Data from FDA (Food and Drug Administration, USA) - Curated by EPG Health - Last updated 05 July 2018

Indication(s)

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE RELENZA, an influenza virus neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI), is indicated for: Treatment of acute, uncomplicated influenza type A and B infections in patients aged 7 years and older who have been symptomatic for no more than 2 days. (1.1) Prophylaxis of influenza in patients aged 5 years and older. (1.2) Important Limitations of Use: Not recommended for treatment or prophylaxis of influenza in: •Individuals with underlying airways disease. (5.1) Not proven effective for: •Treatment in individuals with underlying airways disease. (1.3) •Prophylaxis in nursing home residents. (1.3) Not a substitute for annual influenza vaccination. (1.3) Consider available information on influenza drug susceptibility patterns and treatment effects when deciding whether to use RELENZA. (1.3) 1.1 Treatment of Influenza RELENZA (zanamivir) inhalation powder is indicated for treatment of uncomplicated acute illness due to influenza A and B virus in adults and pediatric patients aged 7 years and older who have been symptomatic for no more than 2 days. 1.2 Prophylaxis of Influenza RELENZA is indicated for prophylaxis of influenza in adults and pediatric patients aged 5 years and older. 1.3 Important Limitations of Use •RELENZA is not recommended for treatment or prophylaxis of influenza in individuals with underlying airways disease (such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) due to risk of serious bronchospasm [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. •RELENZA has not been proven effective for treatment of influenza in individuals with underlying airways disease. •RELENZA has not been proven effective for prophylaxis of influenza in the nursing home setting. •RELENZA is not a substitute for early influenza vaccination on an annual basis as recommended by the Centers for Disease Control's Immunization Practices Advisory Committee. •Influenza viruses change over time. Emergence of resistance mutations could decrease drug effectiveness. Other factors (for example, changes in viral virulence) might also diminish clinical benefit of antiviral drugs. Prescribers should consider available information on influenza drug susceptibility patterns and treatment effects when deciding whether to use RELENZA. •There is no evidence for efficacy of zanamivir in any illness caused by agents other than influenza virus A and B. •Patients should be advised that the use of RELENZA for treatment of influenza has not been shown to reduce the risk of transmission of influenza to others.

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Advisory information

contraindications
4 CONTRAINDICATIONS RELENZA is contraindicated in patients with history of allergic reaction to any ingredient of RELENZA, including milk proteins [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2), Description (11)]. Do not use in patients with history of allergic reaction to any ingredient of RELENZA, including milk proteins. (4)
Adverse reactions
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS The following adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the labeling: •Bronchospasm [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. •Safety information in patients with underlying airways disease [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. •Allergic-like reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. The most common adverse events reported in greater than 1.5% of subjects treated with RELENZA and more commonly than in subjects treated with placebo are: •Treatment Trials – sinusitis, dizziness. (6.1) •Prophylaxis Trials – fever and/or chills, arthralgia, and articular rheumatism. (6.1) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact GlaxoSmithKline at 1-888-825-5249 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared with rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. The placebo used in clinical trials consisted of inhaled lactose powder, which is also the vehicle for the active drug; therefore, some adverse events occurring at similar frequencies in different treatment groups could be related to lactose vehicle inhalation. Treatment of Influenza Clinical Trials in Adults and Adolescents: Adverse events that occurred with an incidence greater than or equal to 1.5% in treatment trials are listed in Table 1. This table shows adverse events occurring in subjects aged 12 years and older receiving RELENZA 10 mg inhaled twice daily, RELENZA in all inhalation regimens, and placebo inhaled twice daily (where placebo consisted of the same lactose vehicle used in RELENZA). Table 1. Summary of Adverse Events ≥1.5% Incidence during Treatment in Adults and Adolescents a Includes trials where RELENZA was administered intranasally (6.4 mg 2 to 4 times per day in addition to inhaled preparation) and/or inhaled more frequently (q.i.d.) than the currently recommended dose. Adverse Event RELENZA Placebo (Lactose Vehicle) (n = 1,520) 10 mg b.i.d. Inhaled (n = 1,132) All Dosing Regimensa (n = 2,289) Body as a whole Headaches 2% 2% 3% Digestive Diarrhea 3% 3% 4% Nausea 3% 3% 3% Vomiting 1% 1% 2% Respiratory Nasal signs and symptoms 2% 3% 3% Bronchitis 2% 2% 3% Cough 2% 2% 3% Sinusitis 3% 2% 2% Ear, nose, and throat infections 2% 1% 2% Nervous system Dizziness 2% 1% <1% Additional adverse reactions occurring in less than 1.5% of subjects receiving RELENZA included malaise, fatigue, fever, abdominal pain, myalgia, arthralgia, and urticaria. The most frequent laboratory abnormalities in Phase 3 treatment trials included elevations of liver enzymes and CPK, lymphopenia, and neutropenia. These were reported in similar proportions of zanamivir and lactose vehicle placebo recipients with acute influenza‑like illness. Clinical Trials in Pediatric Subjects: Adverse events that occurred with an incidence greater than or equal to 1.5% in children receiving treatment doses of RELENZA in 2 Phase 3 trials are listed in Table 2. This table shows adverse events occurring in pediatric subjects aged 5 to 12 years receiving RELENZA 10 mg inhaled twice daily and placebo inhaled twice daily (where placebo consisted of the same lactose vehicle used in RELENZA). Table 2. Summary of Adverse Events ≥1.5% Incidence during Treatment in Pediatric Subjectsa a Includes a subset of subjects receiving RELENZA for treatment of influenza in a prophylaxis trial. Adverse Event RELENZA 10 mg b.i.d. Inhaled (n = 291) Placebo (Lactose Vehicle) (n = 318) Respiratory Ear, nose, and throat infections 5% 5% Ear, nose, and throat hemorrhage <1% 2% Asthma <1% 2% Cough <1% 2% Digestive Vomiting 2% 3% Diarrhea 2% 2% Nausea <1% 2% In 1 of the 2 trials described in Table 2, some additional information is available from children (aged 5 to 12 years) without acute influenza-like illness who received an investigational prophylaxis regimen of RELENZA; 132 children received RELENZA and 145 children received placebo. Among these children, nasal signs and symptoms (zanamivir 20%, placebo 9%), cough (zanamivir 16%, placebo 8%), and throat/tonsil discomfort and pain (zanamivir 11%, placebo 6%) were reported more frequently with RELENZA than placebo. In a subset with chronic pulmonary disease, lower respiratory adverse events (described as asthma, cough, or viral respiratory infections which could include influenza-like symptoms) were reported in 7 of 7 zanamivir recipients and 5 of 12 placebo recipients. Prophylaxis of Influenza Family/Household Prophylaxis Trials: Adverse events that occurred with an incidence of greater than or equal to 1.5% in the 2 prophylaxis trials are listed in Table 3. This table shows adverse events occurring in subjects aged 5 years and older receiving RELENZA 10 mg inhaled once daily for 10 days. Table 3. Summary of Adverse Events ≥1.5% Incidence during 10-Day Prophylaxis Trials in Adults, Adolescents, and Childrena a In prophylaxis trials, symptoms associated with influenza-like illness were captured as adverse events; subjects were enrolled during a winter respiratory season during which time any symptoms that occurred were captured as adverse events. Adverse Event Contact Cases RELENZA (n = 1,068) Placebo (n = 1,059) Lower respiratory Viral respiratory infections 13% 19% Cough 7% 9% Neurologic Headaches 13% 14% Ear, nose, and throat Nasal signs and symptoms 12% 12% Throat and tonsil discomfort and pain 8% 9% Nasal inflammation 1% 2% Musculoskeletal Muscle pain 3% 3% Endocrine and metabolic Feeding problems (decreased or increased appetite and anorexia) 2% 2% Gastrointestinal Nausea and vomiting 1% 2% Non-site specific Malaise and fatigue 5% 5% Temperature regulation disturbances (fever and/or chills) 5% 4% Community Prophylaxis Trials: Adverse events that occurred with an incidence of greater than or equal to 1.5% in 2 prophylaxis trials are listed in Table 4. This table shows adverse events occurring in subjects aged 5 years and older receiving RELENZA 10 mg inhaled once daily for 28 days. Table 4. Summary of Adverse Events ≥1.5% Incidence during 28-Day Prophylaxis Trials in Adults, Adolescents, and Childrena a In prophylaxis trials, symptoms associated with influenza-like illness were captured as adverse events; subjects were enrolled during a winter respiratory season during which time any symptoms that occurred were captured as adverse events. Adverse Event RELENZA (n = 2,231) Placebo (n = 2,239) Neurologic Headaches 24% 26% Ear, nose, and throat Throat and tonsil discomfort and pain 19% 20% Nasal signs and symptoms 12% 13% Ear, nose, and throat infections 2% 2% Lower respiratory Cough 17% 18% Viral respiratory infections 3% 4% Musculoskeletal Muscle pain 8% 8% Musculoskeletal pain 6% 6% Arthralgia and articular rheumatism 2% <1% Endocrine and metabolic Feeding problems (decreased or increased appetite and anorexia) 4% 4% Gastrointestinal Nausea and vomiting 2% 3% Diarrhea 2% 2% Non-site specific Temperature regulation disturbances (fever and/or chills) 9% 10% Malaise and fatigue 8% 8% 6.2 Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of RELENZA. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Allergic Reactions Allergic or allergic-like reaction, including oropharyngeal edema [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Psychiatric Delirium, including symptoms such as altered level of consciousness, confusion, abnormal behavior, delusions, hallucinations, agitation, anxiety, nightmares [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]. Cardiac Arrhythmias, syncope. Neurologic Seizures. Vasovagal-like episodes have been reported shortly following inhalation of zanamivir. Respiratory Bronchospasm, dyspnea [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Skin Facial edema; rash, including serious cutaneous reactions (e.g., erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis); urticaria [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].

Usage information

Dosing and administration
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Indication Dose Treatment of Influenza (2.2) 10 mg twice daily for 5 days Prophylaxis: (2.3) Household Setting 10 mg once daily for 10 days Community Outbreaks 10 mg once daily for 28 days Note: The 10-mg dose is provided by 2 inhalations (one 5-mg blister per inhalation). (2.1) 2.1 Dosing Considerations •RELENZA is for administration to the respiratory tract by oral inhalation only, using the DISKHALER device provided [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]. •The 10-mg dose is provided by 2 inhalations (one 5-mg blister per inhalation). •Patients should be instructed in the use of the delivery system. Instructions should include a demonstration whenever possible. If RELENZA is prescribed for children, it should be used only under adult supervision and instruction, and the supervising adult should first be instructed by a healthcare professional [see Patient Counseling Information (17)]. •Patients scheduled to use an inhaled bronchodilator at the same time as RELENZA should use their bronchodilator before taking RELENZA [see Patient Counseling Information (17)]. 2.2 Treatment of Influenza •The recommended dose of RELENZA for treatment of influenza in adults and pediatric patients aged 7 years and older is 10 mg twice daily (approximately 12 hours apart) for 5 days. •Two doses should be taken on the first day of treatment whenever possible provided there is at least 2 hours between doses. •On subsequent days, doses should be about 12 hours apart (e.g., morning and evening) at approximately the same time each day. •The safety and efficacy of repeated treatment courses have not been studied. 2.3 Prophylaxis of Influenza Household Setting •The recommended dose of RELENZA for prophylaxis of influenza in adults and pediatric patients aged 5 years and older in a household setting is 10 mg once daily for 10 days. •The dose should be administered at approximately the same time each day. •There are no data on the effectiveness of prophylaxis with RELENZA in a household setting when initiated more than 1.5 days after the onset of signs or symptoms in the index case. Community Outbreaks •The recommended dose of RELENZA for prophylaxis of influenza in adults and adolescents in a community setting is 10 mg once daily for 28 days. •The dose should be administered at approximately the same time each day. •There are no data on the effectiveness of prophylaxis with RELENZA in a community outbreak when initiated more than 5 days after the outbreak was identified in the community. •The safety and effectiveness of prophylaxis with RELENZA have not been evaluated for longer than 28 days’ duration.
Use in special populations
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS 8.1 Pregnancy Risk Summary Available data from published studies suggest that use of RELENZA during pregnancy is not associated with an increased risk of birth defects or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. However, these studies are limited by their small sample sizes, which preclude a definitive assessment of the risk (see Data). There are risks to the mother and fetus associated with influenza infection in pregnancy (see Clinical Considerations). In animal reproduction studies, no adverse developmental effects were observed with intravenous or subcutaneous administration of zanamivir at exposures 300 and 150 times, respectively, the systemic exposure at the maximum recommended human inhalation dose (MRHID) of 10 mg twice daily (see Data). The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively. Clinical Considerations Disease-Associated Maternal and/or Embryo/Fetal Risk: Pregnant women are at higher risk of severe complications from influenza, which may lead to adverse pregnancy and/or fetal outcomes, including maternal death, stillbirths, birth defects, preterm delivery, low birth weight, and small for gestational age. Data Human Data: A study of population-based registers from Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and France reported outcomes of 5,824 pregnant women who filled a prescription for an NAI compared with outcomes in unexposed pregnant women in the general population. This study included 1,560 women who filled a prescription for zanamivir (including 321 first trimester exposures). Although no specific analyses were conducted for zanamivir, exposure to the NAI class in utero was not associated with major birth defects, preterm birth, low birth weight, small for gestational age, still birth, neonatal morbidity, or neonatal mortality. A few published studies compared outcomes of pregnant women exposed to zanamivir with outcomes in various comparator cohorts. These studies suggested no increased risk of major birth defects, preterm birth, or low birth weight. Sample sizes in these studies ranged from 50 to 180 pregnant women exposed to zanamivir, including 15 to 44 women exposed in the first trimester. Limitations of available studies include the lack of specific analyses for zanamivir, possible exposure and outcome misclassification, and small sample sizes. These limitations preclude a definitive assessment of the risk. Animal Data: Zanamivir was administered intravenously to pregnant rats and rabbits at 1, 9, or 90 mg/kg/day during organogenesis (gestation Day 6 to 15 [rat] and 7 to 19 [rabbit]). No adverse maternal or embryo-fetal effects were observed up to the highest intravenous dose of zanamivir (90 mg/kg/day), resulting in systemic drug exposure (AUC) estimated from both rats and rabbits, 300 times the exposure at the MRHID. In a separate study, zanamivir was administered subcutaneously to pregnant rats at 3, 27, and 240 mg/kg/day in three divided doses during organogenesis (gestation Day 7 to 17). An increased incidence of skeletal and visceral alterations and variants was observed at the high dose (240 mg/kg/day). No adverse maternal or embryo-fetal effects were observed at the middle dose (27 mg/kg/day), resulting in systemic drug exposure (AUC) 150 times the exposure at the MRHID. In prenatal and postnatal development studies in rats, zanamivir was administered intravenously at 1, 9, or 90 mg/kg/day during organogenesis (gestation Day 0 to 19) or from late gestation through delivery and lactation (gestation Day 16 to post-partum/lactation Day 21). No significant effects were observed in the offspring at systemic drug exposures (AUC) estimated to be 300 times the exposure at the MRHID. Zanamivir distributed across the placenta in pregnant rats and rabbits with less than 0.04% of the administered maternal dose being recovered from the fetus on gestation Day 12. 8.2 Lactation Risk Summary There are no data on the presence of zanamivir in human milk or the effects on milk production. There are data from adults that have shown low oral bioavailability of zanamivir. Limited data from postmarketing case reports have not suggested a safety concern in infants exposed to breast milk of mothers using RELENZA. Zanamivir was present in the milk of lactating rats without effect on nursing pups (see Data). The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for RELENZA and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from RELENZA or the underlying maternal condition. Data In a lactation study, zanamivir was excreted in the milk of lactating rats administered zanamivir intravenously (10 mg/kg) on post-partum/lactation Day 10, with peak milk concentrations of approximately 10% that of maternal plasma concentrations occurring 30 minutes post-dose. No effects of zanamivir on growth and postnatal development were observed in nursing pups at the highest intravenous dose tested in rats. Maternal systemic exposure (AUC) of zanamivir was approximately 300 times the exposure in humans at the MRHID. 8.4 Pediatric Use Treatment of Influenza Safety and effectiveness of RELENZA for treatment of influenza have not been assessed in pediatric patients younger than 7 years, but were studied in a Phase 3 treatment trial in pediatric subjects, where 471 children aged 5 to 12 years received zanamivir or placebo [see Clinical Studies (14.1)]. Adolescents were included in the 3 principal Phase 3 adult treatment trials. In these trials, 67 patients were aged 12 to 16 years. No definite differences in safety and efficacy were observed between these adolescent patients and young adults. In a Phase 1 trial of 16 children aged 6 to 12 years with signs and symptoms of respiratory disease, 4 did not produce a measurable peak inspiratory flow rate (PIFR) through the DISKHALER (3 with no adequate inhalation on request, 1 with missing data), 9 had measurable PIFR on each of 2 inhalations, and 3 achieved measurable PIFR on only 1 of 2 inhalations. Neither of two 6-year-olds and one of two 7-year-olds produced measurable PIFR. Overall, 8 of the 16 children (including all those younger than 8 years) either did not produce measurable inspiratory flow through the DISKHALER or produced peak inspiratory flow rates below the 60 L/minute considered optimal for the device under standardized in vitro testing; lack of measurable flow rate was related to low or undetectable serum concentrations [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3), Clinical Studies (14.1)]. Prescribers should carefully evaluate the ability of young children to use the delivery system if prescription of RELENZA is considered. Prophylaxis of Influenza The safety and effectiveness of RELENZA for prophylaxis of influenza have been studied in 4 Phase 3 trials where 273 children aged 5 to 11 years and 239 adolescents aged 12 to 16 years received RELENZA. No differences in safety and effectiveness were observed between pediatric and adult subjects [see Clinical Studies (14.2)]. 8.5 Geriatric Use Of the total number of subjects in 6 clinical trials of RELENZA for treatment of influenza, 59 subjects were aged 65 years and older, while 24 subjects were aged 75 years and older. Of the total number of subjects in 4 clinical trials of RELENZA for prophylaxis of influenza in households and community settings, 954 subjects were aged 65 years and older, while 347 subjects were aged 75 years and older. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger subjects, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. Elderly patients may need assistance with use of the device. In 2 additional trials of RELENZA for prophylaxis of influenza in the nursing home setting, efficacy was not demonstrated [see Indications and Usage (1.3)]. 8.6 Renal Impairment Safety and efficacy have not been documented in the presence of severe renal insufficiency. Due to the low systemic bioavailability of zanamivir following oral inhalation, no dosage adjustments are necessary in patients with renal impairment. However, the potential for drug accumulation should be considered.
Pregnancy and lactation
8.2 Lactation Risk Summary There are no data on the presence of zanamivir in human milk or the effects on milk production. There are data from adults that have shown low oral bioavailability of zanamivir. Limited data from postmarketing case reports have not suggested a safety concern in infants exposed to breast milk of mothers using RELENZA. Zanamivir was present in the milk of lactating rats without effect on nursing pups (see Data). The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for RELENZA and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from RELENZA or the underlying maternal condition. Data In a lactation study, zanamivir was excreted in the milk of lactating rats administered zanamivir intravenously (10 mg/kg) on post-partum/lactation Day 10, with peak milk concentrations of approximately 10% that of maternal plasma concentrations occurring 30 minutes post-dose. No effects of zanamivir on growth and postnatal development were observed in nursing pups at the highest intravenous dose tested in rats. Maternal systemic exposure (AUC) of zanamivir was approximately 300 times the exposure in humans at the MRHID.

Interactions

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS The concurrent use of RELENZA with live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) intranasal has not been evaluated. However, because of potential interference between these products, LAIV should not be administered within 2 weeks before or 48 hours after administration of RELENZA, unless medically indicated. The concern about possible interference arises from the potential for antiviral drugs to inhibit replication of live vaccine virus. Trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine can be administered at any time relative to use of RELENZA [see Microbiology (12.4)]. Live attenuated influenza vaccine, intranasal (7): •Do not administer until 48 hours following cessation of RELENZA. •Do not administer RELENZA until 2 weeks following administration of the live attenuated influenza vaccine, unless medically indicated.

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number NDA021036
Agency product number L6O3XI777I
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 0173-0681
Date Last Revised 21-06-2018
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
RXCUI 759471
Marketing authorisation holder GlaxoSmithKline LLC