study 2 (incidence in Sildenafil + Epoprostenol group at least 6% greater than Epoprostenol group) Sildenafil + Epoprostenol (n = 134) Epoprostenol (n = 131) (Sildenafil + Epoprostenol) minus Epoprostenol Headache 57 34 23 Edema * 25 13 14 Dyspepsia 16 2 14 Pain in extremity 17 6 11 Diarrhea 25 18 7 Nausea 25 18 7 Nasal congestion 9 2 7 *includes peripheral edema 6.2 Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of sildenafil (marketed for both PAH and erectile dysfunction). Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Cardiovascular Events In postmarketing experience with sildenafil at doses indicated for erectile dysfunction, serious cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and vascular events, including myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, ventricular arrhythmia, cerebrovascular hemorrhage, transient ischemic attack, hypertension, pulmonary hemorrhage, and subarachnoid and intracerebral hemorrhages have been reported in temporal association with the use of the drug. Most, but not all, of these patients had preexisting cardiovascular risk factors. Many of these events were reported to occur during or shortly after sexual activity, and a few were reported to occur shortly after the use of sildenafil without sexual activity. Others were reported to have occurred hours to days after use concurrent with sexual activity. It is not possible to determine whether these events are related directly to sildenafil, to sexual activity, to the patient's underlying cardiovascular disease, or to a combination of these or other factors. Nervous system Seizure, seizure recurrence To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS contact AvKARE, Inc. at 1-855-361-3993; email [email protected]; or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.

Usage information

Dosing and administration
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Tablet: 20 mg three times a day, 4 to 6 hours apart ( 2.1) 2.1 Sildenafil Tablets The recommended dose of sildenafil tablets is 20 mg three times a day. Administer sildenafil tablet doses 4 to 6 hours apart. In the clinical trial no greater efficacy was achieved with the use of higher doses. Treatment with doses higher than 20 mg three times a day is not recommended.
Use in special populations
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS 8.1 Pregnancy Pregnancy Category B There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of sildenafil in pregnant women. No evidence of teratogenicity, embryotoxicity, or fetotoxicity was observed in pregnant rats or rabbits dosed with sildenafil 200 mg/kg/day during organogenesis, a level that is, on a mg/m 2 basis, 32- and 68-times, respectively, the recommended human dose (RHD) of 20 mg three times a day. In a rat pre- and postnatal development study, the no-observed-adverse-effect dose was 30 mg/kg/day (equivalent to 5-times the RHD on a mg/m 2 basis). 8.2 Labor and Delivery The safety and efficacy of sildenafil during labor and delivery have not been studied. 8.3 Nursing Mothers It is not known if sildenafil or its metabolites are excreted in human breast milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when sildenafil tablets are administered to a nursing woman. 8.4 Pediatric Use In a randomized, double-blind, multi-center, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, dose-ranging study, 234 patients with PAH, aged 1 to 17 years, body weight greater than or equal to 8 kg, were randomized, on the basis of body weight, to three dose levels of sildenafil, or placebo, for 16 weeks of treatment. Most patients had mild to moderate symptoms at baseline: WHO Functional Class I (32%), II (51%), III (15%), or IV (0.4%). One-third of patients had primary PAH; two-thirds had secondary PAH (systemic-to-pulmonary shunt in 37%; surgical repair in 30%). Sixty-two percent of patients were female. Drug or placebo was administered three times a day. The primary objective of the study was to assess the effect of sildenafil on exercise capacity as measured by cardiopulmonary exercise testing in pediatric patients developmentally able to perform the test (n = 115). Administration of sildenafil did not result in a statistically significant improvement in exercise capacity in those patients. No patients died during the 16-week controlled study. After completing the 16-week controlled study, a patient originally randomized to sildenafil remained on his/her dose of sildenafil or, if originally randomized to placebo, was randomized to low-, medium-, or high-dose sildenafil. After all patients completed 16 weeks of follow-up in the controlled study, the blind was broken and doses were adjusted as clinically indicated. Patients treated with sildenafil were followed for a median of 4.6 years (range 2 days to 8.6 years). Mortality during the long-term study, by originally assigned dose, is shown in Figure 1. During the study, there were 42 reported deaths, with 37 of these deaths reported prior to a decision to titrate subjects to a lower dosage because of a finding of increased mortality with increasing sildenafil doses. For the survival analysis which included 37 deaths, the hazard ratio for high dose compared to low dose was 3.9, p=0.007. Causes of death were typical of patients with PAH. Use of sildenafil tablets, particularly chronic use, is not recommended in children. image-4.jpg 8.5 Geriatric Use Clinical studies of sildenafil did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] . 8.6 Patients with Hepatic Impairment No dose adjustment for mild to moderate impairment is required. Severe impairment has not been studied [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] . 8.7 Patients with Renal Impairment No dose adjustment is required (including severe impairment CLcr < 30 mL/min) [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] .
Pregnancy and lactation
8.3 Nursing Mothers It is not known if sildenafil or its metabolites are excreted in human breast milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when sildenafil tablets are administered to a nursing woman.

Interactions

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS Nitrates Concomitant use of sildenafil tablets with nitrates in any form is contraindicated [see Contraindications (4)] . Ritonavir and other Potent CYP3A Inhibitors Concomitant use of sildenafil tablets with ritonavir and other potent CYP3A inhibitors is not recommended [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] . Other drugs that reduce blood pressure Alpha blockers. In drug-drug interaction studies, sildenafil (25 mg, 50 mg, or 100 mg) and the alpha-blocker doxazosin (4 mg or 8 mg) were administered simultaneously to patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) stabilized on doxazosin therapy. In these study populations, mean additional reductions of supine systolic and diastolic blood pressure of 7/7 mmHg, 9/5 mmHg, and 8/4 mmHg, respectively, were observed. Mean additional reductions of standing blood pressure of 6/6 mmHg, 11/4 mmHg, and 4/5 mmHg, respectively, were also observed. There were infrequent reports of patients who experienced symptomatic postural hypotension. These reports included dizziness and light-headedness, but not syncope. Amlodipine. When sildenafil 100 mg oral was co-administered with amlodipine, 5 mg or 10 mg oral, to hypertensive patients, the mean additional reduction on supine blood pressure was 8 mmHg systolic and 7 mmHg diastolic. Monitor blood pressure when co-administering blood pressure lowering drugs with sildenafil [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)] . Concomitant alpha-blockers or amlodipine: Note additive blood pressure lowering effects. ( 7) Use with ritonavir and other potent CYP3A inhibitors: Not recommended. ( 7, 12.3) Concomitant PDE-5 inhibitors: Avoid use with Viagra or other PDE-5 inhibitors. ( 5.7)

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number ANDA091379
Agency product number BW9B0ZE037
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 42291-749
Date Last Revised 22-06-2018
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
RXCUI 577033
Marketing authorisation holder AvKARE, Inc.