Data from FDA - Curated by EPG Health - Last updated 18 December 2019

Indication(s)

INDICATIONS AND USAGE Pindolol tablets are indicated in the management of hypertension. It may be used alone or concomitantly with other antihypertensive agents, particularly with a thiazide-type diuretic.

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Advisory information

contraindications
CONTRAINDICATIONS Pindolol tablets are contraindicated in: 1) bronchial asthma; 2) overt cardiac failure; 3) cardiogenic shock; 4) second and third degree heart block; 5) severe bradycardia. (See WARNINGS)
Special warnings and precautions
PRECAUTIONS Impaired Renal or Hepatic Function Beta-blocking agents should be used with caution in patients with impaired hepatic or renal function. Poor renal function has only minor effects on pindolol clearance, but poor hepatic function may cause blood levels of pindolol to increase substantially. Information for Patients Patients, especially those with evidence of coronary artery insufficiency, should be warned against interruption or discontinuation of pindolol therapy without the physician’s advice. Although cardiac failure rarely occurs in properly selected patients, patients being treated with beta-adrenergic blocking agents should be advised to consult the physician at the first sign or symptom of impending failure. Drug Interactions Catecholamine-depleting drugs (e.g., reserpine) may have an additive effect when given with beta-blocking agents. Patients receiving pindolol plus a catecholamine-depleting agent should, therefore, be closely observed for evidence of hypotension and/or marked bradycardia which may produce vertigo, syncope, or postural hypotension. Pindolol has been used with a variety of antihypertensive agents, including hydrochlorothiazide, hydralazine, and guanethidine without unexpected adverse interactions. Pindolol has been shown to increase serum thioridazine levels when both drugs are coadministered. Pindolol levels may also be increased with this combination. Risk of Anaphylactic Reaction While taking beta blockers, patients with a history of severe anaphylactic reaction to a variety of allergens may be more reactive to repeated challenge, either accidental, diagnostic, or therapeutic. Such patients may be unresponsive to the usual doses of epinephrine used to treat allergic reactions. Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility In chronic oral toxicologic studies (1 to 2 years) in mice, rats, and dogs, pindolol did not produce any significant toxic effects. In 2-year oral carcinogenicity studies in rats and mice in doses as high as 59 mg/kg/day and 124 mg/kg/day (50 and 100 times the maximum recommended human dose), respectively, pindolol did not produce any neoplastic, preneoplastic, or nonneoplastic pathologic lesions. In fertility and general reproductive performance studies in rats, pindolol caused no adverse effects at a dose of 10 mg/kg. In the male fertility and general reproductive performance test in rats, definite toxicity characterized by mortality and decreased weight gain was observed in the group given 100 mg/kg/day. At 30 mg/kg/day, decreased mating was associated with testicular atrophy and/or decreased spermatogenesis. This response is not clearly drug-related, however, as there was no dose-response relationship within this experiment and no similar effect on testes of rats administered pindolol as a dietary admixture for 104 weeks. There appeared to be an increase in prenatal mortality in males given 100 mg/kg but development of offspring was not impaired. In females administered pindolol prior to mating through day 21 of lactation, mating behavior was decreased at 100 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg. At these dosages there also was increased mortality of offspring. Prenatal mortality was increased at 10 mg/kg but there was not a clear dose-response relationship in this experiment. There was an increased resorption rate at 100 mg/kg observed in females necropsied on the 15th day of gestation. Pregnancy Teratogenic Effects. Category B Studies in rats and rabbits exceeding 100 times the maximum recommended human doses, revealed no embryotoxicity or teratogenicity. Since there are no adequate and well controlled studies in pregnant women, and since animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, pindolol, as with any drug, should be employed during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Nursing Mothers Since pindolol is secreted in human milk, nursing should not be undertaken by mothers receiving the drug. Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established. CLINICAL LABORATORY Minor persistent elevations in serum transaminases (SGOT, SGPT) have been noted in 7% of patients during pindolol administration, but progressive elevations were not observed. These elevations were not associated with any other abnormalities that would suggest hepatic impairment, such as decreased serum albumin and total proteins. During more than a decade of worldwide marketing, there have been no reports in the medical literature of overt hepatic injury. Alkaline phosphatase, lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH), and uric acid are also elevated on rare occasions. The significance of these findings is unknown.
Adverse reactions
ADVERSE REACTIONS Most adverse reactions have been mild. The incidences listed in the following table are derived from 12-week comparative double-blind, parallel design trials in hypertensive patients given pindolol as monotherapy, given various active control drugs as monotherapy, or given placebo. Data for pindolol and the positive controls were pooled from several trials because no striking differences were seen in the individual studies, with one exception. When considering all adverse reactions reported, the frequency of edema was noticeably higher in positive control trials (16% pindolol vs. 9% positive control) than in placebo controlled trials (6% pindolol vs. 3% placebo). The table includes adverse reactions either volunteered or elicited, and at least possibly drug-related, which were reported in greater than 2% of pindolol patients and other selected important reactions. ADVERSE REACTIONS WHICH WERE VOLUNTEERED OR ELICITED (and at least possibly drug-related) Body System/ Adverse Reactions Pindolol (N=322)% Active Controls* (N=188)% Placebo (N=78)% Central Nervous System Bizarre or Many Dreams 5 0 6 Dizziness 9 11 1 Fatigue 8 4 4 Hallucinations <1 0 0 Insomnia 10 3 10 Nervousness 7 3 5 Weakness 4 2 1 Autonomic Nervous System Paresthesia 3 1 6 Cardiovascular Dyspnea 5 4 6 Edema 6 3 1 Heart Failure <1 <1 0 Palpitations <1 1 0 Musculoskeletal Chest Pain 3 1 3 Joint Pain 7 4 4 Muscle Cramps 3 1 0 Muscle Pain 10 9 8 Gastrointestinal Abdominal Discomfort 4 4 5 Nausea 5 2 1 Skin Pruritus 1 <1 0 Rash <1 <1 1 *Active Controls: Patients received either propranolol, a-methyldopa or a diuretic (hydrochlorothiazide or chlorthalidone). The following selected (potentially important) adverse reactions were seen in 2% or fewer patients and their relationship to pindolol is uncertain. CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM: anxiety, lethargy; AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM: visual disturbances, hyperhidrosis; CARDIOVASCULAR: bradycardia, claudication, cold extremities, heart block, hypotension, syncope, tachycardia, weight gain; GASTROINTESTINAL: diarrhea, vomiting; RESPIRATORY: wheezing; UROGENITAL: impotence, pollakiuria; MISCELLANEOUS: eye discomfort or burning eyes. POTENTIAL ADVERSE EFFECTS In addition, other adverse effects not aforementioned have been reported with other beta-adrenergic blocking agents and should be considered potential adverse effects of pindolol. Central Nervous System: Reversible mental depression progressing to catatonia; an acute reversible syndrome characterized by disorientation for time and place, short-term memory loss, emotional lability, slightly clouded sensorium, and decreased performance on neuropsychometrics. Cardiovascular: Intensification of AV block. (See CONTRAINDICATIONS.) Allergic: Erythematous rash; fever combined with aching and sore throat; laryngospasm; respiratory distress. Hematologic: Agranulocytosis; thrombocytopenic and nonthrombocytopenic purpura. Gastrointestinal: Mesenteric arterial thrombosis; ischemic colitis. Miscellaneous: Reversible alopecia; Peyronie's disease. The oculomucocutaneous syndrome associated with the beta-blocker practolol has not been reported with pindolol during investigational use and extensive foreign experience amounting to over 4 million patient-years.

Usage information

Dosing and administration
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION The dosage of pindolol tablets should be individualized. The recommended initial dose of pindolol tablets is 5 mg b.i.d. alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents. An antihypertensive response usually occurs within the first week of treatment. Maximal response, however, may take as long as or occasionally longer than 2 weeks. If a satisfactory reduction in blood pressure does not occur within 3 to 4 weeks, the dose may be adjusted in increments of 10 mg/day at these intervals up to a maximum of 60 mg/day.

Interactions

Drug Interactions Catecholamine-depleting drugs (e.g., reserpine) may have an additive effect when given with beta-blocking agents. Patients receiving pindolol plus a catecholamine-depleting agent should, therefore, be closely observed for evidence of hypotension and/or marked bradycardia which may produce vertigo, syncope, or postural hypotension. Pindolol has been used with a variety of antihypertensive agents, including hydrochlorothiazide, hydralazine, and guanethidine without unexpected adverse interactions. Pindolol has been shown to increase serum thioridazine levels when both drugs are coadministered. Pindolol levels may also be increased with this combination. Risk of Anaphylactic Reaction While taking beta blockers, patients with a history of severe anaphylactic reaction to a variety of allergens may be more reactive to repeated challenge, either accidental, diagnostic, or therapeutic. Such patients may be unresponsive to the usual doses of epinephrine used to treat allergic reactions. Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility In chronic oral toxicologic studies (1 to 2 years) in mice, rats, and dogs, pindolol did not produce any significant toxic effects. In 2-year oral carcinogenicity studies in rats and mice in doses as high as 59 mg/kg/day and 124 mg/kg/day (50 and 100 times the maximum recommended human dose), respectively, pindolol did not produce any neoplastic, preneoplastic, or nonneoplastic pathologic lesions. In fertility and general reproductive performance studies in rats, pindolol caused no adverse effects at a dose of 10 mg/kg. In the male fertility and general reproductive performance test in rats, definite toxicity characterized by mortality and decreased weight gain was observed in the group given 100 mg/kg/day. At 30 mg/kg/day, decreased mating was associated with testicular atrophy and/or decreased spermatogenesis. This response is not clearly drug-related, however, as there was no dose-response relationship within this experiment and no similar effect on testes of rats administered pindolol as a dietary admixture for 104 weeks. There appeared to be an increase in prenatal mortality in males given 100 mg/kg but development of offspring was not impaired. In females administered pindolol prior to mating through day 21 of lactation, mating behavior was decreased at 100 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg. At these dosages there also was increased mortality of offspring. Prenatal mortality was increased at 10 mg/kg but there was not a clear dose-response relationship in this experiment. There was an increased resorption rate at 100 mg/kg observed in females necropsied on the 15th day of gestation. Pregnancy Teratogenic Effects. Category B Studies in rats and rabbits exceeding 100 times the maximum recommended human doses, revealed no embryotoxicity or teratogenicity. Since there are no adequate and well controlled studies in pregnant women, and since animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, pindolol, as with any drug, should be employed during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Nursing Mothers Since pindolol is secreted in human milk, nursing should not be undertaken by mothers receiving the drug. Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established. CLINICAL LABORATORY Minor persistent elevations in serum transaminases (SGOT, SGPT) have been noted in 7% of patients during pindolol administration, but progressive elevations were not observed. These elevations were not associated with any other abnormalities that would suggest hepatic impairment, such as decreased serum albumin and total proteins. During more than a decade of worldwide marketing, there have been no reports in the medical literature of overt hepatic injury. Alkaline phosphatase, lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH), and uric acid are also elevated on rare occasions. The significance of these findings is unknown.

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number ANDA205415
Agency product number BJ4HF6IU1D
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 29033-029,29033-028
Date Last Revised 17-12-2018
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
RXCUI 198105
Marketing authorisation holder Nostrum Laboratories, Inc.