Data from FDA - Curated by EPG Health - Last updated 22 November 2019

Indication(s)

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE RISPERDAL ® is an atypical antipsychotic indicated for: Treatment of schizophrenia ( 1.1) As monotherapy or adjunctive therapy with lithium or valproate, for the treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes associated with Bipolar I Disorder ( 1.2) Treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder ( 1.3) 1.1 Schizophrenia RISPERDAL ® (risperidone) is indicated for the treatment of schizophrenia. Efficacy was established in 4 short-term trials in adults, 2 short-term trials in adolescents (ages 13 to 17 years), and one long-term maintenance trial in adults [see Clinical Studies (14.1)] . 1.2 Bipolar Mania Monotherapy RISPERDAL ® is indicated for the treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes associated with Bipolar I Disorder. Efficacy was established in 2 short-term trials in adults and one short-term trial in children and adolescents (ages 10 to 17 years) [see Clinical Studies (14.2)] . Adjunctive Therapy RISPERDAL ® adjunctive therapy with lithium or valproate is indicated for the treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes associated with Bipolar I Disorder. Efficacy was established in one short-term trial in adults [see Clinical Studies (14.3)] . 1.3 Irritability Associated with Autistic Disorder RISPERDAL ® is indicated for the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder, including symptoms of aggression towards others, deliberate self-injuriousness, temper tantrums, and quickly changing moods. Efficacy was established in 3 short-term trials in children and adolescents (ages 5 to 17 years) [see Clinical Studies (14.4)] .

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contraindications
4 CONTRAINDICATIONS RISPERDAL ® is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to either risperidone or paliperidone, or to any of the excipients in the RISPERDAL ® formulation. Hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylactic reactions and angioedema, have been reported in patients treated with risperidone and in patients treated with paliperidone. Paliperidone is a metabolite of risperidone. Known hypersensitivity to risperidone, paliperidone, or to any excipients in RISPERDAL ®. ( 4)
Adverse reactions
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS The following are discussed in more detail in other sections of the labeling: Increased mortality in elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis [see Boxed Warning and Warnings and Precautions (5.1)] Cerebrovascular adverse events, including stroke, in elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)] Neuroleptic malignant syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)] Tardive dyskinesia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)] Metabolic Changes (Hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus, Dyslipidemia, and Weight Gain) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)] Hyperprolactinemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)] Orthostatic hypotension [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)] Falls [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)] Leukopenia, neutropenia, and agranulocytosis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)] Potential for cognitive and motor impairment [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10)] Seizures [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11)] Dysphagia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.12)] Priapism [see Warnings and Precautions (5.13)] Disruption of body temperature regulation [see Warnings and Precautions (5.14)] Patients with Phenylketonuria [see Warnings and Precautions (5.15)]. The most common adverse reactions in clinical trials (>5% and twice placebo) were parkinsonism, akathisia, dystonia, tremor, sedation, dizziness, anxiety, blurred vision, nausea, vomiting, upper abdominal pain, stomach discomfort, dyspepsia, diarrhea, salivary hypersecretion, constipation, dry mouth, increased appetite, increased weight, fatigue, rash, nasal congestion, upper respiratory tract infection, nasopharyngitis, and pharyngolaryngeal pain. The most common adverse reactions that were associated with discontinuation from clinical trials (causing discontinuation in >1% of adults and/or >2% of pediatrics) were nausea, somnolence, sedation, vomiting, dizziness, and akathisia [see Adverse Reactions, Discontinuations Due to Adverse Reactions (6.1)] . The data described in this section are derived from a clinical trial database consisting of 9803 adult and pediatric patients exposed to one or more doses of RISPERDAL ® for the treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar mania, autistic disorder, and other psychiatric disorders in pediatrics and elderly patients with dementia. Of these 9803 patients, 2687 were patients who received RISPERDAL ® while participating in double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. The conditions and duration of treatment with RISPERDAL ® varied greatly and included (in overlapping categories) double-blind, fixed- and flexible-dose, placebo- or active-controlled studies and open-label phases of studies, inpatients and outpatients, and short-term (up to 12 weeks) and longer-term (up to 3 years) exposures. Safety was assessed by collecting adverse events and performing physical examinations, vital signs, body weights, laboratory analyses, and ECGs. The most common adverse reactions in clinical trials (≥5% and twice placebo) were parkinsonism, akathisia, dystonia, tremor, sedation, dizziness, anxiety, blurred vision, nausea, vomiting, upper abdominal pain, stomach discomfort, dyspepsia, diarrhea, salivary hypersecretion, constipation, dry mouth, increased appetite, increased weight, fatigue, rash, nasal congestion, upper respiratory tract infection, nasopharyngitis, and pharyngolaryngeal pain. ( 6) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc. at 1-800-JANSSEN (1-800-526-7736) or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice. Commonly-Observed Adverse Reactions in Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials – Schizophrenia Adult Patients with Schizophrenia Table 8 lists the adverse reactions reported in 2% or more of RISPERDAL ®-treated adult patients with schizophrenia in three 4- to 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Table 8. Adverse Reactions in ≥2% of RISPERDAL ®-Treated Adult Patients (and greater than placebo) with Schizophrenia in Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trials Percentage of Patients Reporting Reaction RISPERDAL ® System/Organ Class Adverse Reaction 2–8 mg per day (N=366) >8–16 mg per day (N=198) Placebo (N=225) Cardiac Disorders Tachycardia 1 3 0 Eye Disorders Vision blurred 3 1 1 Gastrointestinal Disorders Nausea 9 4 4 Constipation 8 9 6 Dyspepsia 8 6 5 Dry mouth 4 0 1 Abdominal discomfort 3 1 1 Salivary hypersecretion 2 1 <1 Diarrhea 2 1 1 General Disorders Fatigue 3 1 0 Chest pain 2 2 1 Asthenia 2 1 <1 Infections and Infestations Nasopharyngitis 3 4 3 Upper respiratory tract infection 2 3 1 Sinusitis 1 2 1 Urinary tract infection 1 3 0 Investigations Blood creatine phosphokinase increased 1 2 <1 Heart rate increased <1 2 0 Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders Back pain 4 1 1 Arthralgia 2 3 <1 Pain in extremity 2 1 1 Nervous System Disorders Parkinsonism Parkinsonism includes extrapyramidal disorder, musculoskeletal stiffness, parkinsonism, cogwheel rigidity, akinesia, bradykinesia, hypokinesia, masked facies, muscle rigidity, and Parkinson's disease. Akathisia includes akathisia and restlessness. Dystonia includes dystonia, muscle spasms, muscle contractions involuntary, muscle contracture, oculogyration, tongue paralysis. Tremor includes tremor and parkinsonian rest tremor. 14 17 8 Akathisia 10 10 3 Sedation 10 5 2 Dizziness 7 4 2 Dystonia 3 4 2 Tremor 2 3 1 Dizziness postural 2 0 0 Psychiatric Disorders Insomnia 32 25 27 Anxiety 16 11 11 Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders Nasal congestion 4 6 2 Dyspnea 1 2 0 Epistaxis <1 2 0 Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders Rash 1 4 1 Dry skin 1 3 0 Vascular Disorders Orthostatic hypotension 2 1 0 Pediatric Patients with Schizophrenia Table 9 lists the adverse reactions reported in 5% or more of RISPERDAL ®-treated pediatric patients with schizophrenia in a 6-week double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Table 9. Adverse Reactions in ≥5% of RISPERDAL ®-Treated Pediatric Patients (and greater than placebo) with Schizophrenia in a Double-Blind Trial Percentage of Patients Reporting Reaction RISPERDAL ® System/Organ Class Adverse Reaction 1–3 mg per day (N=55) 4–6 mg per day (N=51) Placebo (N=54) Gastrointestinal Disorders Salivary hypersecretion 0 10 2 Nervous System Disorders Sedation 24 12 4 Parkinsonism Parkinsonism includes extrapyramidal disorder, muscle rigidity, musculoskeletal stiffness, and hypokinesia. Akathisia includes akathisia and restlessness. Dystonia includes dystonia and oculogyration. 16 28 11 Tremor 11 10 6 Akathisia 9 10 4 Dizziness 7 14 2 Dystonia 2 6 0 Psychiatric Disorders Anxiety 7 6 0 Commonly-Observed Adverse Reactions in Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials – Bipolar Mania Adult Patients with Bipolar Mania Table 10 lists the adverse reactions reported in 2% or more of RISPERDAL ®-treated adult patients with bipolar mania in four 3-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled monotherapy trials. Table 10. Adverse Reactions in ≥2% of RISPERDAL ®-Treated Adult Patients (and greater than placebo) with Bipolar Mania in Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Monotherapy Trials Percentage of Patients Reporting Reaction System/Organ Class Adverse Reaction RISPERDAL ® 1–6 mg per day (N=448) Placebo (N=424) Eye Disorders Vision blurred 2 1 Gastrointestinal Disorders Nausea 5 2 Diarrhea 3 2 Salivary hypersecretion 3 1 Stomach discomfort 2 <1 General Disorders Fatigue 2 1 Nervous System Disorders Parkinsonism Parkinsonism includes extrapyramidal disorder, parkinsonism, musculoskeletal stiffness, hypokinesia, muscle rigidity, muscle tightness, bradykinesia, cogwheel rigidity. Akathisia includes akathisia and restlessness. Tremor includes tremor and parkinsonian rest tremor. Dystonia includes dystonia, muscle spasms, oculogyration, torticollis. 25 9 Sedation 11 4 Akathisia 9 3 Tremor 6 3 Dizziness 6 5 Dystonia 5 1 Lethargy 2 1 Table 11 lists the adverse reactions reported in 2% or more of RISPERDAL ®-treated adult patients with bipolar mania in two 3-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled adjuvant therapy trials. Table 11. Adverse Reactions in ≥2% of RISPERDAL ®-Treated Adult Patients (and greater than placebo) with Bipolar Mania in Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Adjunctive Therapy Trials Percentage of Patients Reporting Reaction System/Organ Class RISPERDAL ® + Mood Stabilizer Placebo + Mood Stabilizer Adverse Reaction (N=127) (N=126) Cardiac Disorders Palpitations 2 0 Gastrointestinal Disorders Dyspepsia 9 8 Nausea 6 4 Diarrhea 6 4 Salivary hypersecretion 2 0 General Disorders Chest pain 2 1 Infections and Infestations Urinary tract infection 2 1 Nervous System Disorders Parkinsonism Parkinsonism includes extrapyramidal disorder, hypokinesia and bradykinesia. Akathisia includes hyperkinesia and akathisia. 14 4 Sedation 9 4 Akathisia 8 0 Dizziness 7 2 Tremor 6 2 Lethargy 2 1 Psychiatric Disorders Anxiety 3 2 Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders Pharyngolaryngeal pain 5 2 Cough 2 0 Pediatric Patients with Bipolar Mania Table 12 lists the adverse reactions reported in 5% or more of RISPERDAL ®-treated pediatric patients with bipolar mania in a 3-week double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Table 12. Adverse Reactions in ≥5% of RISPERDAL ®-Treated Pediatric Patients (and greater than placebo) with Bipolar Mania in Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trials Percentage of Patients Reporting Reaction RISPERDAL ® System/Organ Class Adverse Reaction 0.5–2.5 mg per day (N=50) 3–6 mg per day (N=61) Placebo (N=58) Eye Disorders Vision blurred 4 7 0 Gastrointestinal Disorders Abdominal pain upper 16 13 5 Nausea 16 13 7 Vomiting 10 10 5 Diarrhea 8 7 2 Dyspepsia 10 3 2 Stomach discomfort 6 0 2 General Disorders Fatigue 18 30 3 Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders Increased appetite 4 7 2 Nervous System Disorders Sedation 42 56 19 Dizziness 16 13 5 Parkinsonism Parkinsonism includes musculoskeletal stiffness, extrapyramidal disorder, bradykinesia, and nuchal rigidity. Dystonia includes dystonia, laryngospasm, and muscle spasms. Akathisia includes restlessness and akathisia. 6 12 3 Dystonia 6 5 0 Akathisia 0 8 2 Psychiatric Disorders Anxiety 0 8 3 Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders Pharyngolaryngeal pain 10 3 5 Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders Rash 0 7 2 Commonly-Observed Adverse Reactions in Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials - Autistic Disorder Table 13 lists the adverse reactions reported in 5% or more of RISPERDAL ®-treated pediatric patients treated for irritability associated with autistic disorder in two 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials and one 6-week double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Table 13. Adverse Reactions in ≥5% of RISPERDAL ®-Treated Pediatric Patients (and greater than placebo) Treated for Irritability Associated with Autistic Disorder in Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trials Percentage of Patients Reporting Reaction System/Organ Class RISPERDAL ® 0.5–4.0 mg/day Placebo Adverse Reaction (N=107) (N=115) Gastrointestinal Disorders Vomiting 20 17 Constipation 17 6 Dry mouth 10 4 Nausea 8 5 Salivary hypersecretion 7 1 General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions Fatigue 31 9 Pyrexia 16 13 Thirst 7 4 Infections and Infestations Nasopharyngitis 19 9 Rhinitis 9 7 Upper respiratory tract infection 8 3 Investigations Weight increased 8 2 Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders Increased appetite 44 15 Nervous System Disorders Sedation 63 15 Drooling 12 4 Headache 12 10 Tremor 8 1 Dizziness 8 2 Parkinsonism Parkinsonism includes musculoskeletal stiffness, extrapyramidal disorder, muscle rigidity, cogwheel rigidity, and muscle tightness. 8 1 Renal and Urinary Disorders Enuresis 16 10 Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders Cough 17 12 Rhinorrhea 12 10 Nasal congestion 10 4 Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders Rash 8 5 Other Adverse Reactions Observed During the Clinical Trial Evaluation of Risperidone The following additional adverse reactions occurred across all placebo-controlled, active-controlled, and open-label studies of RISPERDAL ® in adults and pediatric patients. Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders: anemia, granulocytopenia, neutropenia Cardiac Disorders: sinus bradycardia, sinus tachycardia, atrioventricular block first degree, bundle branch block left, bundle branch block right, atrioventricular block Ear and Labyrinth Disorders: ear pain, tinnitus Endocrine Disorders: hyperprolactinemia Eye Disorders: ocular hyperemia, eye discharge, conjunctivitis, eye rolling, eyelid edema, eye swelling, eyelid margin crusting, dry eye, lacrimation increased, photophobia, glaucoma, visual acuity reduced Gastrointestinal Disorders: dysphagia, fecaloma, fecal incontinence, gastritis, lip swelling, cheilitis, aptyalism General Disorders: edema peripheral, thirst, gait disturbance, influenza-like illness, pitting edema, edema, chills, sluggishness, malaise, chest discomfort, face edema, discomfort, generalized edema, drug withdrawal syndrome, peripheral coldness, feeling abnormal Immune System Disorders: drug hypersensitivity Infections and Infestations: pneumonia, influenza, ear infection, viral infection, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, bronchitis, eye infection, localized infection, cystitis, cellulitis, otitis media, onychomycosis, acarodermatitis, bronchopneumonia, respiratory tract infection, tracheobronchitis, otitis media chronic Investigations: body temperature increased, blood prolactin increased, alanine aminotransferase increased, electrocardiogram abnormal, eosinophil count increased, white blood cell count decreased, blood glucose increased, hemoglobin decreased, hematocrit decreased, body temperature decreased, blood pressure decreased, transaminases increased Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders: decreased appetite, polydipsia, anorexia Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders: joint stiffness, joint swelling, musculoskeletal chest pain, posture abnormal, myalgia, neck pain, muscular weakness, rhabdomyolysis Nervous System Disorders: balance disorder, disturbance in attention, dysarthria, unresponsive to stimuli, depressed level of consciousness, movement disorder, transient ischemic attack, coordination abnormal, cerebrovascular accident, speech disorder, syncope, loss of consciousness, hypoesthesia, tardive dyskinesia, dyskinesia, cerebral ischemia, cerebrovascular disorder, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, diabetic coma, head titubation Psychiatric Disorders: agitation, blunted affect, confusional state, middle insomnia, nervousness, sleep disorder, listlessness, libido decreased, and anorgasmia Renal and Urinary Disorders: enuresis, dysuria, pollakiuria, urinary incontinence Reproductive System and Breast Disorders: menstruation irregular, amenorrhea, gynecomastia, galactorrhea, vaginal discharge, menstrual disorder, erectile dysfunction, retrograde ejaculation, ejaculation disorder, sexual dysfunction, breast enlargement Respiratory, Thoracic, and Mediastinal Disorders: wheezing, pneumonia aspiration, sinus congestion, dysphonia, productive cough, pulmonary congestion, respiratory tract congestion, rales, respiratory disorder, hyperventilation, nasal edema Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: erythema, skin discoloration, skin lesion, pruritus, skin disorder, rash erythematous, rash papular, rash generalized, rash maculopapular, acne, hyperkeratosis, seborrheic dermatitis Vascular Disorders: hypotension, flushing Additional Adverse Reactions Reported with RISPERDAL CONSTA ® The following is a list of additional adverse reactions that have been reported during the premarketing evaluation of RISPERDAL CONSTA ®, regardless of frequency of occurrence: Cardiac Disorders: bradycardia Ear and Labyrinth Disorders: vertigo Eye Disorders: blepharospasm Gastrointestinal Disorders: toothache, tongue spasm General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions: pain Infections and Infestations: lower respiratory tract infection, infection, gastroenteritis, subcutaneous abscess Injury and Poisoning: fall Investigations: weight decreased, gamma-glutamyltransferase increased, hepatic enzyme increased Musculoskeletal, Connective Tissue, and Bone Disorders: buttock pain Nervous System Disorders: convulsion, paresthesia Psychiatric Disorders: depression Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: eczema Vascular Disorders: hypertension Discontinuations Due to Adverse Reactions Schizophrenia - Adults Approximately 7% (39/564) of RISPERDAL ®-treated patients in double-blind, placebo-controlled trials discontinued treatment due to an adverse reaction, compared with 4% (10/225) who were receiving placebo. The adverse reactions associated with discontinuation in 2 or more RISPERDAL ®-treated patients were: Table 14. Adverse Reactions Associated With Discontinuation in 2 or More RISPERDAL ®-Treated Adult Patients in Schizophrenia Trials RISPERDAL ® Adverse Reaction 2–8 mg/day (N=366) >8–16 mg/day (N=198) Placebo (N=225) Dizziness 1.4% 1.0% 0% Nausea 1.4% 0% 0% Vomiting 0.8% 0% 0% Parkinsonism 0.8% 0% 0% Somnolence 0.8% 0% 0% Dystonia 0.5% 0% 0% Agitation 0.5% 0% 0% Abdominal pain 0.5% 0% 0% Orthostatic hypotension 0.3% 0.5% 0% Akathisia 0.3% 2.0% 0% Discontinuation for extrapyramidal symptoms (including Parkinsonism, akathisia, dystonia, and tardive dyskinesia) was 1% in placebo-treated patients, and 3.4% in active control-treated patients in a double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled trial. Schizophrenia - Pediatrics Approximately 7% (7/106), of RISPERDAL ®-treated patients discontinued treatment due to an adverse reaction in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, compared with 4% (2/54) placebo-treated patients. The adverse reactions associated with discontinuation for at least one RISPERDAL ®-treated patient were dizziness (2%), somnolence (1%), sedation (1%), lethargy (1%), anxiety (1%), balance disorder (1%), hypotension (1%), and palpitation (1%). Bipolar Mania - Adults In double-blind, placebo-controlled trials with RISPERDAL ® as monotherapy, approximately 6% (25/448) of RISPERDAL ®-treated patients discontinued treatment due to an adverse event, compared with approximately 5% (19/424) of placebo-treated patients. The adverse reactions associated with discontinuation in RISPERDAL ®-treated patients were: Table 15. Adverse Reactions Associated With Discontinuation in 2 or More RISPERDAL ®-Treated Adult Patients in Bipolar Mania Clinical Trials Adverse Reaction RISPERDAL ® 1–6 mg/day (N=448) Placebo (N=424) Parkinsonism 0.4% 0% Lethargy 0.2% 0% Dizziness 0.2% 0% Alanine aminotransferase increased 0.2% 0.2% Aspartate aminotransferase increased 0.2% 0.2% Bipolar Mania - Pediatrics In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial 12% (13/111) of RISPERDAL ®-treated patients discontinued due to an adverse reaction, compared with 7% (4/58) of placebo-treated patients. The adverse reactions associated with discontinuation in more than one RISPERDAL ®-treated pediatric patient were nausea (3%), somnolence (2%), sedation (2%), and vomiting (2%). Autistic Disorder - Pediatrics In the two 8-week, placebo-controlled trials in pediatric patients treated for irritability associated with autistic disorder (n=156), one RISPERDAL ®-treated patient discontinued due to an adverse reaction (Parkinsonism), and one placebo-treated patient discontinued due to an adverse event. Dose Dependency of Adverse Reactions in Clinical Trials Extrapyramidal Symptoms Data from two fixed-dose trials in adults with schizophrenia provided evidence of dose-relatedness for extrapyramidal symptoms associated with RISPERDAL ® treatment. Two methods were used to measure extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) in an 8-week trial comparing 4 fixed doses of RISPERDAL ® (2, 6, 10, and 16 mg/day), including (1) a Parkinsonism score (mean change from baseline) from the Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale, and (2) incidence of spontaneous complaints of EPS: Table 16. Dose Groups Placebo RISPERDAL ® 2 mg RISPERDAL ® 6 mg RISPERDAL ® 10 mg RISPERDAL ® 16 mg Parkinsonism 1.2 0.9 1.8 2.4 2.6 EPS Incidence 13% 17% 21% 21% 35% Similar methods were used to measure extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) in an 8-week trial comparing 5 fixed doses of RISPERDAL ® (1, 4, 8, 12, and 16 mg/day): Table 17. Dose Groups RISPERDAL ® 1 mg RISPERDAL ® 4 mg RISPERDAL ® 8 mg RISPERDAL ® 12 mg RISPERDAL ® 16 mg Parkinsonism 0.6 1.7 2.4 2.9 4.1 EPS Incidence 7% 12% 17% 18% 20% Dystonia Class Effect: Symptoms of dystonia, prolonged abnormal contractions of muscle groups, may occur in susceptible individuals during the first few days of treatment. Dystonic symptoms include: spasm of the neck muscles, sometimes progressing to tightness of the throat, swallowing difficulty, difficulty breathing, and/or protrusion of the tongue. While these symptoms can occur at low doses, they occur more frequently and with greater severity with high potency and at higher doses of first generation antipsychotic drugs. An elevated risk of acute dystonia is observed in males and younger age groups. Other Adverse Reactions Adverse event data elicited by a checklist for side effects from a large study comparing 5 fixed doses of RISPERDAL ® (1, 4, 8, 12, and 16 mg/day) were explored for dose-relatedness of adverse events. A Cochran-Armitage Test for trend in these data revealed a positive trend (p<0.05) for the following adverse reactions: somnolence, vision abnormal, dizziness, palpitations, weight increase, erectile dysfunction, ejaculation disorder, sexual function abnormal, fatigue, and skin discoloration. Changes in Body Weight Weight gain was observed in short-term, controlled trials and longer-term uncontrolled studies in adult and pediatric patients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5), Adverse Reactions (6), and Use in Specific Populations (8.4)]. Changes in ECG Parameters Between-group comparisons for pooled placebo-controlled trials in adults revealed no statistically significant differences between risperidone and placebo in mean changes from baseline in ECG parameters, including QT, QTc, and PR intervals, and heart rate. When all RISPERDAL ® doses were pooled from randomized controlled trials in several indications, there was a mean increase in heart rate of 1 beat per minute compared to no change for placebo patients. In short-term schizophrenia trials, higher doses of risperidone (8–16 mg/day) were associated with a higher mean increase in heart rate compared to placebo (4–6 beats per minute). In pooled placebo-controlled acute mania trials in adults, there were small decreases in mean heart rate, similar among all treatment groups. In the two placebo-controlled trials in children and adolescents with autistic disorder (aged 5 – 16 years) mean changes in heart rate were an increase of 8.4 beats per minute in the RISPERDAL ® groups and 6.5 beats per minute in the placebo group. There were no other notable ECG changes. In a placebo-controlled acute mania trial in children and adolescents (aged 10 – 17 years), there were no significant changes in ECG parameters, other than the effect of RISPERDAL ® to transiently increase pulse rate (< 6 beats per minute). In two controlled schizophrenia trials in adolescents (aged 13 – 17 years), there were no clinically meaningful changes in ECG parameters including corrected QT intervals between treatment groups or within treatment groups over time. 6.2 Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of risperidone. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. These adverse reactions include: alopecia, anaphylactic reaction, angioedema, atrial fibrillation, cardiopulmonary arrest, diabetic ketoacidosis in patients with impaired glucose metabolism, dysgeusia, hypoglycemia, hypothermia, ileus, inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, intestinal obstruction, jaundice, mania, pancreatitis, pituitary adenoma, precocious puberty, pulmonary embolism, QT prolongation, sleep apnea syndrome, somnambulism, sudden death, thrombocytopenia, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, urinary retention, and water intoxication.

Usage information

Dosing and administration
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Table 1. Recommended Daily Dosage by Indication Initial Dose Titration (Increments) Target Dose Effective Dose Range Schizophrenia: adults (2.1) 2 mg 1 to 2 mg 4 to 8 mg 4 to 16 mg Schizophrenia: adolescents (2.2) 0.5 mg 0.5 to 1 mg 3 mg 1 to 6 mg Bipolar mania: adults (2.2) 2 to 3 mg 1 mg 1 to 6 mg 1 to 6 mg Bipolar mania: children and adolescents (2.2) 0.5 mg 0.5 to 1 mg 1 to 2.5 mg 1 to 6 mg Irritability in autistic disorder (2.3) 0.25 mg Can increase to 0.5 mg by Day 4: (body weight less than 20 kg) 0.5 mg Can increase to 1 mg by Day 4: (body weight greater than or equal to 20 kg) After Day 4, at intervals of > 2 weeks: 0.25 mg (body weight less than 20 kg) 0.5 mg (body weight greater than or equal to 20 kg) 0.5 mg: (body weight less than 20 kg) 1 mg: (body weight greater than or equal to 20 kg) 0.5 to 3 mg Severe Renal and Hepatic Impairment in Adults: use a lower starting dose of 0.5 mg twice daily. May increase to dosages above 1.5 mg twice daily at intervals of one week or longer. Recommended daily dosage: Initial Dose Target Dose Effective Dose Range Schizophrenia: adults ( 2.1) 2 mg 4 to 8 mg 4 to 16 mg Schizophrenia: adolescents ( 2.1) 0.5 mg 3 mg 1 to 6 mg Bipolar mania: Adults ( 2.2) 2 to 3 mg 1 to 6 mg 1 to 6 mg Bipolar mania: in children and adolescents ( 2.2) 0.5 mg 1 to 2.5 mg 1 to 6 mg Irritability associated with autistic disorder ( 2.3) 0.25 mg (Weight < 20 kg) 0.5 mg (Weight ≥20 kg) 0.5 mg (<20 kg) 1 mg (≥20 kg) 0.5 to 3 mg Severe Renal or Hepatic Impairment in Adults: Use a lower starting dose of 0.5 mg twice daily. May increase to dosages above 1.5 mg twice daily at intervals of at least one week. ( 2.4) Oral Solution: Can be administered directly from calibrated pipette or mixed with beverage (water, coffee, orange juice, or low-fat milk). ( 2.6) M-TAB Orally Disintegrating Tablets: Open the blister only when ready to administer, and immediately place tablet on the tongue. Can be swallowed with or without liquid. ( 2.7) 2.1 Schizophrenia Adults Usual Initial Dose RISPERDAL ® can be administered once or twice daily. Initial dosing is 2 mg per day. May increase the dose at intervals of 24 hours or greater, in increments of 1 to 2 mg per day, as tolerated, to a recommended dose of 4 to 8 mg per day. In some patients, slower titration may be appropriate. Efficacy has been demonstrated in a range of 4 mg to 16 mg per day. However, doses above 6 mg per day for twice daily dosing were not demonstrated to be more efficacious than lower doses, were associated with more extrapyramidal symptoms and other adverse effects, and are generally not recommended. In a single study supporting once-daily dosing, the efficacy results were generally stronger for 8 mg than for 4 mg. The safety of doses above 16 mg per day has not been evaluated in clinical trials [see Clinical Studies (14.1)] . Adolescents The initial dose is 0.5 mg once daily, administered as a single-daily dose in the morning or evening. The dose may be adjusted at intervals of 24 hours or greater, in increments of 0.5 mg or 1 mg per day, as tolerated, to a recommended dose of 3 mg per day. Although efficacy has been demonstrated in studies of adolescent patients with schizophrenia at doses between 1 mg to 6 mg per day, no additional benefit was observed above 3 mg per day, and higher doses were associated with more adverse events. Doses higher than 6 mg per day have not been studied. Patients experiencing persistent somnolence may benefit from administering half the daily dose twice daily. Maintenance Therapy While it is unknown how long a patient with schizophrenia should remain on RISPERDAL ®, the effectiveness of RISPERDAL ® 2 mg per day to 8 mg per day at delaying relapse was demonstrated in a controlled trial in adult patients who had been clinically stable for at least 4 weeks and were then followed for a period of 1 to 2 years [see Clinical Studies (14.1)] . Both adult and adolescent patients who respond acutely should generally be maintained on their effective dose beyond the acute episode. Patients should be periodically reassessed to determine the need for maintenance treatment. Reinitiation of Treatment in Patients Previously Discontinued Although there are no data to specifically address reinitiation of treatment, it is recommended that after an interval off RISPERDAL ®, the initial titration schedule should be followed. Switching From Other Antipsychotics There are no systematically collected data to specifically address switching schizophrenic patients from other antipsychotics to RISPERDAL ®, or treating patients with concomitant antipsychotics. 2.2 Bipolar Mania Usual Dose Adults The initial dose range is 2 mg to 3 mg per day. The dose may be adjusted at intervals of 24 hours or greater, in increments of 1 mg per day. The effective dose range is 1 mg to 6 mg per day, as studied in the short-term, placebo-controlled trials. In these trials, short-term (3 week) anti-manic efficacy was demonstrated in a flexible dosage range of 1 mg to 6 mg per day [see Clinical Studies (14.2 , 14.3)] . RISPERDAL ® doses higher than 6 mg per day were not studied. Pediatrics The initial dose is 0.5 mg once daily, administered as a single-daily dose in the morning or evening. The dose may be adjusted at intervals of 24 hours or greater, in increments of 0.5 mg or 1 mg per day, as tolerated, to the recommended target dose of 1 mg to 2.5 mg per day. Although efficacy has been demonstrated in studies of pediatric patients with bipolar mania at doses between 0.5 mg and 6 mg per day, no additional benefit was observed above 2.5 mg per day, and higher doses were associated with more adverse events. Doses higher than 6 mg per day have not been studied. Patients experiencing persistent somnolence may benefit from administering half the daily dose twice daily. Maintenance Therapy There is no body of evidence available from controlled trials to guide a clinician in the longer-term management of a patient who improves during treatment of an acute manic episode with RISPERDAL ®. While it is generally agreed that pharmacological treatment beyond an acute response in mania is desirable, both for maintenance of the initial response and for prevention of new manic episodes, there are no systematically obtained data to support the use of RISPERDAL ® in such longer-term treatment (i.e., beyond 3 weeks). The physician who elects to use RISPERDAL ® for extended periods should periodically re-evaluate the long-term risks and benefits of the drug for the individual patient. 2.3 Irritability Associated with Autistic Disorder – Pediatrics (Children and Adolescents) The dosage of RISPERDAL ® should be individualized according to the response and tolerability of the patient. The total daily dose of RISPERDAL ® can be administered once daily, or half the total daily dose can be administered twice daily. For patients with body weight less than 20 kg, initiate dosing at 0.25 mg per day. For patients with body weight greater than or equal to 20 kg, initiate dosing at 0.5 mg per day. After a minimum of four days, the dose may be increased to the recommended dose of 0.5 mg per day for patients less than 20 kg and 1.0 mg per day for patients greater than or equal to 20 kg. Maintain this dose for a minimum of 14 days. In patients not achieving sufficient clinical response, the dose may be increased at intervals of 2 weeks or greater, in increments of 0.25 mg per day for patients less than 20 kg, or increments of 0.5 mg per day for patients greater than or equal to 20 kg. The effective dose range is 0.5 mg to 3 mg per day. No dosing data are available for children who weigh less than 15 kg. Once sufficient clinical response has been achieved and maintained, consider gradually lowering the dose to achieve the optimal balance of efficacy and safety. The physician who elects to use RISPERDAL ® for extended periods should periodically re-evaluate the long-term risks and benefits of the drug for the individual patient. Patients experiencing persistent somnolence may benefit from a once-daily dose administered at bedtime or administering half the daily dose twice daily, or a reduction of the dose. 2.4 Dosing in Patients with Severe Renal or Hepatic Impairment For patients with severe renal impairment (CLcr < 30 mL/min) or hepatic impairment (10–15 points on Child Pugh System), the initial starting dose is 0.5 mg twice daily. The dose may be increased in increments of 0.5 mg or less, administered twice daily. For doses above 1.5 mg twice daily, increase in intervals of one week or greater [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6 and 8.7)]. 2.5 Dose Adjustments for Specific Drug Interactions When RISPERDAL ® is co-administered with enzyme inducers (e.g., carbamazepine), the dose of RISPERDAL ® should be increased up to double the patient's usual dose. It may be necessary to decrease the RISPERDAL ® dose when enzyme inducers such as carbamazepine are discontinued [see Drug Interactions (7.1)] . Similar effect may be expected with co-administration of RISPERDAL ® with other enzyme inducers (e.g., phenytoin, rifampin, and phenobarbital). When fluoxetine or paroxetine is co-administered with RISPERDAL ®, the dose of RISPERDAL ® should be reduced. The RISPERDAL ® dose should not exceed 8 mg per day in adults when co-administered with these drugs. When initiating therapy, RISPERDAL ® should be titrated slowly. It may be necessary to increase the RISPERDAL ® dose when enzyme inhibitors such as fluoxetine or paroxetine are discontinued [see Drug Interactions (7.1)] . 2.6 Administration of RISPERDAL ® Oral Solution RISPERDAL ® Oral Solution can be administered directly from the calibrated pipette, or can be mixed with a beverage prior to administration. RISPERDAL ® Oral Solution is compatible in the following beverages: water, coffee, orange juice, and low-fat milk; it is NOT compatible with either cola or tea. 2.7 Directions for Use of RISPERDAL ® M-TAB ® Orally Disintegrating Tablets Tablet Accessing RISPERDAL ® M-TAB ® Orally Disintegrating Tablets 0.5 mg, 1 mg, and 2 mg RISPERDAL ® M-TAB ® Orally Disintegrating Tablets 0.5 mg, 1 mg, and 2 mg are supplied in blister packs of 4 tablets each. Do not open the blister until ready to administer. For single tablet removal, separate one of the four blister units by tearing apart at the perforations. Bend the corner where indicated. Peel back foil to expose the tablet. DO NOT push the tablet through the foil because this could damage the tablet. RISPERDAL ® M-TAB ® Orally Disintegrating Tablets 3 mg and 4 mg RISPERDAL ® M-TAB ® Orally Disintegrating Tablets 3 mg and 4 mg are supplied in a child-resistant pouch containing a blister with 1 tablet each. The child-resistant pouch should be torn open at the notch to access the blister. Do not open the blister until ready to administer. Peel back foil from the side to expose the tablet. DO NOT push the tablet through the foil, because this could damage the tablet. Tablet Administration Using dry hands, remove the tablet from the blister unit and immediately place the entire RISPERDAL ® M-TAB ® Orally Disintegrating Tablet on the tongue. The RISPERDAL ® M-TAB ® Orally Disintegrating Tablet should be consumed immediately, as the tablet cannot be stored once removed from the blister unit. RISPERDAL ® M-TAB ® Orally Disintegrating Tablets disintegrate in the mouth within seconds and can be swallowed subsequently with or without liquid. Patients should not attempt to split or to chew the tablet.
Use in special populations
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS Pregnancy: May cause extrapyramidal and/or withdrawal symptoms in neonates with third trimester exposure. ( 8.1) 8.1 Pregnancy Pregnancy Exposure Registry There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to atypical antipsychotics, including RISPERDAL ®, during pregnancy. Healthcare providers are encouraged to register patients by contacting the National Pregnancy Registry for Atypical Antipsychotics at 1-866-961-2388 or online at http://womensmentalhealth.org/clinical-and-research-programs/pregnancyregistry/. Risk Summary Neonates exposed to antipsychotic drugs during the third trimester of pregnancy are at risk for extrapyramidal and/or withdrawal symptoms following delivery (see Clinical Considerations) . Overall, available data from published epidemiologic studies of pregnant women exposed to risperidone have not established a drug-associated risk of major birth defects, miscarriage, or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes (see Data). There are risks to the mother associated with untreated schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder and with exposure to antipsychotics, including RISPERDAL ®, during pregnancy (see Clinical Considerations) . Oral administration of risperidone to pregnant mice caused cleft palate at doses 3 to 4 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) with maternal toxicity observed at 4-times MRHD based on mg/m 2 body surface area. Risperidone was not teratogenic in rats or rabbits at doses up to 6- times the MRHD based on mg/m 2 body surface area. Increased stillbirths and decreased birth weight occurred after oral risperidone administration to pregnant rats at 1.5-times the MRHD based on mg/m 2 body surface area. Learning was impaired in offspring of rats when the dams were dosed at 0.6-times the MRHD and offspring mortality increased at doses 0.1 to 3 times the MRHD based on mg/m 2 body surface area. The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2–4% and 15–20%, respectively. Clinical Considerations Disease-associated maternal and/or embryo/fetal risk There is a risk to the mother from untreated schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder, including increased risk of relapse, hospitalization, and suicide. Schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder are associated with increased adverse perinatal outcomes, including preterm birth. It is not known if this is a direct result of the illness or other comorbid factors. Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions Extrapyramidal and/or withdrawal symptoms, including agitation, hypertonia, hypotonia, tremor, somnolence, respiratory distress, and feeding disorder have been reported in neonates who were exposed to antipsychotic drugs, including RISPERDAL ®, during the third trimester of pregnancy. These symptoms have varied in severity. Monitor neonates for extrapyramidal and/or withdrawal symptoms and manage symptoms appropriately. Some neonates recovered within hours or days without specific treatment; others required prolonged hospitalization. Data Human Data Published data from observational studies, birth registries, and case reports on the use of atypical antipsychotics during pregnancy do not report a clear association with antipsychotics and major birth defects. A prospective observational study including 6 women treated with risperidone demonstrated placental passage of risperidone. A retrospective cohort study from a Medicaid database of 9258 women exposed to antipsychotics during pregnancy did not indicate an overall increased risk for major birth defects. There was a small increase in the risk of major birth defects (RR=1.26, 95% CI 1.02–1.56) and of cardiac malformations (RR=1.26, 95% CI 0.88–1.81) in a subgroup of 1566 women exposed to risperidone during the first trimester of pregnancy; however, there is no mechanism of action to explain the difference in malformation rates. Animal Data Oral administration of risperidone to pregnant mice during organogenesis caused cleft palate at 10 mg/kg/day which is 3 times the MRHD of 16 mg/day based on mg/m 2 body surface area: maternal toxicity occurred at 4 times the MRHD. Risperidone was not teratogenic when administered orally to rats at 0.6 to 10 mg/kg/day and rabbits at 0.3 to 5 mg/kg/day, which are up to 6 times the MRHD of 16 mg/day risperidone based on mg/m 2 body surface area. Learning was impaired in offspring of rats dosed orally throughout pregnancy at 1 mg/kg/day which is 0.6 times the MRHD and neuronal cell death increased in fetal brains of offspring of rats dosed during pregnancy at 1 and 2 mg/kg/day which are 0.6 and 1.2 times the MRHD based on mg/m 2 body surface area; postnatal development and growth of the offspring were also delayed. Rat offspring mortality increased during the first 4 days of lactation when pregnant rats were dosed throughout gestation at 0.16 to 5 mg/kg/day which are 0.1 to 3 times the MRHD of 16 mg/day based on mg/m 2 body surface area. It is not known whether these deaths were due to a direct effect on the fetuses or pups or to effects on the dams; a no-effect dose could not be determined. The rate of stillbirths was increased at 2.5 mg/kg or 1.5 times the MRHD based on mg/m 2 body surface area. In a rat cross-fostering study the number of live offspring was decreased, the number of stillbirths increased, and the birth weight was decreased in offspring of drug-treated pregnant rats. In addition, the number of deaths increased by Day 1 among offspring of drug-treated pregnant rats, regardless of whether or not the offspring were cross-fostered. Risperidone also appeared to impair maternal behavior in that offspring body weight gain and survival (from Day 1 to 4 of lactation) were reduced in offspring born to control but reared by drug-treated dams. All of these effects occurred at 5 mg/kg which is 3 times the MRHD based on mg/m 2 and the only dose tested in the study. 8.2 Lactation Risk Summary Limited data from published literature reports the presence of risperidone and its metabolite, 9-hydroxyrisperidone, in human breast milk at relative infant dose ranging between 2.3% and 4.7% of the maternal weight-adjusted dosage. There are reports of sedation, failure to thrive, jitteriness, and extrapyramidal symptoms (tremors and abnormal muscle movements) in breastfed infants exposed to risperidone (see Clinical Considerations). There is no information on the effects of risperidone on milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for RISPERDAL ® and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from RISPERDAL ® or from the mother's underlying condition. Clinical Considerations Infants exposed to RISPERDAL ® through breastmilk should be monitored for excess sedation, failure to thrive, jitteriness, and extrapyramidal symptoms (tremors and abnormal muscle movements). 8.3 Females and Males of Reproductive Potential Infertility Females Based on the pharmacologic action of risperidone (D2 receptor antagonism), treatment with RISPERDAL ® may result in an increase in serum prolactin levels , which may lead to a reversible reduction in fertility in females of reproductive potential [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]. 8.4 Pediatric Use Approved Pediatric Indications Schizophrenia The efficacy and safety of RISPERDAL ® in the treatment of schizophrenia were demonstrated in 417 adolescents, aged 13 – 17 years, in two short-term (6 and 8 weeks, respectively) double-blind controlled trials [see Indications and Usage (1.1) , Adverse Reactions (6.1) , and Clinical Studies (14.1)]. Additional safety and efficacy information was also assessed in one long-term (6-month) open-label extension study in 284 of these adolescent patients with schizophrenia. Safety and effectiveness of RISPERDAL ® in children less than 13 years of age with schizophrenia have not been established. Bipolar I Disorder The efficacy and safety of RISPERDAL ® in the short-term treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes associated with Bipolar I Disorder in 169 children and adolescent patients, aged 10 – 17 years, were demonstrated in one double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-week trial [see Indications and Usage (1.2) , Adverse Reactions (6.1) , and Clinical Studies (14.2)] . Safety and effectiveness of RISPERDAL ® in children less than 10 years of age with bipolar disorder have not been established. Autistic Disorder The efficacy and safety of RISPERDAL ® in the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder were established in two 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in 156 children and adolescent patients, aged 5 to 16 years [see Indications and Usage (1.3) , Adverse Reactions (6.1) and Clinical Studies (14.4) ]. Additional safety information was also assessed in a long-term study in patients with autistic disorder, or in short- and long-term studies in more than 1200 pediatric patients with psychiatric disorders other than autistic disorder, schizophrenia, or bipolar mania who were of similar age and weight, and who received similar dosages of RISPERDAL ® as patients treated for irritability associated with autistic disorder. A third study was a 6-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a lower than recommended dose of risperidone in subjects 5 to 17 years of age with autistic disorder and associated irritability, and related behavioral symptoms. There were two weight-based, fixed doses of risperidone (high-dose and low-dose). The high dose was 1.25 mg per day for patients weighing 20 to < 45 kg, and it was 1.75 mg per day for patients weighing ≥ 45 kg. The low dose was 0.125 mg per day for patients for patients weighing 20 to < 45 kg, and it was 0.175 mg per day for patients weighing ≥ 45 kg. The study demonstrated the efficacy of high-dose risperidone, but it did not demonstrate efficacy for low-dose risperidone. Adverse Reactions in Pediatric Patients Tardive Dyskinesia In clinical trials in 1885 children and adolescents treated with RISPERDAL ®, 2 (0.1%) patients were reported to have tardive dyskinesia, which resolved on discontinuation of RISPERDAL ® treatment [see also Warnings and Precautions (5.4)] . Weight Gain Weight gain has been observed in children and adolescents during treatment with RISPERDAL ®. Clinical monitoring of weight is recommended during treatment. Data derive from short-term placebo-controlled trials and longer-term uncontrolled studies in pediatric patients (ages 5 to 17 years) with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, autistic disorder, or other psychiatric disorders. In the short-term trials (3 to 8 weeks), the mean weight gain for RISPERDAL ®-treated patients was 2 kg, compared to 0.6 kg for placebo-treated patients. In these trials, approximately 33% of the RISPERDAL ® group had weight gain ≥7%, compared to 7% in the placebo group. In longer-term, uncontrolled, open-label pediatric studies, the mean weight gain was 5.5 kg at Week 24 and 8 kg at Week 48 [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5) and Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. Somnolence Somnolence was frequently observed in placebo-controlled clinical trials of pediatric patients with autistic disorder. Most cases were mild or moderate in severity. These events were most often of early onset with peak incidence occurring during the first two weeks of treatment, and transient with a median duration of 16 days. Somnolence was the most commonly observed adverse reaction in the clinical trial of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents, as well as in the schizophrenia trials in adolescents. As was seen in the autistic disorder trials, these adverse reactions were most often of early onset and transient in duration [see Adverse Reactions (6.1 and 6.2)] . Patients experiencing persistent somnolence may benefit from a change in dosing regimen [see Dosage and Administration (2.1 , 2.2 , and 2.3)] . Hyperprolactinemia RISPERDAL ® has been shown to elevate prolactin levels in children and adolescents as well as in adults [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)] . In double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of up to 8 weeks duration in children and adolescents (aged 5 to 17 years) with autistic disorder or psychiatric disorders other than autistic disorder, schizophrenia, or bipolar mania, 49% of patients who received RISPERDAL ® had elevated prolactin levels compared to 2% of patients who received placebo. Similarly, in placebo-controlled trials in children and adolescents (aged 10 to 17 years) with bipolar disorder, or adolescents (aged 13 to 17 years) with schizophrenia, 82–87% of patients who received RISPERDAL ® had elevated levels of prolactin compared to 3–7% of patients on placebo. Increases were dose-dependent and generally greater in females than in males across indications. In clinical trials in 1885 children and adolescents, galactorrhea was reported in 0.8% of RISPERDAL ®-treated patients and gynecomastia was reported in 2.3% of RISPERDAL ®-treated patients. Growth and Sexual Maturation The long-term effects of RISPERDAL ® on growth and sexual maturation have not been fully evaluated in children and adolescents. Juvenile Animal Studies Juvenile dogs were treated with oral risperidone from weeks 10 to 50 of age (equivalent to the period of childhood through adolescence in humans), at doses of 0.31, 1.25, or 5 mg/kg/day, which are 1.2, 3.4, and 13.5 times the MRHD of 6 mg/day for children, based on mg/m 2 body surface area. Bone length and density were decreased with a no-effect dose of 0.31 mg/kg/day; this dose produced plasma AUC of risperidone plus its active metabolite paliperidone (9-hydroxy-risperidone) that were similar to those in children and adolescents receiving the MRHD of 6 mg/day. In addition, sexual maturation was delayed at all doses in both males and females. The above effects showed little or no reversibility in females after a 12 week drug-free recovery period. Juvenile rats, treated with oral risperidone from days 12 to 50 of age (equivalent to the period of infancy through adolescence in humans) showed impaired learning and memory performance (reversible only in females), with a no-effect dose of 0.63 mg/kg/day which is 0.5 times the MRHD of 6 mg/day for children, based on mg/m 2 body surface area. This dose produced plasma AUC of risperidone plus paliperidone about half the exposure observed in humans at the MRHD. No other consistent effects on neurobehavioral or reproductive development were seen up to the highest tested dose of 1.25 mg/kg/day which is 1 time the MRHD and produced plasma AUC of risperidone plus paliperidone that were about two thirds of those observed in humans at the MRHD of 6 mg/day for children. 8.5 Geriatric Use Clinical studies of RISPERDAL ® in the treatment of schizophrenia did not include sufficient numbers of patients aged 65 and over to determine whether or not they respond differently than younger patients. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between elderly and younger patients. In general, a lower starting dose is recommended for an elderly patient, reflecting a decreased pharmacokinetic clearance in the elderly, as well as a greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) and Dosage and Administration (2.4, 2.5)] . While elderly patients exhibit a greater tendency to orthostatic hypotension, its risk in the elderly may be minimized by limiting the initial dose to 0.5 mg twice daily followed by careful titration [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)] . Monitoring of orthostatic vital signs should be considered in patients for whom this is of concern. This drug is substantially excreted by the kidneys, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)] . 8.6 Renal Impairment In patients with moderate to severe (Clcr 59 to 15 mL/min) renal disease, clearance of the sum of risperidone and its active metabolite decreased by 60%, compared to young healthy subjects. RISPERDAL ® doses should be reduced in patients with renal disease [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)] . 8.7 Hepatic Impairment While the pharmacokinetics of risperidone in subjects with liver disease were comparable to those in young healthy subjects, the mean free fraction of risperidone in plasma was increased by about 35% because of the diminished concentration of both albumin and α 1-acid glycoprotein. RISPERDAL ® doses should be reduced in patients with liver disease [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)] . 8.8 Patients with Parkinson's Disease or Lewy Body Dementia Patients with Parkinson's Disease or Dementia with Lewy Bodies can experience increased sensitivity to RISPERDAL ®. Manifestations can include confusion, obtundation, postural instability with frequent falls, extrapyramidal symptoms, and clinical features consistent with neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

Interactions

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS Carbamazepine and other enzyme inducers decrease plasma concentrations of risperidone. Increase the RISPERDAL ® dose up to double the patient's usual dose. Titrate slowly. ( 7.1) Fluoxetine, paroxetine, and other CYP 2D6 enzyme inhibitors increase plasma concentrations of risperidone. Reduce the initial dose. Do not exceed a final dose of 8 mg per day of RISPERDAL ®. ( 7.1) 7.1 Pharmacokinetic-related Interactions The dose of RISPERDAL ® should be adjusted when used in combination with CYP2D6 enzyme inhibitors (e.g., fluoxetine, and paroxetine) and enzyme inducers (e.g., carbamazepine) [see Table 18 and Dosage and Administration (2.5)] . Dose adjustment is not recommended for RISPERDAL ® when co-administered with ranitidine, cimetidine, amitriptyline, or erythromycin [see Table 18]. Table 18 Summary of Effect of Coadministered Drugs on Exposure to Active Moiety (Risperidone + 9-Hydroxy-Risperidone) in Healthy Subjects or Patients with Schizophrenia Coadministered Drug Dosing Schedule Effect on Active Moiety (Risperidone + 9-Hydroxy-Risperidone (Ratio Change relative to reference) Risperidone Dose Recommendation Coadministered Drug Risperidone AUC C max Enzyme (CYP2D6) Inhibitors Fluoxetine 20 mg/day 2 or 3 mg twice daily 1.4 1.5 Re-evaluate dosing. Do not exceed 8 mg/day Paroxetine 10 mg/day 4 mg/day 1.3 - Re-evaluate dosing. Do not exceed 8 mg/day 20 mg/day 4 mg/day 1.6 - 40 mg/day 4 mg/day 1.8 - Enzyme (CYP3A/PgP inducers) Inducers Carbamazepine 573 ± 168 mg/day 3 mg twice daily 0.51 0.55 Titrate dose upwards. Do not exceed twice the patient's usual dose Enzyme (CYP3A) Inhibitors Ranitidine 150 mg twice daily 1 mg single dose 1.2 1.4 Dose adjustment not needed Cimetidine 400 mg twice daily 1 mg single dose 1.1 1.3 Dose adjustment not needed Erythromycin 500 mg four times daily 1 mg single dose 1.1 0.94 Dose adjustment not needed Other Drugs Amitriptyline 50 mg twice daily 3 mg twice daily 1.2 1.1 Dose adjustment not needed Effect of Risperidone on Other Drugs Lithium Repeated oral doses of RISPERDAL ® (3 mg twice daily) did not affect the exposure (AUC) or peak plasma concentrations (C max) of lithium (n=13). Dose adjustment for lithium is not recommended. Valproate Repeated oral doses of RISPERDAL ® (4 mg once daily) did not affect the pre-dose or average plasma concentrations and exposure (AUC) of valproate (1000 mg/day in three divided doses) compared to placebo (n=21). However, there was a 20% increase in valproate peak plasma concentration (C max) after concomitant administration of RISPERDAL ®. Dose adjustment for valproate is not recommended. Digoxin RISPERDAL ® (0.25 mg twice daily) did not show a clinically relevant effect on the pharmacokinetics of digoxin. Dose adjustment for digoxin is not recommended. 7.2 Pharmacodynamic-related Interactions Centrally-Acting Drugs and Alcohol Given the primary CNS effects of risperidone, caution should be used when RISPERDAL ® is taken in combination with other centrally-acting drugs and alcohol. Drugs with Hypotensive Effects Because of its potential for inducing hypotension, RISPERDAL ® may enhance the hypotensive effects of other therapeutic agents with this potential. Levodopa and Dopamine Agonists RISPERDAL ® may antagonize the effects of levodopa and dopamine agonists. Clozapine Chronic administration of clozapine with RISPERDAL ® may decrease the clearance of risperidone.

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number NDA020272
Agency product number L6UH7ZF8HC
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 55289-491
Date Last Revised 06-08-2019
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
RXCUI 312830
Storage and handling 16.2 Storage and Handling RISPERDAL ® Tablets should be stored at controlled room temperature 15°–25°C (59°–77°F). Protect from light and moisture. Keep out of reach of children.
Marketing authorisation holder PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Warnings WARNING: INCREASED MORTALITY IN ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH DEMENTIA-RELATED PSYCHOSIS Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic drugs are at an increased risk of death. RISPERDAL ® is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis. [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)] WARNING: INCREASED MORTALITY IN ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH DEMENTIA-RELATED PSYCHOSIS See full prescribing information for complete boxed warning. Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic drugs are at an increased risk of death. RISPERDAL ® is not approved for use in patients with dementia-related psychosis. ( 5.1)