Data from FDA - Curated by Marshall Pearce - Last updated 12 July 2017

Indication(s)

INDICATIONS AND USAGE Ropivacaine hydrochloride injection, USP is indicated for the production of local or regional anesthesia for surgery and for acute pain management. Surgical Anesthesia: epidural block for surgery including cesarean section; major nerve block; local infiltration Acute Pain Management: epidural continuous infusion or intermittent bolus, e.g., postoperative or labor; local infiltration

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Advisory information

contraindications
CONTRAINDICATIONS Ropivacaine hydrochloride injection is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to ropivacaine or to any local anesthetic agent of the amide type.
Special warnings and precautions
PRECAUTIONS General The safe and effective use of local anesthetics depends on proper dosage, correct technique, adequate precautions and readiness for emergencies. Resuscitative equipment, oxygen and other resuscitative drugs should be available for immediate use (see WARNINGS and ADVERSE REACTIONS ). The lowest dosage that results in effective anesthesia should be used to avoid high plasma levels and serious adverse events. Injections should be made slowly and incrementally, with frequent aspirations before and during the injection to avoid intravascular injection. When a continuous catheter technique is used, syringe aspirations should also be performed before and during each supplemental injection. During the administration of epidural anesthesia, it is recommended that a test dose of a local anesthetic with a fast onset be administered initially and that the patient be monitored for central nervous system and cardiovascular toxicity, as well as for signs of unintended intrathecal administration before proceeding. When clinical conditions permit, consideration should be given to employing local anesthetic solutions, which contain epinephrine for the test dose because circulatory changes compatible with epinephrine may also serve as a warning sign of unintended intravascular injection. An intravascular injection is still possible even if aspirations for blood are negative. Administration of higher than recommended doses of ropivacaine hydrochloride to achieve greater motor blockade or increased duration of sensory blockade may result in cardiovascular depression, particularly in the event of inadvertent intravascular injection. Tolerance to elevated blood levels varies with the physical condition of the patient. Debilitated, elderly patients and acutely ill patients should be given reduced doses commensurate with their age and physical condition. Local anesthetics should also be used with caution in patients with hypotension, hypovolemia or heart block. Careful and constant monitoring of cardiovascular and respiratory vital signs (adequacy of ventilation) and the patient’s state of consciousness should be performed after each local anesthetic injection. It should be kept in mind at such times that restlessness, anxiety, incoherent speech, light-headedness, numbness and tingling of the mouth and lips, metallic taste, tinnitus, dizziness, blurred vision, tremors, twitching, depression, or drowsiness may be early warning signs of central nervous system toxicity. Because amide-type local anesthetics such as ropivacaine are metabolized by the liver, these drugs, especially repeat doses, should be used cautiously in patients with hepatic disease. Patients with severe hepatic disease, because of their inability to metabolize local anesthetics normally, are at a greater risk of developing toxic plasma concentrations. Local anesthetics should also be used with caution in patients with impaired cardiovascular function because they may be less able to compensate for functional changes associated with the prolongation of A-V conduction produced by these drugs. Many drugs used during the conduct of anesthesia are considered potential triggering agents for malignant hyperthermia (MH). Amide-type local anesthetics are not known to trigger this reaction. However, since the need for supplemental general anesthesia cannot be predicted in advance, it is suggested that a standard protocol for MH management should be available. Epidural Anesthesia During epidural administration, ropivacaine hydrochloride should be administered in incremental doses of 3 to 5 mL with sufficient time between doses to detect toxic manifestations of unintentional intravascular or intrathecal injection. Syringe aspirations should also be performed before and during each supplemental injection in continuous (intermittent) catheter techniques. An intravascular injection is still possible even if aspirations for blood are negative. During the administration of epidural anesthesia, it is recommended that a test dose be administered initially and the effects monitored before the full dose is given. When clinical conditions permit, the test dose should contain an appropriate dose of epinephrine to serve as a warning of unintentional intravascular injection. If injected into a blood vessel, this amount of epinephrine is likely to produce a transient “epinephrine response” within 45 seconds, consisting of an increase in heart rate and systolic blood pressure, circumoral pallor, palpitations and nervousness in the unsedated patient. The sedated patient may exhibit only a pulse rate increase of 20 or more beats per minute for 15 or more seconds. Therefore, following the test dose, the heart should be continuously monitored for a heart rate increase. Patients on beta-blockers may not manifest changes in heart rate, but blood pressure monitoring can detect a rise in systolic blood pressure. A test dose of a short-acting amide anesthetic such as lidocaine is recommended to detect an unintentional intrathecal administration. This will be manifested within a few minutes by signs of spinal block (e.g., decreased sensation of the buttocks, paresis of the legs, or, in the sedated patient, absent knee jerk). An intravascular or subarachnoid injection is still possible even if results of the test dose are negative. The test dose itself may produce a systemic toxic reaction, high spinal or epinephrine-induced cardiovascular effects. Use in Brachial Plexus Block Ropivacaine plasma concentrations may approach the threshold for central nervous system toxicity after the administration of 300 mg of ropivacaine for brachial plexus block. Caution should be exercised when using the 300 mg dose (see OVERDOSAGE ). The dose for a major nerve block must be adjusted according to the site of administration and patient status. Supraclavicular brachial plexus blocks may be associated with a higher frequency of serious adverse reactions, regardless of the local anesthetic used. Use in Peripheral Nerve Block Major peripheral nerve blocks may result in the administration of a large volume of local anesthetic in highly vascularized areas, often close to large vessels where there is an increased risk of intravascular injection and/or rapid systemic absorption, which can lead to high plasma concentrations. Use in Head and Neck Area Small doses of local anesthetics injected into the head and neck area may produce adverse reactions similar to systemic toxicity seen with unintentional intravascular injections of larger doses. The injection procedures require the utmost care. Confusion, convulsions, respiratory depression, and/or respiratory arrest, and cardiovascular stimulation or depression have been reported. These reactions may be due to intra-arterial injection of the local anesthetic with retrograde flow to the cerebral circulation. Patients receiving these blocks should have their circulation and respiration monitored and be constantly observed. Resuscitative equipment and personnel for treating adverse reactions should be immediately available. Dosage recommendations should not be exceeded (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ). Use in Ophthalmic Surgery The use of ropivacaine hydrochloride in retrobulbar blocks for ophthalmic surgery has not been studied. Until appropriate experience is gained, the use of ropivacaine hydrochloride for such surgery is not recommended. Information for Patients When appropriate, patients should be informed in advance that they may experience temporary loss of sensation and motor activity in the anesthetized part of the body following proper administration of lumbar epidural anesthesia. Also, when appropriate, the physician should discuss other information including adverse reactions in the ropivacaine hydrochloride package insert. Drug Interactions Specific trials studying the interaction between ropivacaine and class III antiarrhythmic drugs (e.g., amiodarone) have not been performed, but caution is advised (see WARNINGS ). Ropivacaine hydrochloride should be used with caution in patients receiving other local anesthetics or agents structurally related to amide-type local anesthetics, since the toxic effects of these drugs are additive. Cytochrome P4501A2 is involved in the formation of 3-hydroxy ropivacaine, the major metabolite. In vivo, the plasma clearance of ropivacaine was reduced by 70% during coadministration of fluvoxamine (25 mg bid for 2 days), a selective and potent CYP1A2 inhibitor. Thus strong inhibitors of cytochrome P4501A2, such as fluvoxamine, given concomitantly during administration of ropivacaine hydrochloride, can interact with ropivacaine hydrochloride leading to increased ropivacaine plasma levels. Caution should be exercised when CYP1A2 inhibitors are coadministered. Possible interactions with drugs known to be metabolized by CYP1A2 via competitive inhibition such as theophylline and imipramine may also occur. Coadministration of a selective and potent inhibitor of CYP3A4, ketoconazole (100 mg bid for 2 days with ropivacaine infusion administered 1 hour after ketoconazole) caused a 15% reduction in in vivo plasma clearance of ropivacaine. Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility Long-term studies in animals of most local anesthetics, including ropivacaine, to evaluate the carcinogenic potential have not been conducted. Weak mutagenic activity was seen in the mouse lymphoma test. Mutagenicity was not noted in the other assays, demonstrating that the weak signs of in vitro activity in the mouse lymphoma test were not manifest under diverse in vivo conditions. Studies performed with ropivacaine in rats did not demonstrate an effect on fertility or general reproductive performance over 2 generations. Pregnancy Category B Reproduction toxicity studies have been performed in pregnant New Zealand white rabbits and Sprague-Dawley rats. During gestation days 6 to 18, rabbits received 1.3, 4.2, or 13 mg/kg/day subcutaneously. In rats, subcutaneous doses of 5.3, 11 and 26 mg/kg/day were administered during gestation days 6 to 15. No teratogenic effects were observed in rats and rabbits at the highest doses tested. The highest doses of 13 mg/kg/day (rabbits) and 26 mg/kg/day (rats) are approximately 1/3 of the maximum recommended human dose (epidural, 770 mg/24 hours) based on a mg/m2 basis. In 2 prenatal and postnatal studies, the female rats were dosed daily from day 15 of gestation to day 20 postpartum. The doses were 5.3, 11 and 26 mg/kg/day subcutaneously. There were no treatment-related effects on late fetal development, parturition, lactation, neonatal viability, or growth of the offspring. In another study with rats, the males were dosed daily for 9 weeks before mating and during mating. The females were dosed daily for 2 weeks before mating and then during the mating, pregnancy, and lactation, up to day 42 post coitus. At 23 mg/kg/day, an increased loss of pups was observed during the first 3 days postpartum. The effect was considered secondary to impaired maternal care due to maternal toxicity. There are no adequate or well-controlled studies in pregnant women of the effects of ropivacaine hydrochloride on the developing fetus. Ropivacaine hydrochloride should only be used during pregnancy if the benefits outweigh the risk. Teratogenicity studies in rats and rabbits did not show evidence of any adverse effects on organogenesis or early fetal development in rats (26 mg/kg sc) or rabbits (13 mg/kg). The doses used were approximately equal to total daily dose based on body surface area. There were no treatment-related effects on late fetal development, parturition, lactation, neonatal viability, or growth of the offspring in 2 perinatal and postnatal studies in rats, at dose levels equivalent to the maximum recommended human dose based on body surface area. In another study at 23 mg/kg, an increased pup loss was seen during the first 3 days postpartum, which was considered secondary to impaired maternal care due to maternal toxicity. Labor and Delivery Local anesthetics, including ropivacaine, rapidly cross the placenta, and when used for epidural block can cause varying degrees of maternal, fetal and neonatal toxicity (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and PHARMACOKINETICS ). The incidence and degree of toxicity depend upon the procedure performed, the type and amount of drug used, and the technique of drug administration. Adverse reactions in the parturient, fetus and neonate involve alterations of the central nervous system, peripheral vascular tone and cardiac function. Maternal hypotension has resulted from regional anesthesia with ropivacaine hydrochloride for obstetrical pain relief. Local anesthetics produce vasodilation by blocking sympathetic nerves. Elevating the patient’s legs and positioning her on her left side will help prevent decreases in blood pressure. The fetal heart rate also should be monitored continuously, and electronic fetal monitoring is highly advisable. Epidural anesthesia has been reported to prolong the second stage of labor by removing the patient’s reflex urge to bear down or by interfering with motor function. Spontaneous vertex delivery occurred more frequently in patients receiving ropivacaine hydrochloride than in those receiving bupivacaine. Nursing Mothers Some local anesthetic drugs are excreted in human milk and caution should be exercised when they are administered to a nursing woman. The excretion of ropivacaine or its metabolites in human milk has not been studied. Based on the milk/plasma concentration ratio in rats, the estimated daily dose to a pup will be about 4% of the dose given to the mother. Assuming that the milk/plasma concentration in humans is of the same order, the total ropivacaine hydrochloride dose to which the baby is exposed by breast-feeding is far lower than by exposure in utero in pregnant women at term (see PRECAUTIONS ). Pediatric Use The safety and efficacy of ropivacaine hydrochloride in pediatric patients have not been established. Geriatric Use Of the 2,978 subjects that were administered ropivacaine hydrochloride injection in 71 controlled and uncontrolled clinical studies, 803 patients (27%) were 65 years of age or older which includes 127 patients (4%) 75 years of age and over. Ropivacaine hydrochloride injection was found to be safe and effective in the patients in these studies. Clinical data in one published article indicate that differences in various pharmacodynamic measures were observed with increasing age. In one study, the upper level of analgesia increased with age, the maximum decrease of mean arterial pressure (MAP) declined with age during the first hour after epidural administration, and the intensity of motor blockade increased with age. This drug and its metabolites are known to be excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Elderly patients are more likely to have decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, as well as concomitant disease. Therefore, care should be taken in dose selection, starting at the low end of the dosage range, and it may be useful to monitor renal function (see PHARMACOKINETICS, Elimination ).
Adverse reactions
ADVERSE REACTIONS Reactions to ropivacaine are characteristic of those associated with other amide-type local anesthetics. A major cause of adverse reactions to this group of drugs may be associated with excessive plasma levels, which may be due to overdosage, unintentional intravascular injection or slow metabolic degradation. The reported adverse events are derived from clinical studies conducted in the U.S. and other countries. The reference drug was usually bupivacaine. The studies used a variety of premedications, sedatives, and surgical procedures of varying length. A total of 3,988 patients have been exposed to ropivacaine hydrochloride at concentrations up to 1% in clinical trials. Each patient was counted once for each type of adverse event. Incidence ≥ 5% For the indications of epidural administration in surgery, cesarean section, postoperative pain management, peripheral nerve block, and local infiltration, the following treatment-emergent adverse events were reported with an incidence of ≥5% in all clinical studies (N=3988): hypotension (37%), nausea (24.8%), vomiting (11.6%), bradycardia (9.3%), fever (9.2%), pain (8%), postoperative complications (7.1%), anemia (6.1%), paresthesia (5.6%), headache (5.1%), pruritus (5.1%), and back pain (5%). Incidence 1 to 5% Urinary retention, dizziness, rigors, hypertension, tachycardia, anxiety, oliguria, hypoesthesia, chest pain, hypokalemia, dyspnea, cramps, and urinary tract infection. Incidence in Controlled Clinical Trials The reported adverse events are derived from controlled clinical studies with ropivacaine hydrochloride (concentrations ranged from 0.125% to 1% for ropivacaine hydrochloride and 0.25% to 0.75% for bupivacaine) in the U.S. and other countries involving 3,094 patients. Table 3A and 3B list adverse events (number and percentage) that occurred in at least 1% of ropivacaine hydrochloride-treated patients in these studies. The majority of patients receiving concentrations higher than 5 mg/mL (0.5%) were treated with ropivacaine hydrochloride. Table 3A Adverse Events Reported in ≥1% of Adult Patients Receiving Regional or Local Anesthesia (Surgery, Labor, Cesarean Section, Postoperative Pain Management, Peripheral Nerve Block and Local Infiltration) Adverse Reaction Ropivacaine Hydrochloride total N=1661 Bupivacaine total N=1433 N (%) N (%) Hypotension 536 (32.3) 408 (28.5) Nausea 283 (17) 207 (14.4) Vomiting 117 (7) 88 (6.1) Bradycardia 96 (5.8) 73 (5.1) Headache 84 (5.1) 68 (4.7) Paresthesia 82 (4.9) 57 (4) Back pain 73 (4.4) 75 (5.2) Pain 71 (4.3) 71 (5) Pruritus 63 (3.8) 40 (2.8) Fever 61 (3.7) 37 (2.6) Dizziness 42 (2.5) 23 (1.6) Rigors (Chills) 42 (2.5) 24 (1.7) Postoperative complications 41 (2.5) 44 (3.1) Hypoesthesia 27 (1.6) 24 (1.7) Urinary retention 23 (1.4) 20 (1.4) Progression of labor poor/failed 23 (1.4) 22 (1.5) Anxiety 21 (1.3) 11 (0.8) Breast disorder, breast-feeding 21 (1.3) 12 (0.8) Rhinitis 18 (1.1) 13 (0.9) Table 3B Adverse Events Reported in ≥1% of Fetuses or Neonates of Mothers Who Received Regional Anesthesia (Cesarean Section and Labor Studies) Adverse Reaction Ropivacaine Hydrochloride total N=639 Bupivacaine total N=573 N (%) N (%) Fetal bradycardia 77 (12.1) 68 (11.9) Neonatal jaundice 49 (7.7) 47 (8.2) Neonatal complication-NOS 42 (6.6) 38 (6.6) Apgar score low 18 (2.8) 14 (2.4) Neonatal respiratory disorder 17 (2.7) 18 (3.1) Neonatal tachypnea 14 (2.2) 15 (2.6) Neonatal fever 13 (2) 14 (2.4) Fetal tachycardia 13 (2) 12 (2.1) Fetal distress 11 (1.7) 10 (1.7) Neonatal infection 10 (1.6) 8 (1.4) Neonatal hypoglycemia 8 (1.3) 16 (2.8) Incidence <1% The following adverse events were reported during the ropivacaine hydrochloride clinical program in more than one patient (N=3988), occurred at an overall incidence of <1%, and were considered relevant: Application Site Reactions – injection site pain Cardiovascular System – vasovagal reaction, syncope, postural hypotension, non-specific ECG abnormalities Female Reproductive – poor progression of labor, uterine atony Gastrointestinal System – fecal incontinence, tenesmus, neonatal vomiting General and Other Disorders – hypothermia, malaise, asthenia, accident and/or injury Hearing and Vestibular – tinnitus, hearing abnormalities Heart Rate and Rhythm – extrasystoles, non-specific arrhythmias, atrial fibrillation Liver and Biliary System – jaundice Metabolic Disorders – hypomagnesemia Musculoskeletal System – myalgia Myo/Endo/Pericardium – ST segment changes, myocardial infarction Nervous System – tremor, Horner’s syndrome, paresis, dyskinesia, neuropathy, vertigo, coma, convulsion, hypokinesia, hypotonia, ptosis, stupor Psychiatric Disorders – agitation, confusion, somnolence, nervousness, amnesia, hallucination, emotional lability, insomnia, nightmares Respiratory System – bronchospasm, coughing Skin Disorders – rash, urticaria Urinary System Disorders – urinary incontinence, micturition disorder Vascular – deep vein thrombosis, phlebitis, pulmonary embolism Vision – vision abnormalities For the indication epidural anesthesia for surgery, the 15 most common adverse events were compared between different concentrations of ropivacaine hydrochloride and bupivacaine. Table 4 is based on data from trials in the U.S. and other countries where ropivacaine hydrochloride was administered as an epidural anesthetic for surgery. Table 4 Common Events (Epidural Administration) Adverse Reaction Ropivacaine Hydrochloride Bupivacaine 5 mg/mL total N=256 7.5 mg/mL total N=297 10 mg/mL total N=207 5 mg/mL total N=236 7.5 mg/mL total N=174 N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) hypotension 99 (38.7) 146 (49.2) 113 (54.6) 91 (38.6) 89 (51.1) nausea 34 (13.3) 68 (22.9) 41 (17.4) 36 (20.7) bradycardia 29 (11.3) 58 (19.5) 40 (19.3) 32 (13.6) 25 (14.4) back pain 18 (7) 23 (7.7) 34 (16.4) 21 (8.9) 23 (13.2) vomiting 18 (7) 33 (11.1) 23 (11.1) 19 (8.1) 14 (8) headache 12 (4.7) 20 (6.7) 16 (7.7) 13 (5.5) 9 (5.2) fever 8 (3.1) 5 (1.7) 18 (8.7) 11 (4.7) chills 6 (2.3) 7 (2.4) 6 (2.9) 4 (1.7) 3 (1.7) urinary retention 5 (2) 8 (2.7) 10 (4.8) 10 (4.2) paresthesia 5 (2) 10 (3.4) 5 (2.4) 7 (3) pruritus 14 (4.7) 3 (1.4) 7 (4) Using data from the same studies, the number (%) of patients experiencing hypotension is displayed by patient age, drug and concentration in Table 5. In Table 6, the adverse events for ropivacaine hydrochloride are broken down by gender. Table 5 Effects of Age on Hypotension (Epidural Administration) Total N: Ropivacaine Hydrochloride = 760, Bupivacaine = 410 AGE Ropivacaine Hydrochloride Bupivacaine 5 mg/mL 7.5 mg/mL 10 mg/mL 5 mg/mL 7.5 mg/mL N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) <65 68 (32.2) 99 (43.2) 87 (51.5) 64 (33.5) 73 (48.3) ≥65 31 (68.9) 47 (69.1) 26 (68.4) 27 (60) 16 (69.6) Table 6 Most Common Adverse Events by Gender (Epidural Administration) Total N: Females = 405, Males = 355 Adverse Reaction Female Male N (%) N (%) hypotension 220 (54.3) 138 (38.9) nausea 119 (29.4) 23 (6.5) bradycardia 65 (16) 56 (15.8) vomiting 59 (14.6) 8 (2.3) back pain 41 (10.1) 23 (6.5) headache 33 (8.1) 17 (4.8) chills 18 (4.4) 5 (1.4) fever 16 (4) 3 (0.8) pruritus 16 (4) 1 (0.3) pain 12 (3) 4 (1.1) urinary retention 11 (2.7) 7 (2) dizziness 9 (2.2) 4 (1.1) hypoesthesia 8 (2) 2 (0.6) paresthesia 8 (2) 10 (2.8) Systemic Reactions The most commonly encountered acute adverse experiences that demand immediate countermeasures are related to the central nervous system and the cardiovascular system. These adverse experiences are generally dose-related and due to high plasma levels that may result from overdosage, rapid absorption from the injection site, diminished tolerance or from unintentional intravascular injection of the local anesthetic solution. In addition to systemic dose-related toxicity, unintentional subarachnoid injection of drug during the intended performance of lumbar epidural block or nerve blocks near the vertebral column (especially in the head and neck region) may result in underventilation or apnea (“Total or High Spinal”). Also, hypotension due to loss of sympathetic tone and respiratory paralysis or underventilation due to cephalad extension of the motor level of anesthesia may occur. This may lead to secondary cardiac arrest if untreated. Factors influencing plasma protein binding, such as acidosis, systemic diseases that alter protein production or competition with other drugs for protein binding sites, may diminish individual tolerance. Epidural administration of ropivacaine hydrochloride has, in some cases, as with other local anesthetics, been associated with transient increases in temperature to >38.5°C. This occurred more frequently at doses of ropivacaine hydrochloride >16 mg/h. Neurologic Reactions These are characterized by excitation and/or depression. Restlessness, anxiety, dizziness, tinnitus, blurred vision or tremors may occur, possibly proceeding to convulsions. However, excitement may be transient or absent, with depression being the first manifestation of an adverse reaction. This may quickly be followed by drowsiness merging into unconsciousness and respiratory arrest. Other central nervous system effects may be nausea, vomiting, chills, and constriction of the pupils. The incidence of convulsions associated with the use of local anesthetics varies with the route of administration and the total dose administered. In a survey of studies of epidural anesthesia, overt toxicity progressing to convulsions occurred in approximately 0.1% of local anesthetic administrations. The incidence of adverse neurological reactions associated with the use of local anesthetics may be related to the total dose and concentration of local anesthetic administered and are also dependent upon the particular drug used, the route of administration, and the physical status of the patient. Many of these observations may be related to local anesthetic techniques, with or without a contribution from the drug. During lumbar epidural block, occasional unintentional penetration of the subarachnoid space by the catheter or needle may occur. Subsequent adverse effects may depend partially on the amount of drug administered intrathecally as well as the physiological and physical effects of a dural puncture. These observations may include spinal block of varying magnitude (including high or total spinal block), hypotension secondary to spinal block, urinary retention, loss of bladder and bowel control (fecal and urinary incontinence), and loss of perineal sensation and sexual function. Signs and symptoms of subarachnoid block typically start within 2 to 3 minutes of injection. Doses of 15 and 22.5 mg of ropivacaine hydrochloride resulted in sensory levels as high as T5 and T4, respectively. Analgesia started in the sacral dermatomes in 2 to 3 minutes and extended to the T10 level in 10 to 13 minutes and lasted for approximately 2 hours. Other neurological effects following unintentional subarachnoid administration during epidural anesthesia may include persistent anesthesia, paresthesia, weakness, paralysis of the lower extremities, and loss of sphincter control; all of which may have slow, incomplete or no recovery. Headache, septic meningitis, meningismus, slowing of labor, increased incidence of forceps delivery, or cranial nerve palsies due to traction on nerves from loss of cerebrospinal fluid have been reported (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION discussion of Lumbar Epidural Block). A high spinal is characterized by paralysis of the arms, loss of consciousness, respiratory paralysis and bradycardia. Cardiovascular System Reactions High doses or unintentional intravascular injection may lead to high plasma levels and related depression of the myocardium, decreased cardiac output, heart block, hypotension, bradycardia, ventricular arrhythmias, including ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation, and possibly cardiac arrest (see WARNINGS, PRECAUTIONS, and OVERDOSAGE). Allergic Reactions Allergic type reactions are rare and may occur as a result of sensitivity to the local anesthetic (see WARNINGS). These reactions are characterized by signs such as urticaria, pruritus, erythema, angioneurotic edema (including laryngeal edema), tachycardia, sneezing, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, syncope, excessive sweating, elevated temperature, and possibly, anaphylactoid symptomatology (including severe hypotension). Cross-sensitivity among members of the amide-type local anesthetic group has been reported. The usefulness of screening for sensitivity has not been definitively established.

Usage information

Dosing and administration
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION The rapid injection of a large volume of local anesthetic solution should be avoided and fractional (incremental) doses should always be used. The smallest dose and concentration required to produce the desired result should be administered. There have been adverse event reports of chondrolysis in patients receiving intra-articular infusions of local anesthetics following arthroscopic and other surgical procedures. Ropivacaine hydrochloride injection is not approved for this use (see WARNINGS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). The dose of any local anesthetic administered varies with the anesthetic procedure, the area to be anesthetized, the vascularity of the tissues, the number of neuronal segments to be blocked, the depth of anesthesia and degree of muscle relaxation required, the duration of anesthesia desired, individual tolerance, and the physical condition of the patient. Patients in poor general condition due to aging or other compromising factors such as partial or complete heart conduction block, advanced liver disease or severe renal dysfunction require special attention although regional anesthesia is frequently indicated in these patients. To reduce the risk of potentially serious adverse reactions, attempts should be made to optimize the patient’s condition before major blocks are performed, and the dosage should be adjusted accordingly. Use an adequate test dose (3 mL to 5 mL of a short acting local anesthetic solution containing epinephrine) prior to induction of complete block. This test dose should be repeated if the patient is moved in such a fashion as to have displaced the epidural catheter. Allow adequate time for onset of anesthesia following administration of each test dose. Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit. Solutions which are discolored or which contain particulate matter should not be administered. The doses in the table are those considered to be necessary to produce a successful block and should be regarded as guidelines for use in adults. Individual variations in onset and duration occur. The figures reflect the expected average dose range needed. For other local anesthetic techniques standard current textbooks should be consulted. When prolonged blocks are used, either through continuous infusion or through repeated bolus administration, the risks of reaching a toxic plasma concentration or inducing local neural injury must be considered. Experience to date indicates that a cumulative dose of up to 770 mg ropivacaine hydrochloride injection administered over 24 hours is well tolerated in adults when used for postoperative pain management: i.e., 2016 mg. Caution should be exercised when administering ropivacaine hydrochloride injection for prolonged periods of time, e.g., >70 hours in debilitated patients. For treatment of postoperative pain, the following technique can be recommended: If regional anesthesia was not used intraoperatively, then an initial epidural block with 5 mL to 7 mL ropivacaine hydrochloride injection is induced via an epidural catheter. Analgesia is maintained with an infusion of ropivacaine hydrochloride injection, 2 mg/mL (0.2%). Clinical studies have demonstrated that infusion rates of 6 mL to 14 mL (12 mg to 28 mg) per hour provide adequate analgesia with nonprogressive motor block. With this technique a significant reduction in the need for opioids was demonstrated. Clinical experience supports the use of ropivacaine hydrochloride epidural infusions for up to 72 hours. Table 7 Dosage Recommendations *= Not Applicable † = The dose for a major nerve block must be adjusted according to site of administration and patient status. Supraclavicular brachial plexus blocks may be associated with a higher frequency of serious adverse reactions, regardless of the local anesthetic used (see PRECAUTIONS ). ‡ = Median dose of 21 mg per hour was administered by continuous infusion or by incremental injections (top-ups) over a median delivery time of 5.5 hours. § = Cumulative doses up to 770 mg of ropivacaine hydrochloride over 24 hours (intraoperative block plus postoperative infusion); Continuous epidural infusion at rates up to 28 mg per hour for 72 hours have been well tolerated in adults, i.e., 2016 mg plus surgical dose of approximately 100 mg to 150 mg as top-up. Conc. Volume mL Dose mg Onset min Duration hours mg/mL (%) SURGICAL ANESTHESIA Lumbar Epidural 5 (0.5%) 15 to 30 75 to 150 15 to 30 2 to 4 Administration 7.5 (0.75%) 15 to 25 113 to 188 10 to 20 3 to 5 Surgery 10 (1%) 15 to 20 150 to 200 10 to 20 4 to 6 Lumbar Epidural 5 (0.5%) 20 to 30 100 to 150 15 to 25 2 to 4 Administration 7.5 (0.75%) 15 to 20 113 to 150 10 to 20 3 to 5 Cesarean Section Thoracic Epidural 5 (0.5%) 5 to 15 25 to 75 10 to 20 n/a* Administration Surgery 7.5 (0.75%) 5 to 15 38 to 113 10 to 20 n/a* Major Nerve Block† 5 (0.5%) 35 to 50 175 to 250 15 to 30 5 to 8 (e.g., brachial plexus block) 7.5 (0.75%) 10 to 40 75 to 300 10 to 25 6 to 10 Field Block 5 (0.5%) 1 to 40 5 to 200 1 to 15 2 to 6 (e.g., minor nerve blocks and infiltration) LABOR PAIN MANAGEMENT Lumbar Epidural Administration Initial Dose 2 (0.2%) 10 to 20 20 to 40 10 to 15 0.5 to 1.5 Continuous infusion‡ 2 (0.2%) 6 to 14 mL/h 12 to 28 mg/h n/a* n/a* Incremental injections (top-up)‡ 2 (0.2%) 10 to 15 mL/h 20 to 30 mg/h n/a* n/a* POSTOPERATIVE PAIN MANAGEMENT Lumbar Epidural Administration Continuous infusion§ 2 (0.2%) 6 to 14 mL/h 12 to 28 mg/h n/a* n/a* Thoracic Epidural Administration 2 (0.2%) 6 to 14 mL/h 12 to 28 mg/h n/a* n/a* Continuous infusion§ Infiltration 2 (0.2%) 1 to 100 2 to 200 1 to 5 2 to 6 (e.g., minor nerve block) 5 (0.5%) 1 to 40 5 to 200 1 to 5 2 to 6

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Category Value
Authorisation number ANDA205612
Agency product number V910P86109
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 55150-200,55150-201,55150-195,55150-196,55150-197,55150-198,55150-199
Date Last Revised 13-06-2017
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
Marketing authorisation holder AuroMedics Pharma LLC